díces on þæt strod; east andlang strodes; of pam strode on Wederangrafe[s] scagan" (at Rimpton, Somerset). As scaga ("shaw ") sometimes means marsh," strōd can here hardly have that meaning. But it adjoins the scaga.

3. A.D. 956, id., iii. 106, 8: "andlang díc[es] útt þurh wynna wudu on stroð norðweard." Another form of the boundaries in No. 2. It will be noticed that a wood occurs between the ditch and the strōd, which wood may have been reckoned as part of the strōd of No. 2. From the strōd the boundaries go to the boundary haw ("mær-haga "), thence in the field by the "wyrttruma" (tree-root) to Wederangraf: so that it is evident many things are omitted in the perambulation of No. 2.

4. A.D. 956, id., iii. 144, 2: Strod-wic, one of the den-stows at Annington, Sussex. Like the den-bēru of Kentish charters, these were probably woods for feeding swine.

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5. A.D. 972, Earle, 'Land Charters,' 447, 19 (contemp. charter ?): of Beorwoldes sætan on hagan geat; of hagan geate on secg [e]ages strod; of secg l[e]ahes strode on troh hrycg" (at Powick, co. Worc.). The strōd is here connected with a sedge-lea near the Severn, which seems to favour Schade's definition.

One is tempted to compare the O.N. stor, "plantation, land overgrown with brushwood," but the metathesis forbids its equation with strōd. This store, whose history I do not know, was used in the old woodlands of Sherwood Forest, and is still preserved in Dale-storth, near Mansfield. W. H. STEVENSON.

Considering that the O.H.G. bruot corresponds to the N.H.G. brut and the English brood, and that the O.H.G. buode corresponds to the N.H.G. bude and the English booth, I fail to see why the O.H.G. struot and the N.H.G. strut (struth) should not correspond to the English Strood, or, as it is sometimes written, Stroud, a name which as La Stroud can be traced back to 1304. At all events, till a better explanation has been proposed it may hold the ground. It is, moreover, quite certain that many Teutonic words must have existed in Old English of which there is no trace in our literary records. Some have lingered on in the English dialects, and of the former existence of others there is abundant evidence in local names. There are many English names which can be readily explained by their continental analogues, though our Anglo-Saxon dictionaries fail to throw any light on their meaning.

But I venture to think it is possible to be too pedantic about our vowels, as well as about some other things. Doubtless if the Old High Germans had been as well acquainted with O.H.G. as A. L. M. they might possibly have spelt their language as he spells it, and have accented their vowels properly, and distinguished between their ú stems

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and their uo stems, and minded their Grimm's law;
all which things if they had done they would have
saved us much trouble and perplexity. As it is,
however, we have to deal with facts as well as
with scientific theories about facts, and as
fact I find, for example, the modern name Un-
strut is spelt in fifteen different ways in docu-
ments not later than the beginning of the
eleventh century. I find the forms Unstrut, Un-
struot, Unstruoth, Unstruoht, Unstrot, Unstrod,
I find an
Unstred, Unstrhut, and seven more.
O.H.G. uo answering in N.H.G. names to seven
and an Old English ō to eight different vowel
sounds in the corresponding modern words.

The contemporaneous variations in old documents should be instructive, especially to pedants. Thus in proper names occurring in one and the same document I have found e interchanged with a, i, ei, ai, and o; a with ai, e, and o; o with a, e, and u; i with e, ei, oi, and ai; and ei with e, i, oi, and ai. Naturally the uncertainty with which sonal names than in the literary dialects. Though the vowels are employed is greater in local or perthe speech of Baden and the Palatinate is now High German, the local names are largely of Low German character and origin. Tacitus tells us that the Angli were Suevi, and there is a district near Heidelberg which was called the Angladegau. Hence it is not difficult to understand why Swabian and Allemannic names often conform to the phonetic laws of English, and not to those of German. We find much the same difficulty and the same explanation when we come to deal with Angle and Saxon names in England. Names of the same meaning are pronounced very differently in different counties.

So when A. L. M. speaks of English he ought to tell us whether he means the real English of our Yorkshire dales, with its broad vowels, or the Saxon of Wessex, or the mincing high polite of the What is true for one is not true. cockney dialect. for the others. The subject is wider and the anomalies greater than A. L. M. seems to think. ISAAC TAYLOR.

