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The old festival at Lerwick this year was cele-churches in Berks, 3 in Bucks, 8 in Dorsetshire, 25 brated on Jan. 30, so that the Christmas holidays in Hants, 4 in Hunts, 2 in Middlesex, 1 in Northmust be about six weeks long. There is an article umberland, 25 in Oxon, 2 in Shropshire, 3 in Somerof twelve columns in quarto upon "Yule" in Jamie- set, 4 in Warwickshire, 12 in Worcestershire, 10 in son's 'Dictionary,' which seems to contain all that is Yorkshire, 1 in Ireland, 3 in Scotland, 5 in Wales, known on the subject. W. E. BUCKLEY. 10 in the Channel Isles, and 6 in France. There is a short but valuable paper on Welsh campanology, by Dr. Raven, in Suffolk Archæological Proceedings for 1880; and Mr. Ellacombe's Bells of the Church,' 1872, a supplement to his Bells of Devon,' may well close this list, which proves that, though much remains to be done, the materials for a comparative study of the bells of England have accumulated to a very considerable degree. But at present we know very little of the northern counties, and still less of Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. English travellers on the Continent who can obtain leave to inspect the church and cathedral bells will find them, in point of artistic decoration, very far superior to our own; yet on the Continent this science seems as yet to have but few students.

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"Up-Helly-A" I understand to mean the last of the Yule, or Christmas, festivities, and is probably, I fancy, the remains of some old Norse festival, It is sometimes called here "The last day of Yule." The "Helly," not "Helly-day," but simply the 'Helly," is an old Shetland name for Sunday: "Up-Helly-A" is an old festival here, whereof I suppose the memory of man goeth not to the contrary. When the Duke of Edinburgh was here, in 1882, it was held on Jan. 24, in his honour. I should now like to be informed if any festival of the same or similar name is held outside of Shetland. J. B. L.

Lerwick, Shetland.

I cannot be sure that the above list is com

CHURCH BELLS (7th S. v. 446).-The following counties have been treated in separate volumes, each complete in itself, though, of course, the plete. Mr. Stahlschmidt proposes to undertake methods of treatment vary considerably :

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Kent. J. C. L. Stahlschmidt. 1887.
Leicestershire. T. North. 1876.
Lincolnshire. T. North. 1882.
Norfolk. J. L'Estrange. 1874.
Northamptonshire. T. North. 1878.
Rutlandshire. T. North. 1880.
Somersetshire. H. T. Ellacombe. 1875.

Surrey (London Founders). J. C. L. Stahlschmidt. 1884.

Sussex. A. Daniel-Tyssen. 1864.
Wiltshire. W. C. Lukis, 1857.

Besides the above, Derbyshire was printed by the late Mr. Jewitt in successive numbers of the Reliquary, but I do not know if it is complete. Suffolk, by Dr. Raven, is all but ready for publication, and will go to press before the close of this year. Essex, by Mr. Stahlschmidt, will probably see the light next year. The Rev. H. Whitehead is gradually bringing out Cumberland in the pages of a local newspaper, and partial collections have been made, and are now being made, for several of the missing counties. With respect to these counties, Mr. Lukis, to whom campanologists owe so much as the pioneer in this study, includes in his 'Account of Church Bells,' besides Wilts, which seems to be complete, 10

* Published in the Transactions of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, but sometimes to be purchased separately.

Hunts next.

CECIL DEEDES. [Many contributors mention the same works.] CATSUP KETCHUP (7th S. v. 308, 475).-It will be observed that the answers hitherto given to the question as to the derivation of ketchup are all useless. To derive it from the "Eastern word kitjap" is ridiculous, for there is no such language as Eastern." DR. CHARNOCK tells us it is Hindustani; to which I have only to say that I wish he would prove his point by telling us in what Hindustani dictionary it can be found. I have been looking for this word these six years, and am as far off as ever from finding it; simply because no one condescends to mention the dictionary that contains it.

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I would earnestly commend to the consideration of all contributors to N. & Q.' that they should give their references. In philology especially, it is worse than useless to quote words as belonging to an Eastern language"; we want to know the precise name of the language. Again, it is useless to say that a word is French, or Spanish, or what else, unless it can be found in any common dictionary. Unfortunately, it is precisely when a word is rare, and only to be found in works of great research, that the language to which it belongs is most airily cited. All inexact knowledge is distressing rather than helpful.

WALTER W. SKEAT.

REFERENCE WANTED (7th S. v. 347).—The passage, "possibly from St. Ambrose," for which MR. LACH-SZYRMA asks, is, "All Christians ought to work in which it occurs is placed, since the Beneoffer and communicate every Lord's Day." The dictine edition of St. Ambrose, in the appendix.

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Mr. Scudamore, from whom I borrow here, refers to it as Serm. xxv. § 6, S. Ambr., Opp.,' t. viii. p. 129, without specifying the edition.

