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Raven sends some excellent 'Diversions of a Pedagogue.' Jaques Tahureau,' the French poet, is the subject of a paper by Mr. W. H. Hudson. Mr. Pater writes on Gaston de Latour,' and Mr. H. D. Traill on 'Lucian.' Mr. A. M. Wakefield begins in Murray's a series of papers on Foundation Stones of English Music. Capt. Shaw's Protection of Dwelling Houses from Fire' is likely to make the householder sufficiently uncomfortable. In a Conning Tower' is a spirited account of an imaginary naval combat. The Wilds of North Devon' and 'Public Schools in the Olden Time' are both readable.-In "The Romance of History,' in Temple Bar, Part V. deals with Benyowski. A Lapsed Copyright' concerns itself with the position of Disraeli as a novelist. The House of Percy' is a species of digest of Mr. de Fonblanque's Annals of the House of Percy.'-A large instalment it can scarcely be too large for the reader-of 'Coaching Days and Coaching Ways' is given in the English Illustrated. The views of old nooks in Stamford, Grantham, and other places are delightful. A Hampshire Hamlet' is pleasantly illustrated by Mr. David Carr. An engraving of Reynolds's portrait of Dr. Johnson furnishes a good frontispiece. Pagodas, Aurioles, and Umbrellas 'gives curious information.-In Longman's "Evolving the Camel,' by Mr. Grant Allen, Mr. Hudson's 'Sight in Savages,' and Mr. Nathan's 'Something about Ostrich Feathers 'are noteworthy.-'Some Typographical Errors' in the Cornhill supplies little that is not well known, and gives as a typographical error an invention of Tom Moore as to printing " for "roses." Arthur Schopenhauer is the subject of an essay, in which a short and very characteristic paper, found after his death, is quoted. Mammoth-Hunting in Siberia' deals, of course, with the remains of the animal. Early Travels in England' and 'Some Bits of Norman London' appear in All the Year Round.



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MESSRS. CASSELL'S monthly publications lead off with Our Own Country, Part XLII., dealing with Harrow-onthe-Hill and South Devon, and opening out Lincoln. Of the school at Harrow many views are given, and Dartmouth, Torquay, Babbicombe Bay, Dawlish, and other picturesque spots are depicted.-Old and New London, Part X., is confined to the Mansion House, the Bank, and the Stock Exchange, and gives good illustrations of civic processions, of the Clearing House, On 'Change, Dividend Day, &c., some of them possessing antiquarian interest. The Encyclopædic Dictionary, Part_LIV., extends from "Outsucken" to "Parbuckle." Specimens of varied and useful information may be found under "Ox," and other early words. In cases such as Palimpsest,' ," "Palinade," and the various formations with pal, &c., information of special fulness and value is afforded.-Naumann's History of Music, Part IV., has a capital portrait of Heinrich Schütz, otherwise Sagittarius, the famous Chapel Master; "Islamite Music " is illustrated, and the "Song of a Muezzin to the Rising Sun" is given in musical notation. Passing to the "Music of the Greeks," we find this prefaced by a facsimile of a rough draft of Beethoven's Erl King.'6 King Henry V is contained in Part XXX. of the Illustrated Shakespeare. This is illustrated by full-sized designs of Henry's rough wooing of Katharine, of the English troops before the battle, and other subjects. -Part X. of the World of Wit and Humour completes this work, to which title-page, &c., are given.-Part VII. of Cassell's Dictionary of Cookery has many good directions as to the treatment of oysters, &c.-Woman's World

has contributions by the Queen of Roumania (" Carmen Sylva "), Lady Wentworth, and many other writers, and some fine illustrations, including "The Toilet of a Lady of Ancient Egypt.'

MR. C. A. WARD continues in the Bookworm (Stock) his interesting 'Dr. Johnson's Tavern Resorts.' A suggestion (p. 284) concerning dealing with some insect book-pest seems worth consideration.

