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days. Persons who wish to have accurate knowledge on the Eastern question should read it carefully. It will be found more profitable than any number of " atrocity pamphlets, however adroit the process of their manufacture may have been.
Old Glasgow, the Place and the People, from the Roman Occupation to the Eighteenth Century. By Andrew Macgeorge. (Blackie & Son.) THIS is the third edition of a popular history of Glasgow. To write a book of local history that shall be at once learned and interesting is a feat that very few are able to achieve. Antiquarian plodding is one thing, the graces of style another, and they are seldom united in one person. Mr. Macgeorge has had several forerunners of the dully learned sort, and a herd past counting of scribblers who knew nothing well, and had not even the poor art of hiding their ignorance. He is, however, the first person who has given us the annals of Glasgow in a form that it is delightful to read.
The scale on which the book is constructed has not permitted him to tell us so much of the Middle Age life of Scotland as we should like to have heard. What is given us is clear and accurate, entirely free from that foolish taint of theological bitterness which runs through many of the books produced north of tho Tweed. We have especially enjoyed the portion of the book devoted to the history of the planting and early growths of Christianity in Scotland. On such a subject it is now almost impossible to tell anything new, but Mr. Macgeorge has grouped his facts in a telling manner, which must needs impress the minds of his readers. His picture of serfdom, too, is clear and accurate. It is a subject which yet requires investigation. The condition of the unfree seems to have varied much in different parts of the island. The author seems to be unaware how long it lasted in England. There is evidence of the existence of bondmen in Yorkshire late in the reign of James I. A large part of the volume is devoted to times near our own. This is as it should be. The doings of the men of the eighteenth century are as well worth recording, and in some ways are as picturesque as those of knights, abbots, and reformers. The Glasgow Tobacco Lord was a most interesting character. We are very thankful to Mr. Macgeorge for having preserved the memory of men who were, in their virtues and their failings, the equivalents of the merchant princes of Venice, Genoa, and Amsterdam.
The engravings with which the book is illustrated are works of art of a high order, and there is an excellent
Historic Towns.-Cinque Ports. By Montagu Burrows, Capt. R. N. and Chichele Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford. (Longmans & Co.) THOUGH Hastings, Sandwich, Dover, Romney, and Hythe were the original Cinque Ports, Winchelsea and Rye, officially known as the "two ancient towns," were added to the confederation soon after the Norman Con
quest. To Hastings were attached the two corporate members of Seaford and Pevensey, as well as the six non-corporate members of Bulvarhythe, Hydney, Petit Iham, Bekesbourn, Grenche, and Northeye; to Sandwich the two corporate members of Fordwich and Deal, and the six non-corporate members of Reculver, Sarre, Stonor, Ramsgate, Walmer, and Brightlingsea, in Essex; to Dover the two corporate members of Folkestone and Faversham, and the seven non-corporate members of Margate, St. John's, Goresend, Birchington Wood, St. Peter's, Kingsdown, and Ringwould; to Romsey the one corporate member of Lydd, and the four non-corporate members of Old Romney, Bromehill, Dengemarsh, and Orwaldstone; to Hythe the one non-cor
porate member of West Hythe; and to Rye the one corporate member of Tenterden. The history of this powerful and unique confederation, to which the control of the herring fishery and the defence of our Southern seaboard were entrusted, is one of singular interest. We are rather disposed to think that Prof. Burrows has erred in so completely subordinating the historical details relating to the various members of the confederation to the central idea of depicting "the infancy and early triumphs of the British Navy as practically represented by the Cinque Ports." We hope, however, that the sketch is only a forerunner of a complete work on the subject, which cannot be dealt with exhaustively within the prescribed and narrow limits of "Historic Towns." Four excellent maps accompany the letter-press, the one forming the frontispiece to the volume showing the relative positions of the seven head ports and the eight corporate and twenty-four non-corporate members.
The Bairns' Annual. Edited by Alice Corkran. (Field & Tuer.) A PLEASING collection of fairy-tales and children's stories, all genuine, are illustrated by a large number of clever and original designs.
Le Livre for November opens with a conte pour les bibliophiles, Le Bibliothécaire Van der Boecken de Rotterdam, Histoire Vraie,' a brilliant sketch, by Octave interesting of which is a reproduction of a caricature of Uzanne. This is illustrated by several designs, the most Charles Nodier, which originally appeared in the Panthéon Charivarique. These illustrations are by M. Albert James de Rothschild. M. Édouard Petit supplies also Robida. Portrait de Bibliophile' deals with the Baron La Vie Mondaine de Mignet,' 1830 to 1848.
