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RUSSIA, BLACK, WHITE, AND RED (7th S. vi. 149, 177). In the middle of the ninth century the Northmen chiefs, Rurik and his two brothers, landed on some such marsh as that on which St. Petersburg now stands to lay the foundation of the Russian empire. These Scandinavians took the name of Russia with them, causing the country which they occupied to be named after them: for the first Russian chronicler, the monk Nestor, writing from his cloister in Kiev about 1100, calls them the "Russian Varangians" as distinguished from the "other Varangians," the Swedes, Northmen, English, and Goths. Varangians was the name by which the Norse body guard of their emperors -and through them all Northmen-were known to the Greeks; and these special Northmen had probably got the name of Russians (Ruri) because coming from the opposite coast of Swedish Upland, a part of which the German antiquary Schlötzer tells us is still known by its own country folk as the Ros-country. ONESIPHORUS.

In the Description of Europe,' printed at the back of its 'Map, issued by John Speed in 1626, it is stated :

"Muscovia is the last Region of Europe towards the East, and, indeed, stands a good part in Asia. It is bounded on the West with Livonia and some part of Swevia, on the East with Tartary, on the North with the frozen Seas, and south ward with the Lituania. The length of it is 3,000 miles, the bredth 3,065. It is like wise known by the name of Russia alba.”

Russia nigra is mentioned as a province of Poland. Heylyn, in his 'Cosmographie' (1657), p. 510, after giving similar boundaries to Russia, says :— "It was thus called from the Rossi or Russi......called also Russia Alba, to distinguish it from Russia Nigra, a Province of Poland......because the Inhabitants use to wear white caps and vestments."

Speaking of Moldavia, he says:

"Others conceive that it was at first called Maurdavia ......the countrey of the black Davi......so named from their complexion, or the colour of their caps and other garments; as Nigra Russia, a near neighbouring Province of the Realm of Poland, on the like occasion."-P. 562. See also Moreri's 'Dict.,' 1694.



"RADICAL REFORM" (7th S. v. 228, 296; vi. 137). Though without the substantive reform, the following extract illustrates the meaning of the term radical, and is a little earlier than the pas

It is from a pamphlet

sages already adduced. entitled "The Necessity of a Speedy and Effectual Reform in Parliament. Manchester, Printed by M. Faulkner & Co." The dedication to "The Friends of the People" is signed by Geo. Philips, Manchester, Nov. 20, 1792. Arguing against any partial reform, the author says:—

"By applying palliatives, instead of the means of radical cure, to the body politic, as to the natural, the original disorder is suffered to remain, to extend its influence gradually, and almost imperceptibly, till it vitiates the whole mass " (p. 6). W. E. BUCKLEY.

THE FIRST EDITION OF ROBERT BURNS'S 'POEMS' (7th S. vi. 146).-It is surprising how much this book has gone up in value, no doubt from its exceeding rarity and from the fact of very few copies having been originally published. The following extract from 'An Old Man's Diary,' by John Payne Collier, of which, on the authority of DR. INGLEBY (see N. & Q.,' 6th S. x. 251), only twenty-five copies were printed, will interest your readers. Perhaps the anecdote may remind many of them of having allowed chances of a similar kind to slip through their own fingers :

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"I met with a vexatious disappointment to-day [Aug. 1, 1832]. I was passing through Turnstile to Lincoln's Inn Fields, and so to Somerset House, when I cast my eyes upon some shelves with books outside a shop kept by a man of the historical name of Cornish. I saw one book that I much desired to possess, viz., the Kilmarnock

edition of the Poems of Burns, dated 1786. As I was back on the shelf, making up my mind to purchase it on going farther, and intended to return directly, I put it my way home: the price was only 1s. 6d., but I knew it would not be dear at a guinea: and when I returned by the same way I did not for a moment forget my bookfor I already considered it mine. My mortification. therefore, was not a little when, as I passed the place again, I found it gone-sold for 1s. 6d., to somebody else. I resolved from that time never to run such a risk again. It was uncut, and in the original boards. I have never have given the poor bookseller only 1s. 6d. for a book seen any such copy. Let casuists decide whether to worth a guinea would not have been imposing upon him. No; he obtained his profit out of the 1s. 6d., and I should only have availed myself of a little superior knowledge, which perhaps I had bought very dearly."-Part ii. PP. 24-5.