PART LVI. of Mr. Hamilton's Parodies is principally occupied with Lord Macaulay's Lays,' "The Devil's Walk,' and the poems of Winthrop Mackworth Praed. MR. SCOTT SURTEES has printed for private circulation a pamphlet entitled William Shakespeare of Stratford-onAvon: his Epitaph Unearthed, and the Author of the Plays run to Ground. The new candidate put forward for the honours of Shakspeare is Sir Anthony Sherley. WE have received Part V. of the Cyclopædia of Educa tion (Swan Sonnenschein & Co.), dealing with "Mathematics," "Middle-Class Schools,' Object Lessons," &c. Co.) has reached a second edition, MR. SPRAGUE'S Handbook of Volapük (Trübner &

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the Diary of the Scots College at Douai,' to be edited THE New Spalding Club will shortly issue to members by the Rev. William Forbes Leith, S.J., and the 'Register of the Scots College at Rome,' to be edited by the Very Rev. Monsignor Campbell, Rector of the College.

THE new edition of 'Boyne's Tokens,' which was announced as coming out under the editorship of Mr. G. C. Williamson, is now at press. The work has been so enlarged that it will be about twice the size of the original work. It is to be published by Mr. Elliot Stock.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, To secure insertion of communications correspondents signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

A. MASSON ("So long ").-See 6th S. ii, 67, 194, 496; iii. 18.

W. S. B. H. ("A Month's Mind ").-See 6th S. vi, 205, 251, 352, 374, 410, 458, 516; vii. 115, 298; viii. 312. CORRIGENDUM.-P. 473, col. 1, 1. 1, for "has" read


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am stondende contynueli bi day"; A.V., "I stand continually in the watch tower in the daytime." In Jer. xxxi. 21 we have, "Ordeyne to thee a NOTES: Tothill, 21-Virgil, 22-Phil or Philo-Letter of toting place"; A.V., "Make thee high heaps "; and Grimaldi, 24-The Great Cryptogram-Epitaph-Elephant 2 Kings (2 Sam.), v. 7, 9, "David took the totehil of Syon," and "David dwellide in the totehil"; A.V., "the stronghold,' ""the fort."

and Aristotle-Robinson Cruso, 25-The Lincolnshire
Poacher'-Lot-"Phiz" and "Alfred Crowquill," 26.
QUERIES:-Chame-Grant's 'Sketches in London'-Trinkets
-Dual Origin of Stuart Family - Herewards-Jonas E. In the Promptorium Parvulorum' we find,
Drinkworth, Knt.-G. P. R. James, 27-8ir John Stuart-"Tote Hylle, specula, a hey place of lokynge,'

Swine-suckled —. Lieut. James Bottomley-Seven Clerical

Orders-St. Liberata-Heraldic-Etruscan City on the Site of Rome-Fleak-Ashmole's Tomb-Andrewes-Riddles on Trees Rock beare, 28-'A Historie of Ferrar'-Arundell Family-Engraving-Queen Eleanor Crosses-Irish Exports in 1847-Name of Artist Wanted, 29. REPLIES:-Casanova, 29-Dr. Mounsey, 30-Dedluck Molière-Brussels Gazette-Jacques Basire-Walker the Filibuster, 31-Lowestoft Memoirs of Grammont-West Chester-Sack as Communion Wine-Masson-St. Peter upon the Wall Anna Houson, 32- Shaking HandsReminiscences of a Scottish Gentleman'-Skulls on Tombs

Pitshanger - Order of the Southern Cross Mumed Moonlight"-Dympna-St. Colan, 33-Spanish WrecksDemocracy-0. Goldsmith-Adjectives ending in -ic, -ical, 34-Belgian Arms - Balk-Matthew's Bible, 35-CecilsCentury-"Of a certain age," 36-Use of York-The Curtin -Extract from Parish Register-F. Tavares, 37-"Dead

Men"-Empty Bottles "To chew the rag"-" To make up
his mouth "New English Dictionary,' 88.

NOTES ON BOOKS:-Murray's New English Dictionary,
Part IV. Verity's Works of Etherege-Jacobs's North's

'Morall Philosophie of Doni.' Notices to Correspondents, &c.




where the late Mr. Albert Way, in his learned note, says "the term seems to denote a look-out or watch tower." Mr. Way remarks upon the frequent occurrence of the word in many parts of England, as enumerated by Mr. Hartshorne in his Salopia Antiqua,' e. g., Castle Toote, Fairy Toote, Twt Hill at Carnarvon, &c. He also quotes a passage from 'Sir John Maundeville's Travels,' P. 378, occurring in a description of the gardens of a king of India, in which is mentioned" a litylle Toothille with toures, &c.," where the monarch was wont to take the air and disport himself.

