On the other hand, I have known the child of highly cultured and refined parents speak with the vilest accent, from having associated with vulgar boys at school. I have known a young man, wholly free from any provincial or vulgar pronunciation (they are not by any means the same thing) enter a Government office at sixteen or seventeen, and learn from his fellows all the vulgarisms of cockney pronunciation. Walter Savage Landor used to drop his aspirates. It is difficult to suppose that he did so in early life. The defect was probably the result of long residence in Italy.

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'JACK DRUM'S ENTERTAINMENT': 'A TALE OF A TUB.'-Mr. H. Chichester Hart, in the AcaIt seems probable, on the whole, that such dis-demy for Sept. 15, p. 170, says, "In another play crepancies depend on the greater or lesser degree of sensibility and accuracy of the organs of hearing. But I throw the ball to those whose opinions on the subject are better worth having than mine. Budleigh Salterton,


JOSHUA COFFIN.-Hazell's Annual Cyclopædia for 1888, under the heading of 'Noms de Plume,' has this entry: "Coffin, Joshua. H. W. Longfellow." This error has appeared in other books. So early as July, 1871, Samuel Abbott Green, M.D., called attention to and corrected it in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, vol. xxv. p. 295; and seven years later, July, 1878, an editorial reference is made to it in the same magazine, vol. xxxii. p. 340.

Joshua Coffin, the author of 'The History of Newbury, Mass.,' and other works, was a real personage, and a friend of mine whom I held in high esteem. He was born in Newbury, Mass., Oct. 12, 1792, and died in his native town June 24, 1864, aged seventy-three. A long obituary of him was printed in the Historical and Genealogical Register, vol. xx. pp. 267-70. It was written by the late Rev. Elias Nason, A. M., though his name was accidentally omitted. In his younger years Mr. Coffin was a school teacher, and had among his pupils Cornelius C. Felton, LL.D., president of Harvard College, and John Greenleaf Whittier, the poet. The latter addressed a poem 'To my Old Schoolmaster,' beginning :—

Old friend, kind friend! lightly down
Drop Time's snowflakes on thy crown;
Never be thy shadow less,
Never fail thy cheerfulness.

JOHN WARD Dean. 18, Somerset Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.

LOCAL SUPERSTITION. At Lingfield, in the south-eastern portion of the county of Surrey, was situated Sterborough Castle, the seat of one of the branches of the Cobham family. Of this branch was the notorious Eleanor Cobham, wife of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and it is doubtless in connexion with her that the following tradition still lingers in the place. "Have you heard," said

(Pasquil and Katherine'), [the second title of Jack Drum'] which ought undoubtedly, in my opinion, to be included in Marston's works." Quite true, I would remark; but Simpson, Fleay, and A. H. Bullen had previously publicly given it to him wholly or in part. Mr. Bullen says, in his edition of Marston's plays, p. liii, that Jonson selected for castigation when ridiculing, in his 'Poetaster,' Marston's absurd vocabulary, some expressions which occur only in Jack Drum.' For myself, I would also say-and I said it to Mr. Bullen in writing before he published his 'Marston'-that I had from the same premises come to the same conclusion; and I may now add that I had done this some years before the publication of Simpson's 'School of Shakespeare,' in


But when, in the same article, Mr. Hart says that 'A Tale of a Tub' is one of Jonson's "earliest plays, if not his very first," I would say that, while I think I know some, at least, of the sources on which he would found this erroneous conclusion, that the date of Sir H. Herbert's licence conclusively proves that it was Jonson's last finished play. Various other facts, derived from the play itself, confirm this. Nor have I said these things without due consideration; and should Mr. Hart think fit to set forth his reasons, I promise him that I will either adopt his views or give my reasons for keeping in the old paths.