THE PRINTER'S CHAPEL (7th S. vi. 364).-MR. BLAYDES has started anew a subject of discussion which was unsuccessfully raised by "ingenious Hone" (Every-Day Book,' i, col. 1133, &c.) and revived by C. H. Timperley ("History of Printing,' 8vo., 1842, 514, &c.), who made free use of Moxon's Mechanical Exercises' (3 vols., 4to., 1677, '83, '96), from which publication, as MR. BLAYDES remarks, Randle Holme (Academy of Armory,' fol., Chester, 1688) also derived most of his technical information concerning the art of printing. Hone, in particular, made a strenuous effort to procure information "from chapels, or individuals belonging to them," concerning "any old or present laws, or usages, or other matters of

fining the word, "Members of a Printing-Office after they have paid a certain fee") until he has served his time and become a journeyman. A companionship, in the modern use of the term, is the temporary union of two or more compositors in the setting up of some particular piece of work, which is distributed to them in "takes" (under certain rules and regulations) by the overseer; and it has nothing to do with the chapel, unless one of the comps., conceiving himself wronged by his fellows, "calls a chapel" to adjudicate upon the matter in dispute. Thus, according to ancient custom,

"An apprentice when he is bound pays half-a-crown to the Chapel; and when he is made free another half-crown, but yet is no member of the Chapel; and, if he continue to work journeywork in the same house, he pays another Although I cannot admit the analogy of comps., half-crown, and is then a member of the Chapel." "C knights or companions, amongst printers, with companions attending a chapter of their order," I word chapel as used by printers has a common quite agree with MR. BLADES in thinking that the origin with the word chapter employed in an ecclesiastical or masonic sense.


interest connected with printing"; but it does not appear from his subsequent publications that he was able to arouse the interest of the fraternity sufficiently to induce any intelligent printer to take up his challenge. And, as time rolls on, this sort of literary material will become more and more difficult of gathering. Steam and stereotyping have revolutionized printing; the old customs have in great measure died out; and the grave and reverend men who practised them in their youth, and who alone could tell this generation anything trustworthy about them, are fast fading away to join Mr. Weller the stage-coachman, Tom Smart the bagman, and Boniface the landlord, in the realm of shadows where Fiction sits enthroned as king. If any of them are yet to be found, search must be made in the office of some old weekly (provincial) newspaper, supposing that there may yet exist one which has escaped the all-consuming greed of the political limited liability company. Such a paper, established in the Midlands whilst the last century was young, it was my fortune to edit during many years of pleasant toil with a thoroughly oldfashioned staff. Our overseer had grown grey in his position of responsibility and trust, and his sons (also in the office) were becoming elderly 'AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES': 'THE OLD printers under the supervision of their sire. The ENGLISH RULES OF ROYAL DESCENT' (7th S. vi. 259 old gentleman served his time, I think, with Luke 332, 392).—One always feels proud of drawing a Hansard, and had worked with Perry in the palmy reviewer out of his hole, though I am sorry to have days of the Morning Chronicle; he was venerable, done it by creating a suspicion that I was in a slow, and sure, and he was filled with a sense of hurry to write him down a fool. I do not think I the dignity of his craft and of its immeasurable deserve that: a man's memory may make such & superiority over every other calling. Letters ad- slip as I thought the reviewer's had without his dressed to "The Father of the Chapel," which being a fool. Otherwise there would be a great found their way from time to time into the edi- many more fools in the world than there are. torial bag, were handed to him without question; There are plenty as it is, and I suppose I am one and these were mostly begging appeals from needy of them, for I do not even now see that the rebrethren. He was fond of impressing the newly- viewer's words at p. 259 show that he knew of the entered apprentices with the advantage they held descent of the Princess Regent of Bavaria. It over mere tradesmen and artisans, in belonging to seems to my folly that for them to do so he must so ancient and honourable a calling as that of have defined "Maria Theresa I." as such princess. printing; telling them that "in olden time, when However, it is no use arguing this point: a more none but the privileged classes were permitted to interesting point is the remote cause of the misgo armed, the compositors wore swords by their apprehension between the American writer, the sides (being gentlemen by virtue of their art, and English reviewer, and myself. And that, I think, because the first compositor was a knight) and sat is what (in my experience, at least) causes very at case, to mark the distinction between themselves many misapprehensions; the crediting people with and ordinary mechanics, who stand to their work"! strict and categorical language when they intend no I have many times been questioned by our comps. such thing. It is quite clear that when the Americoncerning these matters, but could only reply that can writer wrote of "the old English rules of royal I could not answer for the swords, though there is descent " he meant nothing more than that rule, or good evidence in old woodcuts depicting printing- law, or custom of descent (whatever we may choose office interiors to prove that the sixteenth-century to call it) which was altered by 12 & 13 Will. III., comp. "sat at case." Our old overseer is my autho- c. 3, and which unaltered would have placed rity for saying that a printer's "chapel" is not the "Maria Theresa I." on the English throne. But office itself, nor is it necessarily composed of all the English reviewer ignores this plain fact, and who work at case and press therein; as for "com-goes about to find a legal meaning for the words panionship," an apprentice may be a companion, "the old English rules," &c. This second fact I but he does not rank among those whom Bailey do not perceive, and so I put the only other pos('English Dict.,' 1748) calls "Chapelonians" (de-sible interpretation on the reviewer's words, and