The Tothill in question at Westminster, whose name still survives in the locality, was the lookout hill of the Abbey, answering to the still existing mound at the north-east corner of the close at Peterborough known as the Toothill, on which a tower is said to have been built by Turold, the first Norman abbot, for the defence of his monastery. There is a similar mound at the south-west corner of the close at Ely, known at Cherry Tree Hill, and another in Deanery Garden, at Rochester. We learn from the late Mr. Burtt's paper on 'The I had imagined that the question of the ety- Muniments of the Abbey of Westminster' (Archaomology of Tothill had been long since settled, and logical Journal, vol. xxix. p. 141) that the name that its derivation from tote or toute, to look or Totehull occurs early in the thirteenth century for peep, connected with the Anglo-Saxon totian, to the large tract of land, the waste of the manor, lift up, to elevate, was generally accepted, all being afterwards called Tothill Fields, on which the inagreed that tothill or toothill was an early designa-habitants of the manor had common rights, extendtion for a look-out post. But the saying that 66 errors die bard" is nowhere more true than in etymology, and the more far-fetched and improbable a derivation is, the more pertinaciously is it clung to, even when a clear and obvious derivation is close at hand.

We may safely assert, pace the Builder of 1875" (the Builder of 1888 would not, I think, have published such nonsense), that "the hill of Hermes" and the "teuthill of the Saxons" are not "the same," and that neither in Westminster nor anywhere else has the toothill any connexion with Tuisco, or Teut, or Thoth, or any other fabulous deity. If, instead of puzzling their brains with old mythologies, our would-be etymologists had turned to Wycliffe's Bible, they would have found the word, in its true meaning as a beacon or look-out station, in more places than one. Thus, Isaiah xxi. 5, we read, "Set the bord, bihold in a toothill," where in the A.V. we have, "Prepare the table, watch in the watchtower"; and again, v. 8 of the same chapter, "Up on the toot hill of the Lord I

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ing from the Abbey Close on the east to Eye and
Chelsea on the west, and from the Thames on the
south to the manors of Hyde and Knightsbridge
on the north. In the time of Elizabeth this wide
waste was a common place for duels and assemblies
of various kinds, "not generally of the best."
these fields the gentry also used to resort "for
their recreation at bowles, goffe, and stow ball,"
and it was used "for exercize and discipline of
horse and foote," the herbage being very advan-
tageous and profitable to many poore inhabitants."
Horse races were also run in the eighteenth century
in Tothill Fields, and booths and scaffolds were
erected for the spectators, for admission to which
payment was demanded "as for the use of the Dean
and Chapter." The mob on these occasions proving
unruly and riotous, the Government were not un-
reasonably "offended," and "the Dean and Chapter
were highly reflected on" for allowing their land to
be so used. The parents of boys at Westminster
School also grew uneasy, and threatened that com-
plaints should be laid before Parliament if these


