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written in verle ; but that the which every line is marked by its writings of the prophets are not of initial letter; the other nine less that number."
perfectly alphabetical, in which The defign of the preliminary every itanza only is so diftindifiertation is to refute this erro- guilhed.” neous opinion ; to thew that there After examining some remarkis a manifest conformity between
able circumitances in these compothe prophetical style and that of fitions, he concludes, that “ both the books supposed to be metrical; these species of alphabetical poems a conformity in every known part confist of verses properly so called; of the poetical character, which of verses regulated by some obequally discriminates the propheti- servation of harmony or cadence ; cal and the metrical books, from of measure, numbers, or rhythm, those acknowledged to be profe. For it is not at all probable in the This subject, which the learned nature of the thing, or from exauthor had before treated in his amples of the like kind 'in other eighteenth and nineteenth Prelec. languages, that a portion of mere tions, is here more fully and mi- proie, in which numbers and harnutely discussed.
mony are totally disregarded, Mould “ The first, he says, and most be laid out according to a scale of manifest indication of verle in the division, which carries with it such Hebrew poetical books, presents it- evident marks of study and labour, self in the acrostick or alphabetical of art in the contrivance, and expoems, of which there happily re- actness in the execution. And in main many examples, and those of general, that the rest of the poems various kinds. The nature, or
of the Hebrews, bearing evidently rather the form, of these poems is the same marks and characteristics this: the poem consists of twenty- of composition with the alphabetitwo lines, or of twenty-two fyftems cal poems in other respects, and of lines, or periods, or stanzas, ac- falling into regular lines, often into cording to the number of the let- regular stanzas, according to the ters of the Hebrew alphabet; and pauses of the sentences, which fan. every line, or every Itanza, begins zas and lines have a certain parity with each letter in its order, as it or proportion to one another, there ftands in the alphabet, tkat is, the likewise consist of verse measured first line, or first stanza, begins by the ear, and regulated accordwith aleph, the second with beth, ing to some general laws of metre, and so on.
There are still extant rhythm, harmony, or cadence." in the books of the Old Teita. The attempt to discover the laws ment, twelve * of these poems; of the Hebrew metre, or rhythm, reckoning the four first chapters of he considers as vain and impoffible: the Lamentations of Jeremiah as but he conceives that there are so many distinct poems; three t of other circumltances which sufithem perfectly alphabetical : in ciently discriminate the parts of the
Pfal. xxv, xxxiv, xxxvii, cxi, cxii, cxix, cxlv. Prov, xxxi. v. 10-31. Lam. i, ii, iii, iv. † Pial. axi, cxii. Lam. iii.
Hebrew scriptures that are written The author produces many other in verse, from those that are writ- examples, from the prophets, in ten in prose. The first and princi- which, he observes, the parallel pal of these, is the correspondence lines sometimes confiit of three or of one verse, or line, with another, more synonymous terms ; fomewhich he calls parallelim. When times of two; which is generally a proposition is delivered, and a the case, when the verb, or the nosecond is subjoined to it, or drawn minative case of the first sentence is under it, equivalent, or contrasted to be carried on to the second, or with it, in sense, or fimilar to it in understood there; and sometimes of the form of grammatical contruc- one only. tion, these he calls parallel lines,
The terms in English, confifting and the words or phrases answering of several words, are hitherto dilo one to another in the corresponding tinguished by marks of connection; lines, parallel terms.
to ihew, that they answer to single Parallel lines he reduces to three words in Hebrew. forts : parallels fynonymous, paral- Sometimes, he obferves, the lines lels antithetic, and parallels sgn. confift, each of double members, abetic. Of each of these he gives or two propositions. a variety of examples, in order to Bow thy heaven, o Jehovah, and dethew the various forms, under
scend; which they appear: first from the Touch the mountains, and they shall books universally acknowledged to
smoke,' &c. Pf. cxiv. 5. be poetical ; then correspondent
And they mall build houses, and shall examples from the prophet Isaiah ; And they mall plant vineyards, and thall
inliabit them; and sometimes also from the other eat the fruit thereof, &c.' Ija. Ixv. 21. prophets; to fhew, that the form and character of the composition is repetition of part of the first fen
Sometimes they are formed by a in all the same.
tence. First, of parallel lines fynonymous:
"My voice is unto God, and I cry aloud; that is, which correspond one to
My voice unto God, and he will hearken another by exprefing the same
unto me,' fense in different but equivalent serms. As in the following ex
The waters saw thee, O God; amples:
The waters saw thee; they were seized
with anguith. Pf. lxxvii. 1. 16. 50-Jehovah, in - thy - strength the - king
( For he hath humbled those that dwell on Thall-rejoice; And-in-thy salvation how greatly thall-he
The lofty city, he hath brought her down : exult!