THE Universal Review, No. VII., contains a thoughtful article by Mr. Edward Garnett on Richard Jefferies.' This is followed by a composite paper on the subject of Competitive Examinations,' the authors of which are Sir John Lubbock, Mr. Walter Wren, Prof. Ray Lankester, and the Editor. A similar contribution is also sent on the 'Progress of Woman.'
Notices to Correspondents.
We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.
We cannot undertake to answer queries privately.
To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."
INQUIRER ("Vaseline ").-To be obtained from any
LONDON, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1888.
NOTES:-Racing in the Seventeenth Century, 421-Protestant
Russian Troops attacked by Wolves, 427-Heraldic-Brandings A Curious Dance round a Curious Tree-Placenames-Patrick-M8. of Sir Roger de Coverley-First Published Work of Borrow-Chains of Straw-Lord Bateman'-Major Otho Hamilton, 428-Green-"Salve Regina" -How to restore Pencil Marks-Authors Wanted, 429. REPLIES:-Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock, 429-Death of Clive-Relics of Plastic Art, 430-Goose-Shelley's 'Adonais -Budaeus-Red Book of the Exchequer, 431-Pamphlet Sword of the Black Prince-Anson's Voyages'-Posts at Cross Roads-Englefield Baronetcy-Old Song-Chartist, 432-White Elephant-Baron Coleraine-Oral TraditionTailed Africans-A Yorkshireman's Arms, 433-Wipple Tree -Ealing School-Wooden Walls-"That sweet saint who sate by Russell's side," 434-Cortége-T. G. Wainewright 'Whistling Oyster," 435-Chestnut-Indian Pale Ale'Pleasures of Melancholy-Sir Jas. Strangwayes-Dual Origin of the Stuart Family-Herrick, 436-Sallors-"Omnibus Order"-Roodselken-Pinchbeck, 437. NOTES ON BOOKS:-Parkinson's Yorkshire Legends and Traditions' Milne's Readable English Dictionary' Baddeley's Account of the Church and Parish of St. Giles without Cripplegate'-Westmorland Note-Book-Sime's 'Life of Goethe-Elze's 'William Shakespeare.' otices to Correspondents, &c.
RACING IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
The following rules, drawn up by the Duke of Newcastle in 1662, are copied from a broadside in the Bodleian. The press-mark is Wood 276A 149. There is no heading or title to the broadside. At the end it is dated May 26, 1662, by Anthony Wood, who adds, "given to me by Hen. Hall, the University printer." Another set of rules, dated 1682, drawn up by William Blundell, of Crosby, is printed in Mr. T. E. Gibson's 'Crosby Records,' 1880, p. 267. There are also some curious anecdotes of racing in 'Memoirs of the Life of Thomas, Marquess of Wharton' (1715, anonymous), pp. 97,
justly weighed, the weight ten stone down-weight, by the weights (as they call them) of 'Aver-du-poyse': the horses are to be bridled, sadled, and shod. After the be demed to be a just judge, not only of the riders riders are justly weighed by such a gentleman as shall weight, but also to judge impartially who comes first to the stoup; another gentleman must be appointed at the twelve-score-stoup, to judge what horse is rid out of dis tance, which is a main businesse, and a third must be desired to see them start fair.
"2. The horses must be led down from Sparton-hill to the starting place; and there must be three heats, the first heat to Sparton-hill, there to rub half an hour, and then the judge is to give them warning to get up and start; but if in that half-hour they relieve their horses with anything but faire water, or if they ride out of distance, or the riders want weight, they must lose the cup; only there is allowed two pound for wasting. The second heat is to end where they begun last, and two gentlemen must be desired to see, not onely who comes first to the stoup, but at the twelve-score-stoup who rides out of distance, and who not: and 'twere well to have a flag at the ending stoup of each heat to be let down as soon as the first horse is past the stoup, for the Judges easyer discerning who rides within distance and who not: the riders must be weighed every heat, the relief is to be onely water, the rub but half an hour, and then the Judge is to bid them mount.
"3. There being three heats he that wins the most heats wins the Cup, so he rides within distance, not otherwise, but that horse which is foremost the last heat; this will make them ride for it. The stakes are ten shillings an horse, and to be put into the hands of the Judges who are to deliver them to the second horse.
"4, He that wins the Cup saves his own stake, the second horse shall have all the rest.
"5. It is to be considered that if any rider whip another rider, or his horse on the face, or pull back another's bridle, he shall lose the cup.
"6. No bystander must ride in with the horses, to face, stop, or turn them over, or any other way to hinder them, but must ride aloof from them. If any such fault be committed, I must implore the gentry to help me in the legal punishing of the offenders.