MISTAKES IN DICKENS.-Apropos to Tattycoram and her impossible box, has any one pointed out two curious slips in 'Pickwick'? Dodson & Fogg's letter is dated Aug. 29, 1830, in vol. i. cb. xviii. But in ch. ii. it is stated-after the manner of Fielding-that "that punctual servant of all work, the sun, had just risen, and begun to strike a light on the morning of the 13th of May," 1827. The dates are confusing. What is the exact time consumed by the story up to the trial? Secondly, the episode of Sam and Mary and the hat is called "The first passage of Mr. Weller's first love." But how is this to be reconoiled with the "amiable indiscretion" mentioned by the landlady of the "White Hart" when Mr.

By the way, MR. COOPER's note (7th S. vi. 225) suggests the question, Is Madame Gamp the original of Sairey ?



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Pickwick asked for his character? Another slight dedicated to James II. (the concluding words of error is Phiz's, not Dickens's. In 'Bleak House,' the dedication, may all the World court your vol. i. ch. iv., Miss Jellyby is described as "dip-Friendship and Alliance, and doe honour to your ping her inky middle finger in the egg-cup which Royal Standard," read strangely in the light of contained vinegar.” In the accompanying illus- events so soon to follow the publication). The tration she is clearly represented with her fore-story of Serrano occurs in the third chapter of the finger in the cup. first book. It is difficult, indeed, to see any connexion between it and the story of Robinson Crusoe.' The shipwreck in both is really almost the only circumstance common to the two. The island on which Serrano is stated to have been thrown is one of the little islets called from him bean Sea, but in the western part of it, nearly midSerrano Islands, which are, indeed, in the Caribway between Jamaica and the mainland, and very far from the mouth of the Orinoco. as Garcilasso describes Serrano's island, almost They are, destitute of water, wood, or grass, and very different from the island imagined to have been tenanted by the immortal Robinson. Serrano, if the narrative be true, lived on this island seven yearsthree alone and four with another who was afterwards shipwrecked in the same way. Their subsistence consisted chiefly of turtles and fish; and they are said to have been at last picked up and taken to Europe, which (the other dying on the voyage) Serrano alone of the two lived to reach, going subsequently to Panama, where he died. From neither his narrative nor that of Selkirk

GOLTHO REGISTERS.-The registers of Goltho, a chapelry in the parish of Rand (near Wragby, Lincolnshire), are in the custody of the landlord's eldest son, who farms most of the parish. Goltho is owned and occupied by members of the Ply mouthite sect, the lord of the manor and principal landowner being a member of that sect. At present there is no officiating minister. The Bishop of Lincoln has written to the Rector of Rand for information in the matter of the registers, and it is much to be wished that these valuable records may eventually find restoration to their proper place, the Rand parish chest.

34, Myddelton Square, W.C.


EMPLOY EMPLOYMENT.-To the police case reporter we are indebted, I suppose, for a hatefully ugly lopped substantive: "John Smith, a gardener in the employ of John Jones, was charged." Should the newspaper that first thus sinned be discovered and pilloried, I, for one, would chuckle in knowing that its editor was in the "enjoy" of a well-earned mauvais quart d'heure.


The Leadenhall Press, E.C. PROTOTYPES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.-In the account of Defoe in the 'American Cyclopædia' (Ripley and Dana) we read :

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"He was accused by his enemies, who were numerous and bitter, of having stolen the idea and even the material of Robinson Crusoe from the narrative of Alexander Selkirk; but the charge was wholly without foundation. Selkirk was not wrecked at all, but voluntarily went on shore on Juan Fernandez, which at that time was as well known and more frequented by ships than now. Crusoe's island, as the title of his narrative states, was in the northern hemisphere, in the Caribbean Sea, near the mouth of the Orinoco; and the most probable prototype of Defoe's hero was Peter Serrano, who in the sixteenth century was shipwrecked, and lived alone for several years on an island in the Caribbean Sea near the mouth of the Orinoco. His story is told at full length in Garcilasso's History of Peru, a translation of which was published in London twenty years before Robinson Crusoe' was written, and could hardly have escaped Defoe's notice, as the book attracted great attention, and Serrano's story is in the first chapter." The English translation of Garcilasso's book (which is by Sir Paul Rycaut) was published in 1688 and