He hath brought her down to the ground; The-defire oi-his-heart thou-hast-granted
He hath levelled her with the dust. unto him;
The foot Mall trample upon her; And the-request of-his-lips thou-hast-not
The feet of the poor, the steps of the denied.' Pf. xxi.
needy.' Ifa. xxvi. 5, 6. Because I-called, and-ye-refused; J-stretched-out my-hand, and-no-one re- There are parallel triplets, when garded, &c. Prov. i. 24.
three lines correspond together, and Seek-ye Jehovah, while-he-may-be-found; form a kind of stanza; of which Call-ye-upon-him, while-he-is near,' &c. however only two commonly are
Ija. Iv. 6. fynonymous. 5
$ The wicked shall see it, and it shall grieve 'Where every word hath its oppo
site : for the terms father and maHe Mall gnash his teeth, and pine away; The desire of the wicked mall periủ. ther are, as the logicians say, re
Pf.cxii, 10. latively opposite. « And he shall snatch on the right, and yet
The memory of the just is a blessing; be hungry;
But the name of the wicked shall rot.' And he shall devour on the left, and not
Prov. x. 7 be satisfied;
Here are only two antithetic Every man shall devour the Aeth of his
memory neighbour.' Ifa. ix. 20.
name are sya
nonymous. There are likewise parallels con
• There is that scattereth, and still en fisting of four lines : two distichs
creaseth; being so connected together by the And that is unreasonably sparing, yet sense and the construction, as to groweth poor.' Prov. xi. 24. make one ftanza. Such is the Here is a kind of double antithesis; form of the thirty-seventh Psalm, one between the two lines themwhich is evidently laid out by the felves, and likewise a subordinate initial letters in stanzas of four lines. opposition between the two parts • Be not moved with indignation against of each. the evil doers;
This form, he observes, is pecuNor with zeal against the workers of ini- liarly adapted to adages, aphorisms,
quity : For like the grass they shall soon be cut off ;
and detached sentences, and that And like the green herb they shall wither.' we are not therefore to expect fre
Ps. xxxvii. 1, 2. quent instances of it in the other « The ox knoweth his poffessor;
poems of the Old Testament; espeAnd the ass the crib of his lord:
cially those that are elevated in But Israel doth not know Me;
the style, and more connected in Neither doth my people consider. Ifa.i. 3.
The author however In stanzas of four lines sometimes adds a few examples from the higher the parallel lines answer to
poetry. another alternately; the first to the third, and the second to the But we in the name of Jehovah our God
• These in chariots, and those in horses; fourth :
will be strong. • As the heavens are high above the earth; They are bowed down, and fallen ; So high is his goodness over them that But we are risen, and maintain ourselves fear him :
firm.' Ps. xx. 7, 8. As remote as the east is from the west; The bricks are fallen, but we will build So far hath he removed from us our with hewn stone:
tranfgressions.' Pf. ciii. 11, 12. The sycamores are cut down, but we will And ye faid: Nay, but on horses will
replace them with cedars. Ifa.ix. 10. we fee;
The third sort of parallels the Therefore Thall ye be put to flight: author calls synthetic, or constrụcAnd on swift coursers will we ride; Therefore thall they be swift, that tive, where the parallelism conlifts
pursue you.' Ifa. XXX. 16. only in the similar form of construcHe next proceeds to the second tion: in which word does not anfort of parallels, viz. the antithetic; fwer to word, and sentence to fenof which kind are the following:
tence, as equivalent or opposite;
but there is a correspondence and • A wise fon rejoiceth his father : But a foolish son is the grief of his mo- equality between different propother.' Prov, X, 1
fitions in respect of the shape and
turn of the whole sentence, and of is not often to be met with. The the constructive parts'; such as noun poem of Job, being on a large answering to noun, verb to verb, plan, and in a high tragic style, member to member, negative to though very exact in the division of negative, interrogative to interro- the lines, and in the parallelism, gative.
and affording many fine examples
of the synonymous kind, yet con• Praise ye Jehovah, ye of the earth; Ye lea-monsters, and all deeps :
fifts chiefly of the constructive. A Fire and hail, snow and vapour, &c.
happy mixture of the several sorts
Pf. cxlviii. 7. gives an agreeable variety; and « Is such then the fast which I choose? they serve mutually to recommend That a man lhould artict his foul for a and set off one another.” day?