"His Excellency saith, that, seeing he makes this Course only for the pleasure of the gentry, he hopes they will take it in good part, he having no other end in it, except his Lordship's own contentment. But his Excellency adds that he never yet knew any public thing that many teachers, for if people did not find fault with every was not found fault with, and that everywhere there be thing, they would not be thought wise in anything: but his Lordship is very confident he shall find nothing of "Being commanded by his Excellency the La Marquis he desires to serve. And he commands me to tell you, this humour amongst those noble persons whom herein of Newcastle to publish the following Articles for his new that though this be not the Law of the Medes and PerCourse, I am first to inform you, that the work was begun so late, and is so great, viz.: the ploughing of five miles sians, yet he will alter nothing in it. Every man may put in length, and a considerable breadth, with the harrow-in his horse, mare, or gelding at his pleasure, 'tis the ing of it twice over, and sowing it with hay seed to Liberty of the Subject, and so his that sets up the Course. sord  it, that there will be no firm riding on it before When any man doth the like, he may make the Law what the last of July, when my Lord intends to give a cup of he pleases. In the mean time his Lordship hopes this 57., and the same he will do on the last of August and Course will please you all, since he has no other end in September, then ending the Course for this year. But the next year (if God grant his Excellency life and health) he means to begin it on the last of April, continuing it on the last of each moneth till the last of September inclusively, six months in all, giving each moneth a cup of 51.
"The Articles. "1. The horses are all to meet at Sparton-hill-top between eleven and twelve, where the riders are to be
"His Excellency further commands me to let you know, that his Course or heats continues no longer than his Lordship's good liking.
"Thus I have obeyed his Excellency's Commands, "Jo: ROLLESTON." "26 May, 1662. Given to me by Hen. Hall, the University Printer. A. Woode.”
C. H. FIRTH.
PROTESTANT AND PAPIST, 1716–1731.
(Continued from p. 402.)
The sum of 100,000l. raised by Walpole's Act by taxation of the Catholic estates seems but a poor contribution towards the "debts of the nation" which had borne the lion's share of the cost in the war of the Spanish succession.* No doubt something was expected from the forfeited estates, which the Barons of the Exchequer, by an Act passed 1728,† were authorized, in place of the commissioners previously appointed, to sell to any one who would buy them. How much was realized I cannot say; but it is certain the Government were not able to congratulate themselves on having disposed of the national debt. Nor can such a minister as Walpole be said to have done himself much credit by reverting to a style of legislation for which a parallel is to be found in the obsolete enactments of Elizabeth and James. By an Act of 1581 a penalty of 201. a month had been imposed for not repairing to church, and default in payment was provided for in 1587 by a further forfeiture of all the recusant's chattels and two-thirds of his lands.§ This seems to have had the desired (or undesired ?) effect so far that several wealthy Catholics were found willing to subscribe at the rate of 240l. a year for the privilege of absenting themselves from the reformed worship. The sequel to this, however, is found in one of the savage enactments which followed the Gunpowder Plot, and one cannot repress a smile as one seems to recognize in some of the clauses the handiwork of the canny king himself. By one of the Acts of 1605 it is provided that, notwithstanding the recusant may be both able and willing to pay the penalty of 20l. per month, the king shall be at liberty to refuse it, and at the same time to insist on the forfeiture for non-payment, by seizing the two-thirds of the recusant's estates. But here his Majesty seems to have over-reached himself.
The history of these Acts, which remained a dead letter on the statute book till the present reign, might have taught a lesson even to the ministers of King George. The effect of them is judiciously described by Sir Robert Cotton. After remarking that an early Act of Elizabeth imposing a fine of one shilling for not attending church on Sunday was one of the best laws ever made, he adds, While we sought to make new statutes,
* According to Chalmers, 60,000,0007. had been spent in the war, and the fact that the amount of annual taxation had trebled itself since the Revolution seemed to justify some heroic remedy. Yet the national debt increased nearly fourfold between this period and that of Grenville's Stamp Act-a heroic remedy with a vengeance. † 13 Geo. I., c. 28.