Another, and a more familiar reference, to the same effect very nearly, is, "Quotidie eucharistiæ communionem percipere nec laudo nec reprehendo omnibus tamen Dominicis diebus communicandum suadeo et hortor, si tamen mens sine affectu peccandi sit" (De Ecclesiasticis Dogmatibus,' cap. liii., S. Aug., 'Opp.,' t. iii. col. 205 A, Basil., 1569; and so Gratian, De Cons.,' Dist. ii. c. xiii.). But this treatise is now assigned to Gennadius of Marseilles (Gennad., 'De Eccl. Dogm., p. 31, Hamb., 1614). St. Chrysostom speaks of the poor pop Kať ÉKάστην KUριakýv, "Hom. in Acta Apostt.," xviii., 'Opp.,' t. iv. p. 716, Eton., 1612.

ED. MARSHALL.

the nave by a stone screen? I believe I am right in saying that the Commandments, Epistle, and Gospel are read from outside this screen, on account of the difficulty experienced by the clergy in making themselves heard from the altar.

By the by, can the report which appeared in Truth, that the Christchurch Town Council intend to pull down the Norman ruins which stand near the Priory, be true? If so, surely some steps will be taken to prevent such an act of vandalism. Will not some M.P. take the matter up? H. W. FORSYTH HARWOOD.

think, that in three of these-Canterbury, WinCANON VENABLES has overlooked the fact, I chester, and Rochester-the elevation of the choir level above that of the nave is too great to admit of throwing both together as one auditorium. His CARADOC, OR CARACTACUS (7th S. v. 387).- list of English minsters, or cruciform churches, This query seems to be one of those which, from not ruined or reduced in length, seems far from want of positive evidence, must remain unanswered. complete, as it omits Southwark and the three Dr. Leonhard Schmitz, in Smith's 'Dict. of Gr. (out of four) in Hampshire, namely Christchurch, and Rom. Biography,' contents himself with saying Romsey, and St. Cross (the latter the first in that "Claudius pardoned him and his friends" Britain to be completely vaulted), and all of which ("ad ea Cæsar veniam ipsique et conjugi et fratribus were exceptions, I think, to the rule that fifty tribuit," Tacitus, 'Ann.,' xii. 37), "but that they years ago all were divided by an organ screen. appear, however, not to have returned to Britain, E. L. G. but to have spent the remainder of their life in Italy." There is a paper in the Philosophical S. v. 387).-I possess a similar publication, "The BERTHOLD'S 'POLITICAL HANDKERCHIEF' (7th Transactions, 356, on the expeditions of the Romans into Britain, which may contain some conjectures on the subject. W. E. BUCKLEY.

Untaxed General Almanac for 1832. Printed and Sold by John Smith, 1, Bouverie St., Fleet St. Price 7d." It is printed on linen. My copy has been cut up and mounted on twenty leaves of blank paper, to form a diary for the original owner in 1832, who also writes on it as follows: "Carlile

Stamp and found guilty on four inditements [sic] in January, 1832." The British Museum Catalogue has been searched, but no such almanacs appear. NE QUID NIMIS.

PRIVATELY PRINTED BOOK BY GENERAL OUTRAM (7th S. v. 388).—I think this is the book about which MR. GREEN desires information :"Lieut.-General Sir James Outram's Persian Cam-Tried at the Old Bailey for selling them without the paign in 1857, comprising general orders and despatches relating to the military operations in Persia, from the landing at Bushire to the Treaty of Peace; also selections from his Correspondence as Commander-in-Chief and Plenipotentiary during the war in Persia. Printed for Presentation to Personal Friends of Sir James Outram, who begs that it may be regarded as a Private Communication, and not a Publication. London: Printed for Private Circulation only by Smith, Elder & Co., 65, Cornhill, 1860."

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Henry Berthold also published "The Regenerator; or, Guide to Happiness. Edited by Henry Berthold." No. 1 appeared in August, 1832.

G. F. R. B.

LAPP FOLK TALES (7th S. v. 381).-The Lapp folk-tale entitled 'Cacce-Haldek; or, the Sea People from Nesseby,' contributed by MR. W. HENRY JONES, is both interesting and important. from which he obtained it. May I be allowed to But MR. JONES does not mention the source urge the importance, for scientific purposes, of always indicating where the original is to be found? When this is omitted the authenticity of the story is difficult to verify, and its value is in consequence greatly diminished. The story in question is No. 8 in Poestion's 'Lappländische Märchen' (Vienna, 1886, p. 46), but MR. JONES seems to have translated from Poestion's original, or at least to have compared his translation with