could Defoe have got many hints for his famous story; but, notwithstanding that he places the scene of his hero's adventures nearer that of Serrano than of Selkirk, it seems to me that the latter may have furnished him with more suggestions than the former. One coincidence struck me as worth notice. After Capt. Woodes Rogers had taken Selkirk on board the sailors continued during the rest of the voyage to call him "the governour," in allusion to his government of the island where his "right there was none to dispute"; and Robinson Crusoe was called so when there were other Englishmen on his island. No doubt this was intended to signify recognition of his authority; still the selection of the title may have been suggested by Rogers's account of Selkirk. W. T. LYNN.


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long pendulum was introduced in 1680 by William Clement of London. I have seen recently three brass "birdcage" or "sheep's-head" clocks, with dates as well as the makers' names upon them. The dates do not confirm the foregoing statement. The names and dates upon the three clocks I refer to are, William Bowyer, of London, fecit, 1633" (short or "bob" pendulum); Jo. Snow. Ano. Do. 1630" (long pendulum); "John Samuel, fecit, 1665" (long pendulum). J. WHITELEY WARD.

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South Royde, Halifax.


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ELL.-What is the precise meaning of this word as denoting a part of a house? It appears to be still in dialectal use. The word Eling occurs in the sixteenth century, apparently in a similar sense; the natural conjecture that it is for heling, covering, roof, does not suit the context.

In the seventeenth century ell seems to occur as the name of a liquid measure, as in "ells of beer," ell-glasses." Is anything known of the meaning or etymology of the word in this use?

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EXORCISM.-Can any correspondent oblige with a copy of the form of exorcism used by clergy of the Church of England in expelling evil spirits and such like ? GEORGE FOY.

SIR NICHOLAS ARNOLD, OB. 1550.-William Harrison, in bk. iii. ch. i. of his celebrated 'Description of England' (p. 5, part ii. of my edition for the new Shakspere Society), says: "Sir Nicholas Arnold of late hath bred the best horses in England, and written of the maner of their production." Lowndes and Hazlitt have no entry of any book of his, nor has the British Museum any in its Catalogue. Sir Nicholas Arnold's name is not in the Dictionary of National Biography.' His arms are given in Metcalfe's 'Book of Knights,' A.D. 1548-53, p. 102, ed. 1885. Can any one tell me anything about him? If any reader of N. & Q.'

has any notes for my Harrison,' will he kindly send them to me at 3, St. George's Square, Primrose Hill, N.W.? F. J. FURNIVALL.

BARNET FAIR.-Is this a statute fair? If so, W. WINTERS. who granted it, and when ? Waltham Abbey.

TOPEHALL.-In what work is Topehall (a sort of Squire Western) a character? J. A. J.

GEORGE STREET, BLACKFRIARS Road, SouthWARK.-I shall be obliged if you can inform meif the above-named street existed in the year 1780, with the identical buildings as they now stand. If not, what class of houses were they; and what position did the tenants hold? Also the name of the parish church of the said date, 1780. A. W. GOULD. 10, Clive Road, West Hampstead,


Acton, alderman of Aldersgate Street ward, died

on Jan. 22, 1651. Sir Thomas Blood worth removed from Portsoken to Aldersgate, Dec. 18, 1663. Who occupied during the twelve years' interval? JOHN J. STOCKEN.

3, Heathfield Road, Acton, W.

The following passage referring to them occurs in GOOSE.-Do wild geese ever build in trees? Mr. J. S. Stally brass's translation of Victor Hehn's 'Wanderings of Plants and Animals ':—

"When comparatively stationary settlements were formed on the shores of lakes, the young birds could easily be fetched down from their nests by boys, have if they died the attempt was repeated, until it finally their wings clipt, and be brought up in the household; succeeded, especially as the wild goose is, comparatively speaking, one of the easiest of birds to tame."-P. 278.

The common wild goose usually has its nest on the ground among reeds or other aquatic vegetation on the margins of pools or streams. It is most probable that the goslings from which our remote ancestors developed the domestic goose have been procured on the ground, not by ascending up aloft.