He next confiders the distinction Is it, that he should bow down his head of Hebrew verles into longer and
like a bulruih ; And spread fackcloth and ashes for his Morier, founded also on the aucouch, &c. Ifa. lviii. 5,
thority of the alphabetic poems; In these instances it is to be ob- being manifefly of the larger fort
one third of the whole number served, that though there are per- of verse, the rest of the Thorfer. haps no two lines corresponding He does not attempt exactly to deone with another as equivalent or opposite in terms; yet there is a
fine, by the number of syllables, parallelism equally apparent, and of verse from the other; all that
the limit which leparates one fort aimolt as striking, which arises from die similar form and equality of the three poems perfectly alphabetical;
the lines, from the correspondence of and therefore infallibly divided the members and the construction; into its verses; and three of the the consequence of which is a har- nine other alphabetical poems, dimony and rhythm little inferior in vided into their verses, after the effect to that of the two kinds
manner of the perfedly aphabeti
cal, with the greatest degree of " Of the three different forts of parallels, as above explained, every being the four first Lamentations of
probability; that these four poems,
Jeremiah, fall into verses aboat proper effect: and therefore they are differently employed on dif- with another, than those of the
one third longer, taking them one ferent occafions ... Synonymous other eight alphabetical poems.parallels have the appearance of
art Example of these long verses from
a poem perfectly alphabetical: gance. They prevail chiefly in Thorter poems ; in many of the ' I am the man, that hath feen aficion,
by the rod of his anger: Psalms; in Balaam's prophecies; He hath led me, and made me walk in frequently in those of Isaiah, which
darkness, and not in light,' &c. are most of them distinct poems of
Lam, iii. I---46 no great length. The antithetic
Examples of the same fort of parallelism gives an acuteness and verse, where the limits of the verses force to adages and moral sen- are to be collected only from the tences; and therefore abounds in poetical construction of the fenSolomon's proverbs, and elsewhere tences :
• The law of Jehovah is perfect, restor- or even false idea of the real chaing the soul :
racter of the author, as a writer ; The testimony of Jehovah is sure, making of the general nature and of the
wise the simple,' &c. Ps. xix. 7. A found of a multitude in the moun
peculiar form of the compofition? tains, as of many people;
He next proves, in a number of A found of the tumult of kingdoms, of examples, that this attention to
nations gathered together,' Ifa. xiii. 4. the peculiar turn and cast of the The learned prelate having esta original, may be of still greater use blihed, on the grounds we have to the interpreter, by leading him already mentioned, his opinion con- into the meaning of obscure words cerning the composition of the and phrases, and by fuggesting the prophetical writings, proceeds to true reading where the text is corpoint out the very important ad- rupted. vantages which are to be deriv- With regard to the fidelity of the ed from this source, both to the translation now offered the translator and interpreter of the public the excellent author has fcriptures.
entered very largely into the prinFlatness, he observes, and infi- ciples of criticism, and the method pidity, will generally be the con- of interpretation, on which he has fequences of a deviation from the proceeded. It would be impoffible
of an original, to do justice to this part of his dir. which has a real merit and a pe- sertation without transcribing the culiar force of its own.
whole; we shall therefore content press therefore the form and falhion ourlelves with saying, that the of the composition becomes as ne- principal objects of his invaluable ceffary in a translation, as' to give observations are, the Majoretic the author's sense with fidelity and punctuation, the state of the Heexactness; but with what fuccess brew lext, and the ancient versions can this be attempted, when the of the Old Testament. translator himself has an inadequate
The article from our very respectable correspondent at Liverpool, was, by fome accident, millaid; but shall be inserted in the next volume.