The published price of the book was, in 1786, only three shillings; in 1832 Payne Collier mentions a guinea being about its market value; whilst in 1888 a copy fetched at Sotheby's 867.

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

I beg to add a supplement to CUTHBERT BEDE'S interesting note. It seems that a still higher price has been obtained for a copy than he mentions, and that is 1117., as reported in the Athenæum of April 7, 1888, if correct; but it is quite an error, as stated in the same paragraph, that Ramsay presented Burns with a copy of his poems, as he was dead before Burns was born. The original edition

of Burns's 'Poems' (1786) consisted of 612 copies, and it is certainly wonderful that the book has attained such extreme prices. About thirty years ago it was comparatively reasonable (about 27. to 41.), but since that time it has gradually advanced. The following are some sales that have taken place during that time:-In Edinburgh, 1858, 31. 10s.; Glasgow, 1859, 81.; Edinburgh, 1869, 10l. and 147.; Glasgow, 1871, 171.; Edinburgh, 1874, 197.; Edinburgh, 1876, 41.; London, 1876, 38. 10s.; London, 1881, 491.; London, 1882, 731. and 677.; Edinburgh, 1884, 407., and 237. incomplete; London, 1887, 661.; London, 1888, 1117., 861., and 35l. 10s, incomplete. D. WHYTE.

of the "boot" given by Dr. Brewer (Dictionary of Phrase and Fable,' sub voce "Boot"), but also from the account given by Sir W. Scott (Tales of a Grandfather, A. & C. Black's edition, Edinburgh, 1857, vol. ii. p. 163) of the torture of Mitchell, a fanatical preacher, who fainted at the ninth blow of the mallets. This was his punishment for firing at Sharpe, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, missing him, and wounding Honeyman, Bishop of the Orkneys. Thirdly, the "scarpine" was evidently, according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary' and its derivation, framed on the model of a small shoe or slipper, fitted only the foot, and was probably of iron.

With regard to G. F. R. B.'s remark, with which I entirely concur, may I be allowed to say that the friend whom (not owning one myself) I asked to consult his copy for me, unfortunately lacked just the number containing "Scarpine," which has, I believe, only recently been published. H. DELEVINGNE. Castle Hill, Berkhampstead.


PROVERB (7th S. vi. 106).—Anthony à Wood was
quite right, and ASTARTE may be referred to "The
Life of the Renowned Doctor Preston, writ by his
Pupil, Master Thomas Ball, D.D., Minister of
Northampton, in the year 1628: now first pub-
lished and edited by E. W. Harcourt, Esq., M.P.,
of Nuneham Park, Oxon." (Parker & Co., 1885).
This interesting little book has been edited by Mr.
Harcourt from a MS. in the library at Nuneham,
from which library also (as the editor observes)
came John Evelyn's well-known 'Life of Mrs.
Godolphin.' Thomas Ball begins his narrative
thus: "John Preston, the son of Thomas and
Alice Preston, was borne at Heyford, in North-
amptonshire"; and he adds that Thomas Preston
was descended of the Prestons of Preston, in Lanca-
shire. I do not know whether these Prestons were
connected with Thomas Preston of Holker, who in
1640, or thereabouts, founded the library in Cart-
mel Church, and put up the beautiful carved wood-
work of the chancel there. "Old Mr. Dod," The omen was understood:-
whose "Worthie Sayings " are on record, preached
at the doctor's funeral at Fawley=Fawsley.

One of a collection of sketches by E. F. Turner,
'UNDERGROUND JOTTINGS' (7th S. vi. 207).-
published 1878.
E. G. H.

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SCARPINES (7th S. vi. 167, 218).-With all deference to the opinion of three contributors at the last reference, that the "scarpine" and the "boot" were nearly, if not quite, identical instruments, I must beg to differ from them, for, firstly, the "boot" does not ever appear to have been used in conjunction with fire. Of course not; it was of wood. Secondly, the "boot" was made by arranging four or more pieces of wood laterally round the leg, and the torture was produced by driving in wedges with a mallet between the wood and the leg. This appears not only from the description

DEATH BELL (7th S. v. 348, 417; vi. 57).—This superstition is well made use of by Thomas Tickell, the friend of Addison, in his plaintive ballad of Lucy and Colin,' which appears in Percy's Reliques':

Three times all in the dead of night
A bell was heard to ring;
And at her window shrieking thrice
The raven flap'd his wing.