The old festival at Lerwick this year was cele- | churches in Berks, 3 in Bucks, 8 in Dorsetshire, 25 brated on Jan. 30, so that the Christmas holidays in Hants, 4 in Hunts, 2 in Middlesex, 1 in Northmust be about six weeks long. There is an article umberland, 25 in Oxon, 2 in Shropshire, 3 in Somerof twelve columns in quarto upon "Yule" in Jamie- set, 4 in Warwickshire, 12 in Worcestershire, 10 in son's 'Dictionary,' which seems to contain all that is Yorkshire, 1 in Ireland, 3 in Scotland, 5 in Wales, known on the subject. W. E. BUCKLEY. 10 in the Channel Isles, and 6 in France. There is a short but valuable paper on Welsh campanology, by Dr. Raven, in Suffolk Archaeological Proceedings for 1880; and Mr. Ellacombe's Bells of the Church, 1872, a supplement to his 'Bells of Devon, may well close this list, which proves that, though much remains to be done, the materials for a comparative study of the bells of England have accumulated to a very considerable degree. But at present we know very little of the northern counties, and still less of Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. English travellers on the Continent who can obtain leave to inspect the church and cathedral bells will find them, in point of artistic decoration, very far superior to our own; yet on the Continent this science seems as yet to have but few students.

"Up-Helly-A" I understand to mean the last of the Yule, or Christmas, festivities, and is probably, I fancy, the remains of some old Norse festival, It is sometimes called here "The last day of Yule." The "Helly," not "Helly-day," but simply the "Helly," is an old Shetland name for Sunday: "Up-Helly-A" is an old festival here, whereof I suppose the memory of man goeth not to the contrary. When the Duke of Edinburgh was here, in 1882, it was held on Jan. 24, in his honour. I should now like to be informed if any festival of the same or similar name is held outside of Shetland. J. B. L.

Lerwick, Shetland.

I cannot be sure that the above list is com

CHURCH BELLS (7th S. v. 446).—The following counties have been treated in separate volumes, plete. Mr. Stahlschmidt proposes to undertake each complete in itself, though, of course, the methods of treatment vary considerably :

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Kent. J. C. L. Stahlschmidt. 1887.
Leicestershire. T. North. 1876.
Lincolnshire. T. North. 1882.
Norfolk. J. L'Estrange. 1874.

Northamptonshire. T. North. 1878.
Rutlandshire. T. North. 1880.
Somersetshire. H. T. Ellacombe. 1875.

Surrey (London Founders). J. C. L. Stahlschmidt. 1884.

Sussex. A. Daniel-Tyssen. 1864.
Wiltshire. W. C. Lukis, 1857.

Besides the above, Derbyshire was printed by

the late Mr. Jewitt in successive numbers of the Reliquary, but I do not know if it is complete. Suffolk, by Dr. Raven, is all but ready for publication, and will go to press before the close of this year. Essex, by Mr. Stahlschmidt, will probably see the light next year. The Rev. H. Whitehead is gradually bringing out Cumberland in the pages of a local newspaper, and partial collections have been made, and are now being made, for several of the missing counties. With respect to these counties, Mr. Lukis, to whom campanologists owe so much as the pioneer in this study, includes in his 'Account of Church Bells,' besides Wilts, which seems to be complete, 10

Hunts next.

CECIL DEEDES. [Many contributors mention the same works.] CATSUP: KETCHUP (7th S. v. 308, 475).—It will be observed that the answers hitherto given to the question as to the derivation of ketchup are all useless. To derive it from the "Eastern word kitjap" is ridiculous, for there is no such language as Eastern." DR. CHARNOCK tells us it is Hindustani; to which I have only to say that I wish he would prove his point by telling us in what Hindustani dictionary it can be found. I have been looking for this word these six years, and am as far off as ever from finding it; simply because no one condescends to mention the dictionary that contains it.

I would earnestly commend to the consideration of all contributors to N. & Q.' that they should give their references. In philology especially, it is worse than useless to quote words as belonging to "an Eastern language"; we want to know the precise name of the language. Again, it is useless to say that a word is French, or Spanish, or what else, unless it can be found in any common dictionary. Unfortunately, it is precisely when a word is rare, and only to be found in works of great research, that the language to which it belongs is most airily cited. All inexact knowledge is distressing rather than helpful.

WALTER W. SKEAT.

REFERENCE WANTED (7th S. v. 347).—The passage, "possibly from St. Ambrose," for which MR. LACH-SZYRMA asks, is, "All Christians ought to * Published in the Transactions of the Exeter Dio-work in which it occurs is placed, since the Beneoffer and communicate every Lord's Day." The cesan Architectural Society, but sometimes to be pur- dictine edition of St. Ambrose, in the appendix. chased separately.

Mr. Scudamore, from whom I borrow here, refers to it as Serm. xxv. § 6, S. Ambr., Opp., t. viii. p. 129, without specifying the edition.