HEBREW-LATIN GRAMMAR.-Can any person give me information concerning a Hebrew-Latin grammar and lexicon printed in London by Thomas Paine, 1639? The title-page commences thus: "Wilhelmi Shickardi Horologium Hebræum, sive Consilium," &c. J. H. M.

LUDGERSHALL.-What is the derivation of this word? There are not fewer than four places of the name in England. Two of them are mentioned in Domesday-that in Wiltshire as Litlegarsele, that in Buckingham as Lutegarser-Lugarsale in Sussex and Lutgareshale in Gloucestershire being omitted, doubtless because not then manors. The concluding syllable evidently stands for "hall," as on the Close Roll of 9 John the castle near Marl

borough, then in his hands, is styled "Domus Regis de Lutgar." What does this prefix mean? The ancient spelling gives no support to "lodger," which would be a natural inference from the modern, although the origin of the term Lodger's Hall would remain to be explained. H. B.

ANCIENT SHIP OF THE ROTHER.-In the first volume of the Mirror, published in 1822 by Limbird, in the Strand, is an interesting account of an ancient ship found buried in an old branch of the river Rother, in Kent. At p. 177 of vol. i. it is stated that she was 63 ft. 8 in. long, and about 15 ft. broad, and when dug out was taken to Waterloo Road and exhibited. Can any of your readers tell me what became of this curious old oraft, which appears to have possessed some interesting peculiarities, and was in a good state of preservation? C. E.

PROPAGANDISTS OF RUSSIA.-What was, or is, their platform, and when were they organized? I know about the Nihilists, the Terrorists, the Regicides, and the Decembrists, but seek information respecting the Propagandists. These Russian societies are as hard to discriminate as the Irish societies. E. COBHAM BREWER.

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OCTOBER.-Last year I inquired, on behalf of a lady friend, for floral descriptions of July, and several correspondents, with our usual courtesy to each other in N. & Q.,' sent me various passages both from poets and prose men. "" verse men," I may, I hope, use (As Prior has see 'N. & Q.,' 7th S. iv. 369; v. 52.) prose men": My friend now wants passages descriptive of October. She says, "I have Clare's poems; and I do not care for Bishop Mant's 'Months,' his verse is so laboured and poor." I have thought of Spenser's "October," in the Cantos of Mutability'; Bacon's essay Of Gardens'; a couplet in Comus,' towards the end; and E. A. Poe's 'Ulalume.' Will some of your readers kindly indicate other passages, English or foreign? Replies to be sent direct. I will acknowledge any I receive in 'Notices to Correspondents, as I did before.

Ropley, Alresford, Hants.


THOMAS GRIFFITH WAINEWRIGHT, who wrote in the London in the twenties as "6 Janus Weathercock," and was in 1837 convicted on his own confession of forgery on the Bank of England, has for the last fifty years been credited with at least four cold-blooded murders by poison. Talfourd, Dickens, Procter, and Bulwer all took his guilt as a proven fact. More modern writers have followed in their wake. I wish to ask, Is there any reasonable evidence on whiob, I will not say to damn a man, but on which to kick a cat? I wish you would ventilate the subject. His flight when the

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COMIC PUBLICATION. -I remember a small magazine, full of wit and humour, published about 1850. Among other things it contained A Lay of Modern Baby-lon,' beginning,

The ancient dame of Hubbard,
More ancient there are none,
Hath hied her to her cupboard,
To fetch her dog a bone.

Also an extremely amusing Letter from Miss
Jemima Cragg to a Friend, giving an account of
her own inconstancy to her two lovers, Samuel
Wilkins and ". 'young Sarnders at the green-
grocer's." What is the title? I fancy it never
met with the success which it deserved. Are any
of the contributors known?
J. T. F.

Winterton, Doncaster.

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Agnes, who art the Lamb's chaste Spouse,
Enlighten thou our hearts within;
Not only lop the spreading boughs,
But root out of us every sin.