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It is so important to keep the pages of 'N. & Q.' free from error, that I need no further excuse for noting a slip (under the above title) of very great consequence in the minds of an increasing number of loyal people. "The Lady Maria Theresa," who would, but for the Act of Settlement, be sovereign of these realms as heiress of the eldest line of the house of Stuart, is spoken of as "the wife of the Prince Regent of Bavaria." This is not correct. The Prince Regent married a Princess Augusta. "The Lady Maria Theresa" is the wife of the Prince Regent's eldest son. I write only to prevent possible confusion through a no doubt accidental slip; but may I, on the larger question, suggest that the English rules of royal descent are not the less "old" and valid because the period previous to their universal acceptance was, of course, older still? R. E. FRANCILLON.

21, Regent's Park Terrace, N.W.

The niece of the late Duke of Modena and heiress of the Stuarts (as also of our Tudor and Plantagenet sovereigns) is not the wife of the Regent of Bavaria, but of his eldest son, Prince Louis of Bavaria. She was born July 2, 1849, and married February 20, 1868. Her eldest son, Prince Rupert, was born May 18, 1869.


H. MURRAY LANE, Chester Herald.

A FORTY-FIRST CHILD (7th S. vi. 305).—The prolific family, the tombstone of one of whose members is quoted by ANON., was Hookes, not Hooker. His pedigree gives the date of his death in accordance with the inscription, but does not corroborate the rest of its marvels. His father, William Hookes, of Conway (who died 1587), had three wives, and may have had forty children by them; but two only, Nicholas and Jane, are recorded. Nicholas, again, had two wives, Elizabeth, daughter of William ap Richard, and Eleanor, daughter of Thomas Griffith. I cannot say how many children they brought him; but no more than eight appear to the credit of the first and but four to the second. I believe none of his descendants is in existence. HENRY HUCKS GIBBS.

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park.

I can 66 'cap" the remarkable case of forty-one children of one mother given by ANON. at the above reference. In the Frescobaldi Palace, in Florence, there is, or was, a portrait of the Lady Dianora Frescobaldi, on the canvas of which is an inscription stating that she was the mother of fiftytwo children. The fact is also mentioned in a contemporary, or nearly contemporary, work on

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LESTOCK (6th S. vi. 287). Some of the particulars given by MR. BOYLE about Admiral Lestock are new to me, and are valuable original matter: some are, I believe, capable of correction. The fact is that there were two Richard Lestocks, father and son. The father, though called admiral in Lord Stanhope's 'History,' is not so described on his tomb. I extract from Baker's' Northamptonshire,' vol. ii. p. 128, a part of his account of Ashton Church. On the north side of the altar is a mural monument of white marble. Beneath the inscription are swords, spears, &c., and above it Azure, a chevron between three larks or, Lestock, surmounted by the heads of two cherubim. Í have visited the church: the execution is excellent, there is no crest. The inscription runs :—

To the memory of Captain Richard Lestock Sen". Justice of the Peace for the County of Middlesex, who was buried near this Place May ye 12th 1713 in the 71st Year of his Age.

This brave captain broke the boom at the taking of Vigo, where many officers acquired considerable prize-money. I do not know how he came to be connected with Ashton. I have always supposed him to be one of an obscure family of the parish of Stepney, and the early date of his birth seems to make doubtful the story MR. BOYLE has received as to his origin.