Too well the love-lorn maiden knew That solemn, boding sound; and, of course, she duly died. Results are some

times more logical in ballads than in real life, for people have a trick of cheating death bells and croaking ravens, and occasionally croaking HippoGEO. NEILSON.

crates himself.

FUFTY (7th S. vi. 229).-The good woman who called the beer fufty because it tasted of the barrel must surely have been aiming at the word fusty, French "fusté, fusty, tasting of the cask," from fuste, a cask (Cotgrave). H. WEDGWOOD.

[Very many correspondents are thanked for the same suggestion,]

"THE OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE MAGAZINE' (5th S. xii. 48; 7th S. vi. 228).—Three references will supply something of what your correspondent W. F. P. desires, namely 'N. & Q.,' 6th S. xi. 62, 198, and the Cambridge Review, March 10, 1886. The copy of the magazine in the Cambridge Free Library "has many of the names [of authors of articles] pencilled in." FALCONER MADAN.


FLEMISH BRASSES (7th S. vi. 147).-In addition to the specimens of above brasses mentioned by MR. OLIVER as existing in England, there are also the following:

In the British Museum the head of a bishop or abbot, date 1360-1370, under a fine canopy, with soul, saints, &c. Formerly in possession of the late A. W. Pugin. Engraved in Boutell's 'Monumental Brasses.'

In the Museum of Economic Geology the large brass of Lodewyc Cortewille, 1504, and his wife, Dame Colyne van Caestre, 1496.

In Topcliffe Church, Yorkshire, the large brass of (Thomas de) Topclyff, 1362, and his wife, 1391,

both in mantles, with canopy, with souls, angels,

&c. On the reverse of this plate are some unfinished portions of brasses.

There are also several specimens of Flemish palimpsests, the particulars of which I should be pleased to give MR. OLIVER if he cares to write to (Rev.) H. EARDLEY FIELD.

Howden le Wear, Darlington,

THE HORNET OF JOSHUA XXIV. 12 (7th S. vi. 105). The literal sense seems to be confirmed by the following narrative, printed by Kirby in his 'Bridgewater Treatise,' vol. ii. pp. 336, 337, as illustrative of the gregarious instincts of certain insects :

"In the second volume of Lieut. Holman's 'Travels' -in whom the loss of sight has been compensated by a wonderful acuteness of mental vision-the following anecdote is related illustrative of this fact. Eight miles from Grandie-, the muleteers suddenly called "Marambundas, Marambundas!" which indicated the approach of a host of wasps. In a moment all the animals, whether loaded or otherwise, laid down on their backs, kicking most violently: while the blacks, and all persons not already attacked, ran away in different directions, all being careful, by a wide sweep, to avoid the swarms of tormenters

that came forward like a cloud. I never witnessed a panic so sudden and complete, and really believe that the bursting of a waterspout could hardly have produced more commotion. However, it must be confessed that the alarm was not without good reason, for so severe is the torture inflicted by these pigmy assailants that the bravest travellers are not ashamed to fly the instant they perceive the terrific host approaching, which is of no uncommon occurrence on the Campos.'"-Quoted in Lit. Gazette, Jan. 3, 1835, p. 4.


TENEMENTAL BRIDGES (7th S. v. 348, 409, 471, 517; vi. 72).-At Warkworth, co. Northumberland, there is a tower still standing at the south end of the bridge, commanding the passage, with a gateway only large enough to let a single conveyance through. It had been a defence against enemies from the north. G. H. THOMPSON. Alnwick.

BYRON'S TOWN HOUSE (7th S. vi. 126).-The house referred to by your correspondent as 13, Piccadilly Terrace, where Byron passed the wretched period of his married life," &c., is now

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No. 139, Piccadilly, the town residence of Sir Algernon Borthwick, Bart., M.P., and stands two doors west of Park Lane; whereas the house pointed out to me more than forty years ago by an excellent authority as the one in which Byron lived during the London season following his marriage stood (until it was pulled down a few weeks since) three doors east of Park Lane. It was No. 131, Piccadilly, being the centre one of three houses very similar in appearance. Latterly it was let out as chambers, and there for some time resided the Right Hon. John Bright, M.P. G. M.