O, Lady singularly great,

After this state by sin opprest, Translate us to that quiet seat,


supposed to be his translation of an old hymn, from a Romish missal printed in

Above to triumph with the blest.


is said by Browne Willis, in his Parochiale ST. ROWSIO.-The ancient chapel of Hampstead Anglicanum,' to have been dedicated to this saint,

while Newcourt leaves the name blank; but it would actually appear that the chapel was formerly known as that of the Blessed Virgin, having the same dedication as the mother church of Hendon. Who was St. Rowsio, and upon what authority does Willis dedicate Hampstead Chapel to him? Park ('Hist. of Hampstead') states that the nearest name he can find is St. Roche, probably an Irish saint, and he queries the very existence of St. Rowsio. Is there any record of early parochial churches the dedications of which were changed at the period of the Reformation, or at any other time? E. T. EVANS.

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"THERE IS A SILVER LINING TO EVERY CLOUD." -This saying, become very current of late years, and adopted as the title of a work of fiction by Mrs. H. S. Mackarness, "The Cloud with the Silver Lining, may have been brought into prominence by Dickens's use of it in 'Bleak House,' chap. xviii. p. 178 of the original edition, where he makes Harold Skimpole say, "I expand, I open, I turn my silver lining outward like Milton's cloud, and it's more agreeable to both of us." The reference here is to Comus,' 221-225 :—

Was I deceiv'd, or did a sable cloud Turn forth her silver lining on the night? 1 did not err, there does a sable cloud Turn forth her silver lining on the night, And casts a gleam over this tufted grove. Upon this passage T. Warton observes, "When all succour seems to be lost, heaven unexpectedly presents the silver lining of a cloud to the virtuous"; and it is in this sense that the saying is generally applied. Can it to be traced further back; and has it equivalents in other languages?


ROBINSON FAMILY.-Can any of your readers tell me whether there are any descendants in England now of a William Robinson, who bought Rokeby in 1611? He came from Carleton-juxta

Snayth, and was a haberdasher and a citizen of London. The ultimate object of my inquiry is to obtain some information about a grandson (?) of his, named Rowland Robinson, who went from Cumberland to Rhode Island in 1675. J. T. POLLOCK.

Brigham Vicarage, Carlisle.


'COUNT LUCANOR, (7th S. vi. 199.)

Am I right in supposing that the story alluded to in your note on El Conde Lucanor is one which I met with many years ago somewhere, in the days before I had learned to make notes of such matters, and which may be compendiously given as follows? The narration, as I first met with it, was, as you say, wonderfully naive, and to reproduce it tale quale, even if I had the needed literary skill, would occupy far too much of your space. The theme, however, of the narrator may be summarily stated thus.

Three sailors (I think my version of the story called them Irish sailors) were wrecked on the coast of Spain. In utter destitution they begged their way to the residence of the Court, at the instigation of one of the three, who declared that he had thought of a plan by which, when once there, they could not only retrieve their misfortune, but make their fortune. Arrived at the Court, they presented themselves before the Lord Chamberlain, to whom they declared that they had been wrecked while coming to Spain for the purpose of submitting to his Spanish Majesty a most wonderful and important discovery. By long study of the secrets of nature (they must, one is tempted to think, have had a prophetic knowledge of the terms of some modern advertisements) they had discovered the means of making a wondrous cloth, the special property of which was that it was invisible save to the eyes of those born of legitimately married parents. The immense value of such a discovery to a people so justly proud of purity of descent as the Spaniards would be at once evident to his lordship.

The Chamberlain instantly admitted the vast importance of the discovery, and professed himself willing to aid their views to the extent of his power. They explained that the manufacture of lost everything in the wreck. The Chamberlain, the wondrous cloth was very costly; and they had already enthusiastic for so priceless a discovery, declared that no question of cost should stand in the way of the utilization of it; and to their hint that, of course, it would be necessary that their operations should be conducted secretly, promised that they should be shut up, and everything provided for the manufacture which was necessary.

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