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"riotous assemblies" were not put a stop to. An to the best of my ability, as I cannot endure to order was therefore issued September 28, 1736, by think that such disrespect should be shown to the then Dean (Bishop Wilcocks of Rochester) that "the sweet singer of golden throat and tongue," the races, which were then just over, were "not to as Mr. Swinburne calls Virgil, in a magazine of be revived nor allowed any more." The "booths N. & Q.'s' high standing, and should pass unand benches were to be "forth with taken away," challenged. I wish at the outset to say that I and the fields reduced to their former state. The have no pretensions to profound scholarship; Abbey authorities, however, contented themselves but one does not require to be a very profound with issuing the prohibition, taking no care to see scholar to feel the beauty of Virgil's diction and it carried out. The races were renewed, and the the charm of the "long roll" of his hexameter. Abbey Muniment Room contains a printed bill The latter Lord Tennyson, in his address 'To announcing the races held in Tothill Fields in Virgil,' an ode worthy both of Tennyson and of his 1747, in which " a saddle, bridle, and surcingle, subject, calls "the stateliest measure ever moulded value two guineas," were offered as the prize for by the lips of man." I should say rather the the winning horse, and "a whip at half a guinea stateliest with one exception, namely Milton's for the second. This must have been nearly the blank verse, and I do not think Tennyson, judging end of these public nuisances, for the next year from what he says of Milton's verse in his (1748) an action in which the rights of the Chapter beautiful Alcaics entitled Milton,' would enwere involved was settled by arbitration in a way tirely disagree with me. Virgil's verse, however, which virtually devoted the fields to building pur- without wishing to speak dogmatically, surely comes next to Milton's in grandeur of sound and rhythmic roll; and possibly if Latin were our native tongue we might consider it equal to Milton's. Mr. Gladstone, a critic "in the foremost files of time" in every sense of the word, in his Homer Primer' calls Virgil a supreme master of versification," although he does not think that he possesses the same mastery over his hexameter that Homer possesses over his. As, then, two eminent living poets and one eminent living critic, not to speak of lesser lights, praise Virgil in terms sufficiently warm to satisfy Virgil's most devoted admirers-as many devoted admirers I am sure he I can throw no light upon the connexion of St. still has-might not this alone give the iconoclasts Ermin with Tothill Fields. A St. Erminus is pause before speaking of him in terms so depreciamentioned in the 'Dictionary of Christian Bio-tory as those of the reviewer above mentioned ? graphy,' a native of Laon, and Abbot of Lobbes in In a very admirable passage quoted by Prof. Sellar Hainault, who died A.D. 737; but it is hard to in his 'Roman Poets of the Augustan Age,' Burke conceive that any church or chapel in England was according to Lord Macaulay" our greatest man called after him. There is a parish of St. Erme in Cornwall, north-east of Truro, and there was a chapel under the same dedication at Marazion, both named after a certain “Sanctus Hermes," who, according to William Wyrcester, was a confessor in that county, whose name is found in a Breton liturgy of the tenth century. But the name of an obscure Celtic saint is not likely to have been recognized beneath the shadow of the great Abbey of Westminster. Of one thing we may, however, be certain, that the Westminster St. Ermin has no more connexion with the god Hermes than Tothill Fields have with Teut or Thoth.

The mound, or tote hill, from which the district derived its name was removed, and the ground levelled, about 1658. In that year a petition of the commoners of Westminster against the encroachments on the fields speaks of a great hill" having "lately stood there," the earth of which, when carted away, consisted of "many thousand loads." The petitioners complain that, through the neglect of its proper guardians, the site of the tote hill had become a "pond," or quagmire, so deep that a horse had been lately "strangled or smothered" in it, and that in the daytime.


VIRGIL AND MODERN ICONOCLASM. In N. & Q.,' 7th S. v. 400 it was stated by a reviewer that Virgil's olden pedestal knows him no more, and that his cultus is bygone. As Virgil is one of my most valued poets, I should be very glad, with the Editor's kind permission, to answer this

since Milton "-says that when we find we cannot admire a poet or painter whom the world has almost unanimously agreed to admire, we ought "rather to believe that we are dull than that the rest of the world has been imposed on." One of the authors whom Burke mentions by name as an example is Virgil. Why is Virgil less great now than he was in the days of Burke, or in those of Milton, or in those of Scaliger? It is no doubt true that Dante was scarcely able to judge of the merits of his "dolcissimo padre" relatively to other great poets, because it is very improbable that Dante knew anything of Homer except at second hand, and modern literature, except in his own person, had not begun. But this objection does not attach to the many devoted lovers that Virgil has had during the last two centuries, who have been able to compare him with Homer and Dante and Milton, and who, although not ranking him quite so high as these, have agreed that he is only immediately below them.