KIMPTON FAMILY (7th S. v. 389, 498; vi. 92). -This family still resides at Coats, in my late father's parish of Ardeley. The head of the family was my father's church clerk, as his father was before him. HAROLD MALET, Col.


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(7th S. vi. 87).—Dr. HarDMAN must remember that what he calls the "evening dress was not necessarily the dress of night, and that waiters, as well as the few who have been left behind in the race of fashion, are in garments common enough in the daylight of the first forty years of this century. HAROLD MALET, Col.

The waiter at the coffee-house in 'Nicholas Nickleby' wears tail-coat and white trousers, and the friendly waiter in 'David Copperfield' tail-coat, white tie and waistcoat, with black trousers. Both wear shoes with strings.



FISH GUARD (7th S. vi. 147).—The official ́Army List,' July, 1888, does not give Fish Guard as an authorized honour of the Pembrokeshire Yeomanry Cavalry.

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DEVICE (7th S. vi. 148).—I would suggest that the compass means what we now call a pair of compasses. One leg is in the centre of a circle, and the other is broken off. The motto means "That which might draw the circle is wanting." J. CARRICK MOORE.

I cannot answer the first part of MR. WARD'S query, but wish to remark, with regard to his words about the device itself, that he seems to take the word duceret="to lead one round [the = what would "draw" world]." Is it not rather W. S. LOGEMAN. or "trace"?

BROOKE OF ASTLEY (7th S. iv. 87; vi. 43, 158). I am much obliged to MR. AXON for the reference to Finlayson's pedigree, which, however, I had already seen. The dates which I quoted from the Chorley registers render it impossible that Thomas, son of Richard Brooke, of Astley, by Margaret Charnock, his wife, could have married as early as the year 1679, this date being previous

to the baptism of his elder brother William. This is sufficient of itself to prove the inaccuracy of Finlayson's pedigree, which contains many other serious blunders. Margaret Wharton (not Ann Williamson) was, according to the 1850 edition of Burke's 'Landed Gentry' (under "Charnock of Charnock"), the name of Thomas Brooke's wife. The date 1679 fits in very well for the marriage of the Thomas Brookes, of Gray's Inn and Middlewich, to whom I alluded in my note, and who was called to the Bar about this time. Everything seems to me to point to the conclusion that this Thomas Brookes, of Middlewich, was the real ancestor of Mr. Edward Brooke, of Pabo, Conway.

H. W. FORSYTH HARWOOD. HALL-MARK (7th S. vi. 167).—Several instances of the words "hall-mark" and "hall-marked" are to be found in "A Report from the Committee appointed to inquire into the Manner of Conducting the several Assay Offices in London, York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester, Norwich, and Newcastleon-Tyne. Reported by Thomas Gilbert, Esq.; 29th April, 1773.' The expression was evidently in common use and well understood at that time. T. M. FALLOW.

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Coatham, Yorkshire.

CHARLES DICKENS AND SIR THEODORE MARTIN (7th S. vi. 45, 176).—In reply to MR. J. W. ALLISON, Wilson's 'Tales of the Borders' was first issued in three-halfpenny numbers, without date, till the 107th number (November 19, 1836), and was extended to No. 312 (October 24, 1840), forming 6 vols. folio. 'Country Quarters' is in vol. vi., No. 272 (January 18, 1840). 'Horatio Sparkins' was first published by Macrone in vol. i. of 'Sketches by Boz,' 1835.