23 Eliz, c. 1. 29 Eliz., c. 6. 3 Jas. I., c. 4.
savouring of more severity, we neglected the old and were loth to execute the new.* Amongst the abortive enactments thus alluded to were, no doubt, the provisions of one of the Gunpowder Acts against sending children abroad to be Popishly bred up, and disabling persons returning from abroad from holding property except on taking an anti-Papist oath of obedience.t
Mdlle. Chaumont could no doubt afford a sneer at the revival of the methods of King James; but in declaring in her aunt's name that she had heard of no law to prevent Catholics inheriting estates, she overlooked the important Act of 1700, to which Mrs. Skipwith, not many lines above, had probably referred as not having yet been put in execution, and of which Mr. Beresford would undoubtedly take advantage if he could. The main purpose of the Act was to prevent, so far as possible without direct confiscation, the holding of landed estates by Roman Catholics. It is a striking instance of the irony of history that this disgraceful Act, as Hallam's splendid impartiality does not shrink from calling it, should owe its origin to the very tolerance of William himself. According to Burnet, the measure was only proposed out of spite by the Opposition, who, exasperated by the king's connivance at Popery, hoped to put him in a corner by sending up a Bill to which he would not find it easy either to accede or to refuse his assent. By one clause all Papists were called on, within six months of their attaining eighteen, to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and to subscribe the declaration against transubstantiation and the doctrines of adoration and the sacrifice of the mass; in default of which they were incapable of succeeding to the benefit of any landed property in England or Wales, the next of kin who might be a Protestant being meanwhile entitled to the rents and profits. By another clause every purchase by a Papist after April 10, 1700, was to be absolutely void.
At first sight one might suppose this would be sufficient to make short work of Catholic landlords, especially as in one of the earliest of the cases in which the statute was discussed it was held that the word "purchase" must be read in its technical sense, and so include any process (such as a gift, either by deed or will) by which land was acquired otherwise than by mere descent. § Yet historians are unanimous in describ
*Twenty-four Arguments whether it be more expedient to suppress Popish Practices against the due Allegeance of his Majesty by the strict Executions touching Jesuits,' &c. Printed in Cottoni Posthuma' by James Howel, 1679.
† 3 Jas. I., c. 5. 8 Cha, I., c. 2 prescribes outlawry and forfeiture for the same offence. These statutes were not repealed till 1846.
11 and 12 W. and M., c. 4.
$Roper v. Radcliffe, decided in the King's Bench, 1713 (9 Mod., 181).
ing the Act as almost entirely ineffectual.* It was, in fact, just one of those half-hearted, illconsidered attempts at legislation on which the legal mind has delighted to expend its ingenuity. The number of cases in the law reports of the period in which it was called in question seem quite out of keeping with the proportion which we may suppose the Catholics interested in land to have borne to other litigants. It is not surprising that it should have shared the fate of Dr. Sangrado's patients. Its vitality was soon exhausted by these repeated and ruthless operations.
Unfortunately, however, for our friends at Namur, in the case of such a law as this the party in possession has decidedly the best of it, as we have already heard Mrs. Skipwith admit. The sequel to the story I have not found distinctly recorded; but the probability seems strong that Mr. Beresford, having, as he declares, in order to forestall the Government, secured the proverbial nine points already in his own favour, was able to score one more against his Papist cousins, and so win the trick. CHAS. FREDC. HARDY. Gray's Inn.
(To be continued.)
"TIMON OF ATHENS,' IV. iii. 1.—
Yet may your pains six months,
It is somewhat curious that on the page opposite to MR. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY's protest there should have appeared a noting sinning even more than usual against the canon of criticism quoted by that gentleman. MR. WATKISS LLOYD admits that no commentator has explained the passage, but, instead of drawing the conclusion that they had thought it required none, he, as I understand him, would insinuate that, not knowing how to explain it, they had passed it by. Then, saying that his non-understanding is "waiting and willing to be better informed," he does not wait, but alters the passage, and defends the alteration. The alteration is doubtless acceptable to himself, but the original is perfectly intelligible to one who thinks of the natural course of the disease spoken of. Paraphrasing the words that Timon uses here and in a previous speech in this scene, he says:
"Still give diseases to all, to those who would use you, and to him who would convert you, allure them all, and
* Burnet, Smollett, Hallam; and see especially Lecky, vol. i. p. 303, where are quoted numerous protests against the progress of Popery and the leniency with which the Papists were treated, following very shortly after the Act. For some cases of hardship, which may be regarded as exceptions, proving the general leniency, see the preface to Estcourt and Payne's 'Summary of English Catholic Non-jurors registered under the Act of
tSee Bacon's 'Abridgment,' .v. "Papist "; Viner's 'Abridgment,' s.v. Recusant."
let all endure the penalty; still be no turncoats, but per-
"The bone-ache plague and cripple you; may leprous and matter-running sores render you abhorrent, till, diseased and starving, you die on a dunghill or in a ditch. There rot and stink, and spread other diseases among mankind, as you during life stunk, rotted, and spread disease in the unsavoury dens in which you latterly lived. Destroy all whom you can reach, destroy what minimum of good yet remains in the world, in life and death be loathsome to all and to yourselves."