Poetry is not like science. When one scientific invention supersedes another, the older at once becomes valueless, and is of no further use than as a curiosity in a museum; but this is not the case with literature and art. Here I will allow a better man than myself to speak for me. De Quincey, I do not know in which of his works, in speaking of the difference between what he calls "the literature of knowledge" and "the literature of power,"


"Let its teaching [that is, the teaching of the literature of knowledge] be even partially revised, let it be but expanded, nay, let its teaching be but placed in a better order, and instantly it is superseded. Whereas the feeblest works in the literature of power, surviving at all, survive as finished and unalterable amongst men...... The Iliad,' the Prometheus' of Eschylus, the 'Othello' or King Lear,' the Hamlet' or Macbeth,' or the 'Paradise Lost,' are not militant, but triumphant for ever, as long as the languages exist in which they speak or can be taught to speak. They never can transmigrate into new incarnations. To reproduce them in new forms or variations, even if in some things they should be improved, would be to plagiarize. A good steam-engine is properly superseded by a better. But one lovely pastoral valley is not superseded by another, nor a statue of Praxiteles by

a statue of Michael Angelo."


been astonished and grieved could he have foreseen that in the nineteenth century critics would arise who would assert that Virgil has fallen from his pedestal, and that his cultus is bygone. I have called Virgil "6 a literary poet." But what literature Virgil's poetry is! I feel almost ashamed to indicate passages which must be much more familiar to your classical and scholarly readers than they are to myself. I will therefore content myself with selecting a few jewels from Virgil's inexhaustible storehouse "with diamond flaming and with gold." I have drawn them entirely from the Eneid,' because I believe that even modern iconoclasts admit the perfection of the 'Bucolics' and the Georgics.' But even the 'Bucolics' and the Georgics,' with all their finished beauty of form, would not by themselves entitle Virgil to rank amongst the Dii majores of poetry, as I think he does, or at least ought to do now. me first take the two similes, lib. i. 498-502, and lib. iv. 141-149. Might not any poet that ever lived have been proud to write these? In the first the numbers seem to dance, as they do in the best parts of the Faery Queene.' Equally beautiful If De Quincey is right—and who can doubt that are the descriptions of the constellations (lib. iii. he is ?-must not Virgil's poetry be as valuable to-515-517), of the Elysian Fields (lib. vi. 638-647), day as it was when the poet in the streets of Rome of the bees (lib. vi. 707-709), of the calm repose and peace of night (lib. iv. 522-527), of Circe's was pointed out "digito prætereuntium" ? Spenser, Ben Jonson, Milton, Dryden, Burke, dwelling (lib. vii. 10-14), and of Iris (lib. iv. 700-1). For examples of Virgil's power and sublimity see Wordsworth, Sainte-Beuve, Victor Hugo,* not to mention a cloud of other witnesses both in the description of an eruption of Etna (lib. iii. 571-577*), the description of Mount Atlas (lib. iv. our own and in foreign lands, have, some in one 246-251), the description of Eneas's blazing way, some in another, borne testimony to the helmet and shield, with the illustrative images of great merits of Virgil's poetry. Are we better the comets and the dog-star (lib. x. 270–275), a judges of poetry than these great men were? Although Milton did not take a humble view of passage of Miltonic splendour; the famous passage his own poetical genius, but regarded himself, beginning. "Excudent alii" (lib. vi. 848-854), justly, as one of the great poets of the world, I do and lib. iii. 583-587, and lib. viii. 429-432. The not imagine that he ever thought himself equal to the idea of mystery and obscurity. (My authority last two passages were admired by Burke as giving Virgil. I am not now speaking of what others think of the relative merits of the two poets, but for this is the "Globe" Virgil.) Burke might have added to these two other mysterious" passages, of what Milton himself thought. I am not aware namely lib. iv. 460-468, and lib. vi. 268-272. that Virgil has ever, at least since the revival of For examples of Virgil's sustained flight it is Greek learning in Europe, ranked amongst the sufficient to mention the story of the sack of Troy poets of whom invention is the supreme quality; in the second book, and the almost Dantean power he is, I suppose, the highest development the world has seen of a literary poet as distinguished and death in the fourth book. If each and all of of the description of unhappy deserted Dido's woes from elemental forces like Homer, Dante, and, these passages are not poetry of the highest, or at remembering the colossal figure of Satan, I need all events of a very high order, will the iconoclasts not hesitate to add Milton. Cowley calls Virgil tell us why they are not so? the wise,

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I must not intrude further on your space or on your readers' patience. I only wish that my power were equal to my will, and that I were able adequately to defend the divine Mantuan swan against modern iconoclasm. I can bring to my task only much love, and zeal I hope not entirely without knowledge. The adequateness I must

* A translation of these lines was Sir Walter Scott's first attempt in poetry at the age of eleven.