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"Surely the meaning of this is very simple. Yod, or yoad (see Dickinson's Glossary of Cumberland Words), means an old mare,' possibly synonymous with jade. Horse-pasture' is a common name of a field, cow-close, &c. Is not Starve-horse a likely name to be given to a very poor pasturage, or place where horses were badly fed? I am not sure whether I can spell correctly the following true story in illustration of the meaning of yod or yoad. A stranger, not familiar with the Cumberland dialect, was watching a little vessel entering one of our barbours. A Cumbrian who accompanied him said, "I will ask the captain a question, and I will bet you that

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THE SWORD OF THE BLACK PRINCE (7th S. vi. 228).-I have in my possession an original bookplate, with portrait and date 1794, of Thomas Barritt, the Manchester antiquary, who claimed to have amongst his fine collection of ancient arms and armour the veritable sword of Edward the Black Prince taken by Oliver Cromwell from the monument in Canterbury Cathedral. Barritt, in his 'Diary,' decribes it :

"The handle of Stag Horn, the cap at the pomel, guard, and ring in the middle of the handle is Iron, and once gilt with gold not yet thoroughly worn away. Upon one side of the blade is wrote in letters of gold and in old character Edwardus,' with the imperfect figure of some animal; on the other side is inscribed with the same metal and character 'Prins Anglic.'

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Cawsey, of GREAT TORRINGTON, DEVON (7th S. v. 168).-Giles Cawsey was, I believe, the grandfather of Lewis Cawsey, whose daughter married the Rev. R. Chichester, the great-uncle of the present Chichester, of Hall. Robert Cawsey, brother of Lewis Cawsey, married Jane Loveband (see County Families'), whose sister Eleanor married Richard Kelland, of Lapford. They are quoted in a deed of 1765. I do not know what arms they used. There are still Cawseys living at Alscott Barton and at Little Torrington, close to Great Torrington. Littleham Court belonged to the Anthonys, related by marriage to the Kellands of Lapford, and was sold by them to Sir G. Stucley in 1872. It was owned by the Bassetts in 1760. W. D. PINK. Leigh, Lancashire.

HAMPTON COURT GUIDE-BOOKS (7th S. vi. 248). -If MR. RALPH THOMAS will purchase a copy of the 'Handbook to Hampton Court,' new edition, revised, 1887, he will find much, if not all, the information he seeks. If he wants more he can

buy a copy of Mr. Law's Historical Catalogue,'
where he will find all that is at present to be had.
These books are both accessible and cheap. Should
not such sources be exhausted before applying to
'N. & Q.'?



value as preserving beyond risk of destruction a great part of the parish register and the monumental inscriptions of the church and churchyard. We cannot speak church as it was a hundred years ago. We there see a highly of the engravings. One of them represents the little tower over the chancel arch. It is the place in which the sanctus bell hung before the changes in ritual in the sixteenth century. It is painful to have to tell that during recent alterations this interesting relic has been swept away because it was "very rickety, [and] water dropped from it during showers on the head of the preacher." This was surely a reason for repair, not for destruction. It is sad to think how day by day interesting remains of art and history are being destroyed with the consent of persons in whom we have a right to hope for some small share of cultivation.

The Plots of the most Famous Old English Plays, by Henry Gray (Griffith, Farran & Co), gives the stories of twenty odd plays, extending from Marlowe's 'Tambur laine,' 1588, to the Lady of Lyons,' 1838. An index of the principal characters is affixed. We can only ask, as was asked à propos to the appearance of Dodd's Beauties of Shakespeare,' Where are the other eleven volumes?

THE Directory of Second-hand Booksellers, Public Libraries, &c., by Mr. James Clegg (Rochdale, Clegg; London, Stock), of which a second edition is published, has expanded to four times its original dimensions. Though intended specially for booksellers, it is likely to be useful to collectors.

THE Rev. Joseph Maskell, A.K.C., the Master of Emmanuel Hospital, has published (H. Parr, Moorfields) The Five Senses: God's Gift and Man's Responsi bility, addresses delivered during the present year in St. James the Less, Westminster.

WE have received The Two Evolutions: the Real and the Mock, by F. H. Laing, D.D. (Stock).

Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie Stephen. Vol. XVI. Drant-Edridge. (Smith, Elder & Co.) ONCE more, with exemplary punctuality, the new volume of this admirable work makes its appearance. Beginning with some of the most interesting personages in English literature, it terminates with characters belonging to our earliest recorded history-Edgars, Edmunds, and the rest. In the first half of the volume we find names such as Michael Drayton, Drummond of Hawthornden, Dudley, Dryden, Dugdale, and Dunbar; in the latter half the Edgeworths alone among recognizable beings inspire any very keen interest. Of the writers we have named first excellent accounts are given. Dryden is probably the greatest name in the volume. Of him the editor, Mr. Leslie Stephen, naturally writes the biography. To Dryden's transcendent merits Mr. Stephen renders full justice. He regards Dryden, however, as the "least unworthy of all great poets," and holds that therefore "he reflects most completely the characteristics of the society dominated by the court of Charles II."; and, without entering upon the great Collier controversy, he holds Dryden's comedies a "lamentable concession to the worst tendencies of the time." In other portions of this volume Mr. Stephen writes upon Richard Lovell Edgeworth and his daughter, Maria Edgeworth, praising in the latter her "keen observation of character" and "her shrewd sense and vigour.' Dunton, the bookseller, and the two Dyers, George and John, both of them poets, are also in MR. SWINBURNE sends to the Fortnightly a valuable Mr. Stephen's hands. Admirably competent biographies paper on 'Ben Jonson's "Discoveries," in which he traces, are sent in by Mr. S. L. Lee, Mr. A. H. Bullen, Mr. G. F. among other notabilia, passages of autobiographical Russell Barker, and the Rev. J. Woodfall Ebsworth. interest. Canon Taylor discourses on 'The Great MisThe first-named is, indeed, a mainstay of the 'Dictionary.'sionary Failure,' and Dr. Savage on Homicidal Mania. Lives such as he sends of Drummonds, Dudleys, Dy. Mr. Stanford writes on Mr. Hubert Parry's "Judith,' mockes, and the like are models of compression, of style, Mrs. Lynn Linton on The Irresponsibilities of Genius,' of accuracy and insight. Mr. Stephen is exceptionally Mr. Symonds on 'Count Carlo Gozzi,' and Mr. Henry happy in aid such as Mr. Lee affords. Among Mr. Bul- James on The Brothers de Goncourt.' The number is len's best lives are those of Michael Drayton-altogether of exceptional interest and value.- Mr. Swinburne, a model-and the Rev. Alexander Dyce, Mr. Ebsworth is whose name is now familiar in magazines and reviews, responsible for bright lives of Dugdale, of Tom D'Urfey, and who is slowly exhausting the dramatic poets of the &c., and of his own father and mother, Joseph and Mary Elizabethan epoch, writes in the Nineteenth Century Emma Ebsworth. Among many excellent contributions upon John Marston.' His recognition of the services of Mr. Barker are Tom Duncombe, Laurence Echard, his rebuke of the offences to "good taste and natural Mr. Bullen has rendered the dramatist is pleasing, and and Henry Dundas, first Viscount Melville. Other Dundases come naturally into the valuable series of naval instinct" in Shakspeare's Venus and Adonis' is but too biographies contributed by Prof. J. K. Laughton. Mr. edifying. Exorcizo te,' by M. H. Dziewicki, gives a H. R. Tedder sends the life of J. C. Dunlop, the historian good account of old treatises on casting out demons, of fiction; and Dr. Garnett that of Robert Drury, the but startles one by some of its later views. Mr. J. F. traveller. The Rev. W. Hunt supplies the life of St. Rowbotham calls his paper, somewhat courageously, Dunstan and most of the Anglo-Saxon biographies. He The Wagner Bubble, and Mr. J. S. Fitch describes is, of course, the most competent man to deal with such, that remarkable institution The Chatauqua Reading An effect of pedantry is, however, conveyed when he in- Circle.'-'Shakespeare Unawares,' by Arthur Gaye, consists on spelling a name "Eadgar' "" tributed to Macmillan, gives many passages from ShakEadmund," though the name in the Dictionary' is Edgar or Ed-speare not ordinarily known to be in his works. Mr. mund. The very high level of the 'Dictionary' is ad- Walter Pater concludes his Gaston de Latour.' mirably maintained. Tennessee Newspaper' gives a curious picture of newspaper writing in the southern states of America. Miss Cartwright has a pleasant paper on The Savile Letters." There is a description of A Modern Pilgrimage' in Ceylon, and a good paper on 'John Brown.'-In Murray's Mr. Lang expresses, under the not very happy title of International Girlishness,' some very sensible opinions


Llanelly Parish Church, its History and Records. With Notes relating to the Town. By Arthur Mee. (Llanelly, South Wales Press.)

THIS is a useful book of local memoranda. It makes no pretensions to be a contribution to literature, but is of

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