As to the change "pale sick mouths," all its readers will, I feel sure, hold, with myself, that it is most unwarrantable as a change, and that its attempted explanation is unsatisfactory and forced. Where does Shakespeare or other author of that date ever allude to the loss of teeth as caused
either by syphilis or its remedies?
BR. NICHOLSON, M.D.
THE OBELI OF THE GLOBE EDITION IN 'MEASURE FOR MEASURE' (7th S. v. 442; vi. 303).—I thank MR. MOORE for his criticisms as, with one exception, courteous and fair. I am pleased that some of my emendations, either in whole or in Where we differ part, meet with his approval. others must decide. May the outcome of discussion in every instance be what all desire, a true text.
The criticism to which I take exception is the one on my rendering of II. i. 21. I had written (7th S. v. 442):~ What's open made to justice †That Justice seizes. Here the First Folio has turned informer, and Its guided me to the detection of its own error. Ce, the two final spelling is "justice ceizes." letters of "justice," have been repeated by mistake, and "izes" (from similarity in sound) has usurped the place of "eyes." Correcting these errors, and rightly dividing the lines, I present the passage thus:
What's open made
To justice, justice eyes, &c. This MR. MOORE has thought proper to reproduce in the following very unintelligible form:"MR. SPENCE would have us read 'ceizes,' i. e. (by repetition of final), 'izes,' i. e. (by imagination), ‘eyes'—
'justice eyes'!" He goes on thus: "Why not pride abounded till a person's means sank to a 'seeses,' i. e. (by repetition of final), 'sees'-'justice very low point, or vanished; not only his income, sees'?" Why not? Because in the reading in but his very means (the capital or sources of his the First Folio ("justice ceizes ") there is, whether income) became weary, exhausted, no longer there ought to be or not, a repetition of the final able to bear up against the extravagance of the ce, while the imaginary misprint "seeses," with its pride which consumed them. But if, as MR. repeated final, is to be found neither in the First SPENCE prefers to think, it is a sound of some Folio nor in any other edition. We have plenty kind that ebbs, why should it be weary "moans"? of misprints already; we need not invent more. There is no necessity to alter the text or go to MR. MOORE pronounces "izes" to be "a wonderful a Scotch dictionary for the meaning of " mene, spelling of 'eyes.' It would, indeed, be a wonder-meyne, mein," &c., because mean is the common ful spelling, but by no means a wonderful misspelling. I do not know what is the amount of MR. MOORE's familiarity with the misprints of the First Folio; but if, for instance, he is aware that in 'Hamlet,' IV. v., "the kind life-rendering pelican" figures as "the kinde Life-rend'ring Politician," he ought to feel no surprise if "justice eyes" has been made to figure as "justice ceizes."
English word, signifying medium, moderate,
With that the rolling sea resounding soft,
"I object further," says MR. MOORE, "because I should hardly have thought Shakespeare (or MR. SPENCE) likely to go out of his way to take the bandage from a blindfold justice." No; I am very sure Shakspeare did not, and his humble interpreter never dreamt of anything of the kind. That anything may be concealed from a person must he necessarily be blindfolded? That it may be 'SAPIENTIA SALOMONIS.'-The British Museum made open or patent to him must he necessarily has as its Additional MS. 20,061 the copy of this have a bandage (which was never on) taken off? play made for Queen Elizabeth (her arms and There may be a thief in the dock, and thieves on initials are on the cover, and her initials on the the jury too. What's open made to justice, title-page and under the persona dramatis) when justice eyes," ie., justice takes cognizance of the Children of the Chapel acted it before her. patent crime. While crime is undetected it may, The MS., of 33 leaves 4to., formerly belonged to without blame to justice (which, though not blind," Mr. Horatio Walpole," whose bookplate is inside cannot see in the dark), be found in the jury-box, and, for that matter, as Angelo was soon in his own person to prove, on the bench as well.
In conclusion, I present the whole passage, first
The jury, passing on the prisoner's life,
That justice seizes: what know the laws
That thieves do pass on thieves?
its cover, and it was bought for the Museum at
Poetam non habemus comicum
Solomon beatus mox videbit principem
Valde beatam, ijsdem, auspicijs atque omine
Populo, Deus quem ill[æ] gube[r]nandum dedit.
The "Argumentum" is:-
In vrbe sacra rex Dauidis filius,
Solomon pius cordatus & diues fuit,
Potensque, cui votum Deus volens dedit,
Optauit is. sapientiam, sceptris suis
Sapientiam sortitur summam qua regit,