Gerard, who left no son. He certainly had two sons: the first, Jarrett, or married Thomas Hayward, Vicar of Garstang and His daughter and heir Master of Warrington School. She was my grandfather's mother, and on my grandfather's bookplate I observe that he quarters the arms of Lestock with his own. L'Estocqs, may perhaps recognize the device. The The German family, the Von second son of Captain Lestock was Richard, the unpleasing picture of his disposition. His story, distinguished admiral. Lord Stanhope draws an told in a multitude of pamphlets, shows that he came off with flying colours in his contest with Admiral Matthews. The affair had a political cast, and Lestock's portrait is at Holland House among those of the friends of Henry Fox.

His last service was when he took General St. Clare and a land force to the invasion of Brittany, when he had on board no less a personage than David Hume, the historian of the misadventure. I suspect from what Lord Stanhope says on the occasion that the admiral may have married imprudently.

If I knew to what persons the articles of silver were left I could perhaps say whether they were connected by marriage with these Lestocks. As the will of Mrs. Lestock is dated so early as 1741, while the admiral's is not dated till 1746, it would seem likely that the uxorious man described by Lord Stanhope made over his estate to his wife, possibly in expectation of some violent death.


Avenue House, Bournemouth.

PARCHMENT WILLS (6th S. v. 110, 237, 378; 7th S. vi. 197, 319).-I happen to know an instance in real life in which the will of a man of large property was hunted for in vain for many days, owing to the family imagining that the object of their search must necessarily be a parchment document. The flair of a man of law soon enabled him to run it to earth in the humble paper form in which it had all along been lying under the eyes of the seekers. R. H. BUSK.

DICTIONARY DESIDERATA (7th S. vi. 267).—In 'N. & Q.,' 3rd S. vii. 465, MR. S. REDMOND speaks of the eminent comedian David Rees introducing the phrase "That's the cheese" into Dublin in the Evil Eye,' and of the explanation of its origin which he himself gave, which is confirmed at the same reference by MR. J. S. GLASS. In 3rd S. viii. 39 there is an extract from a work recently published (1865), 'Stray Leaves from the Diary of an Indian Officer, in which "Just the cheez" is assigned to an Hisdoostanee origin."

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and ran through five editions, it being extensively used in this part of Lancashire. HENRY FISHWICK,


THE PLAGUE OF LONDON IN 1625 (7th S. vi. of interest to note that in the burial register of St. 324). In connection with this subject it may be Gregory by St. Paul—a parish at that time thickly populated, but of less extent than St. Dunstan-inthe-West-there are 200 entries marked with the letter p., ranging from May 16 to Dec. 30, 1625. Out of this number, however, 193 occur between July 12 and October 23 inclusive, and during this period of 103 days there are, in addition, 39 entries which have no distinctive mark, making a total of 232 burials.

The first victim was "Zacharie, sonne of William Beswicke, buried May 16"; he was followed in little more than a fortnight by his sisters Anne and Elizabeth, and his Mother " Phillip," the wife of William Beswicke. Between May 16 and July 12, only six deaths are assigned to the Plague, but with the following entry its ravages begin in terrible earnest :

"Elizabeth Spencer, widow, and Sara Spencer hir daughter and Anne the Nourse, buried 12 July, 1625." Some households would seem to have been almost exterminated within a few days. Between August 13 and 27 were buried, "James Lyster from Mr. Sloanes house," his wife and four children, and a few days later George Sloane, "Scottisman," and his daughter and servant. Between August 27. and September 12 died Cutbert Seawell, or Sewell, "housholder," his son, four daughters, and two servants.

A striking and pathetic glimpse of the horrors of the epidemic is afforded by the following entries: "A poore man fallen dead in the street, buried 31 July."

"A youth founde dead in the streete, buried August 4." Out of the total number of 200 burials marked with the letter p., twenty-four persons are described as "housholders," and sixty-three as servants.

The greatest mortality was during the months of July, August, and September; the number of persons registered as having died of the pestilence in these months being respectively twenty-three, seventy-seven, and seventy-four, out of a total of thirty entries for July, ninety-two for August, and eighty-seven for September.

This parish suffered severely in the other great the first three of these visitations the Plague entries plague years, 1563, 1593, 1603, and 1665; but in have no distinguishing mark.


13, Mitre Court Chambers, E.C.

FINNISH FOLK-TALES (7th S. vi. 162, 318).— When I read the foot-note to which CELER ET AUDAX has called attention, it immediately

occurred to me that I had seen the story commented on in 'N. & Q.' some time ago. In 4th S. vii. 76, et seqq., your correspondent will find the tradition thoroughly examined. E. L. H. TEW, M.A.