leave to better scholars than myself. I will now conclude with a question which is perhaps easier for me to ask than for Virgil's detractors to answer. If after nearly two thousand years of unbroken reputation we are to be told that the great poet, of whom Tennyson says that he has "all the chosen coin of fancy flashing out from many a golden phrase," and that his "ocean-roll of rhythm sounds for ever of Imperial Rome," is now, like Dagon in Milton, "fallen flat and shaming his worshippers," what guarantee have we that the reputation of any poet, even that of Homer or of Dante, will endure for ever? JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

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This process, like the movement of the glacier, is imperceptible at any given moment, yet it is ever going on. It might be compared to the movement of the hands of a clock, or even to the geologic slowness of the evolutions which occur in the structure of the earth. Like pulsation in a living body, it continues while a language lives; when it ceases the language is dead.

Without dwelling here on the various features of this process, I would advert now to those changes which arise from corruption; from the gradual advance and establishment of positive error. Changes due to legitimate and healthy growth are to be welcomed-those due to the creeping paralysis of error should be resisted. Of course, in matters of language, when error becomes universal it becomes law-communis error facit jus-but it should never be allowed to reach that stage without a struggle. Purists have by this time almost abandoned all resistance to the abuse of such words as mutual, reliable, and the like. Such abuses have now almost established themselves in the language, and there is no more to be said about it. But there are some creeping errors which have not yet attained general sanction; and, on the principle of principiis obsta, these should be resisted while there is yet time to do so. Conspicuous among these is the use, or rather the abuse, of the Greek derivative phil, or phile, or philo in the formation of English compound words. Here error, though not yet established, is creeping on apace, and it is time to make a stand against it.

There would seem to be no clear idea of the correct law for the use of this factor; certainly there is no fixed and uniform practice in the matter. One writer adopts one way; another adopts its

opposite; and sometimes the same writer, ay, and in the same sentence, adopts both ways. But there is only one right way. Phil, or philo, as a prefix has an active sense-as philanthropist, one who loves man; Philip, lover of horses. Phil, or phile, as a suffix, has a passive sense-as Theophilus, beloved by God. Thus when we wish to denote one who loves the Turks or the Russians we should not say Turcophile or Russophile, but philo-Turk and philo-Russ, as in phil-Hellene, philharmonic, and the like.

In the Edinburgh Review for April, 1888, in an article on Froude's late book on the West Indies, both forms actually occur in the same sentence: "It may gladden the heart of the negrophile and the philanthropist." Both forms cannot be right; not, at least, until the law of communis error-here happily not yet established-make them so. It is worth while to try to preserve accuracy in this matter; and it is to be hoped that Dr. Murray will come to the rescue. Of course, if the sovereign English people prefer to be wrong, why then, as the Italians say, padronissimo! P. MAXWELL.

LETTER OF JOSEPH GRIMALDI.-I beg to forward an accurate copy of an original holograph letter of the famous comedian Joseph Grimaldi, not before printed nor out of private hands, now in my possession. Except any notes there may be in his Memoirs' by Dickens, I only remember one printed letter of the greatest English pantomimist, viz., that in the Autographic Mirror (vol. iii. No. 75).

This letter of which I send a copy is intrinsically interesting as mentioning his family. Dickens does not give the name of either his father or grandfather. Whitehead supplies the name of the former only. This letter gives both fully, with the additional information that both were born in Italy. The address also is one not given by Dickens. The accuracy of the letter is confirmed by the fact that Grimaldi's brother's name also was John Baptist (Memoirs,' 6). The period of his father's arrival in England as "at least" forty years before, or 1770, is so far accurate, Giuseppe Grimaldi having first acted in London in 1758, and no doubt he arrived in England in 1757. This date also explodes the common story (repeated in every life) that Giuseppe Grimaldi came to England with Queen Charlotte, who did not come to this country until 1761, in the August of which year she was married to George III.

This is only one of the manifest inaccuracies found in the printed notices of Joseph Grimaldi, the whole of which need thorough sifting. This could only be completely accomplished by a publication of his autobiography, mentioned in N. & Q.' as being a few years since in Mr. Stevens's possession, I think. This autobiography would be of great interest, and no doubt have a

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