Hornsea Vicarage, East Yorks.

MILTON (7th S. vi. 324).-The church of Allhallows, Bread Street, in which "John the sonne of Mylton scrivenor " was baptized December 21, 1608, was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1666, and the font of the poet's christening perished with it. On the rebuilding of Allhallows by Sir Christopher Wren in 1680 a new font was supplied by the architect. Like all the fonts of the period, it is of marble, of plain design, but ornamented with leaves delicately carved. On the heartless demolition of this church, a few years since, this later font was removed to the Plaistow Mission Church mentioned by your correspondent. No historical tradition has been violated by the transference.


CHAUCER'S 'BALADE OF GENTILNESSE' (7th S. vi. 326).—There were certainly two Scogans. We read of Henry (or Moral) Scogan, he of the Ballad,' temp. Henry IV.; also John Scogan, jester, temp. Edward IV. But I do not see the connexion with the 'Balade of Gentilnesse.'

A. H. OLIVER CROMWELL AND CARLISLE CATHEDRAL (7th S. vi. 244, 331, 397).—Allow me to thank CANON VENABLES for his very courteous and satisfactory reply to my article at the first reference, of which, however, it is only just to Mr. R. S. Ferguson to say that his notes are the most valuable part. If all controversies could end as pleasantly as this has ended we might consider ourselves within measurable distance of "the blissful


again to be," predicted by the great poet of the


Ropley, Hants.


"BRING" AND "TAKE" (7th S. vi. 225, 313).This is indeed an Irishism, like the misplacing of the words shall and will, an error into which even Goldsmith falle. Oscar Wilde, as you show, would speak of "bringing a lady," &c., and in FitzPatrick's 'Life of Lever' (popular edition, p. 299) we also hear of a gentleman bringing in a lady to dinner, incidental to an amusing scene at a banquet given by the late Lord St. Germans.


LEASES FOR 999 YEARS (7th S. iii. 450; iv. 72, 176, 334, 416, 495; v. 72; vi. 72, 214, 296).— I may be allowed to submit, but only as an opinion, and I am fully open to correction from more experienced writers than myself, that a lease by a railway company of surface land (the tunnel being avowedly retained by them in possession) for 999 years is, or might, if the case were decided

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by a superior court of law, be pronounced ultra vires, and therefore probably void, or at least voidable. I admit that at least one precedent exists, for Irish, if not English, conveyancers come across deeds which constitute "a lease for ever." To an ordinary observer it would look as if that "lease for ever were merely a freehold estate under another that a lease (as such) of an estate being carved But probably not; and for this reason: out of, and therefore subordinate to, another and indefectible estate, something like the emphyteusis, or cultivating lease, in the Roman civil law, which is an estate analogous, indeed, but only analogous to the later and western freehold, is itself capable of being voided at any time, either by non-payment of even nominal rent, or more likely by breach of some specific covenant, which facts prevent such a lease from ever attaining the perfection and indefectibility of an absolute freehold. only case, however, in which the occupier of the surface-land leased to him for 999 years would be ousted would seem to me the very unlikely and remote case of the railway company themselves being ousted from their land beneath through their own non-use of the railway line for public traffic, and their consequent failure to do that which the implied condition in the Act or Acts of Parliament which originally enabled them to take lands by compulsory purchase required them to do, i. e., to run adequate trains, or else (and the London, when their stations and plant were taken in execuChatham, and Dover Company's former fiasco, tion by their creditors, is a precedent in point) if the railway ceased to be worked at all, it might be argued that the heirs of the original vendors of the land could re-enter, and, following the old legal maxim a solo usque ad cœlum, the ground above would revert to the original vendors or grantees or their successors, just as the ground below would certainly revert to them. I may cite a parallel case of which I read in chambers, but which I must not mention specifically, as, unlike the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway case, it never came into court at all, in which an eminent counsel, now a Q.C., advised certain clients that a particular canal could not be safely mortgaged. Why? Simply because the original conveyances of the successive strips of land for making the canal were made on the faith that the canal would be worked. it were at any time to cease to be worked the original vendors' heirs, devisees, &c., could re-enter. AS MR. INGLEBY justly implies, there cannot be absolute fee simple could not be in a railway comtwo alternative owners of the fee simple, and the pany in case stated.

H. DE B. H.


MR. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY suggests two curious questions for the lawyer in connexion with the subject of leases for 999 years. As regards the difficulty which has led railway companies to grant such leases, he remarks that they would care

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