Another, and a more familiar reference, to the same effect very nearly, is, "Quotidie eucharistiæ communionem percipere nec laudo nec reprehendo omnibus tamen Dominicis diebus communicandum suadeo et hortor, si tamen mens sine affectu peccandi sit" (De Ecclesiasticis Dogmatibus,' cap. liii., S. Aug., 'Opp.,' t. iii. col. 205 A, Basil., 1569; and so Gratian, De Cons.,' Dist. ii. c. xiii.). But this treatise is now assigned to Gennadius of Marseilles (Gennad., 'De Eccl. Dogm., p. 31, Hamb., 1614). St. Chrysostom speaks of the poσpopà kať ÉkάσTην Kvρlakýv, "Hom. in Acta Apostt.," xviii., 'Opp.,' t. iv. p. 716, Eton., 1612.

ED. MARSHALL.

CARADOC, OR CARACTACUS (7th S. v. 387).This query seems to be one of those which, from want of positive evidence, must remain unanswered. Dr. Leonhard Schmitz, in Smith's 'Dict. of Gr. and Rom. Biography,' contents himself with saying that "Claudius pardoned him and his friends" ("ad ea Cæsar veniam ipsique et conjugi et fratribus tribuit," Tacitus, 'Ann.,' xii. 37), "but that they appear, however, not to have returned to Britain, but to have spent the remainder of their life in Italy." There is a paper in the Philosophical Transactions, 356, on the expeditions of the Romans into Britain, which may contain some conjectures on the subject. W. E. BUCKLEY.

PRIVATELY PRINTED Book BY GENERAL OUTRAM (7th S. v. 388).-I think this is the book about which MR. GREEN desires information :"Lieut.-General Sir James Outram's Persian Campaign in 1857, comprising general orders and despatches relating to the military operations in Persia, from the landing at Bushire to the Treaty of Peace; also selec. tions from his Correspondence as Commander-in-Chief and Plenipotentiary during the war in Persia. Printed for Presentation to Personal Friends of Sir James Outram, who begs that it may be regarded as a Private Communication, and not a Publication. London: Printed for Private Circulation only by Smith, Elder & Co., 65, Cornhill, 1860."

General Outram published several other privately printed books previous to the Indian Mutiny.

DE V. PAYEN-PAYNE.

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the nave by a stone screen? I believe I am right in saying that the Commandments, Epistle, and Gospel are read from outside this screen, on account of the difficulty experienced by the clergy in making themselves heard from the altar.

By the by, can the report which appeared in Truth, that the Christchurch Town Council intend to pull down the Norman ruins which stand near the Priory, be true? If so, surely some steps will be taken to prevent such an act of vandalism. Will not some M.P. take the matter up? H. W. FORSYTH HARWOOD.

CANON VENABLES has overlooked the fact, I think, that in three of these-Canterbury, Winchester, and Rochester-the elevation of the choir level above that of the nave is too great to admit of throwing both together as one auditorium. His list of English minsters, or cruciform churches, not ruined or reduced in length, seems far from complete, as it omits Southwark and the three (out of four) in Hampshire, namely Christchurch, Romsey, and St. Cross (the latter the first in Britain to be completely vaulted), and all of which were exceptions, I think, to the rule that fifty years ago all were divided by an organ screen.

E. L. G.

BERTHOLD'S 'POLITICAL HANDKERCHIEF' (7th S. v. 387). I possess a similar publication, "The

has

Untaxed General Almanac for 1832. Printed and Sold by John Smith, 1, Bouverie St., Fleet St. Price 7d." It is printed on linen. My copy been cut up and mounted on twenty leaves of blank paper, to form a diary for the original owner in 1832, who also writes on it as follows: "Carlile Tried at the Old Bailey for selling them without the Stamp and found guilty on four inditements [sic] in January, 1832." The British Museum Catalogue has been searched, but no such almanacs appear.

NE QUID NIMIS.

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LAPP FOLK TALES (7th S. v. 381).—The Lapp folk-tale entitled 'Cacce-Haldek; or, the Sea People from Nesseby,' contributed by MR. W. But MR. JONES does not mention the source HENRY JONES, is both interesting and important. from which he obtained it. May I be allowed to urge the importance, for scientific purposes, of always indicating where the original is to be found? When this is omitted the authenticity of the story is difficult to verify, and its value is in consequence greatly diminished. The story in question is No. 8 in Poestion's 'Lappländische Märchen' (Vienna, 1886, p. 46), but MR. JONES seems to have translated from Poestion's original, or at least to have compared his translation with

it. Now, inasmuch as Poestion omits to specify
from which of the collections referred to in his
preface many of his stories (and this one among
them) come, it would be conferring a distinct
benefit on folk-lore students to give them chapter
and verse.
E. SIDNEY HARTLAND.

SNEAD (7th S. v. 347).-The arms of Sneyd, of Keele, co. Staffordshire, are a good example of old canting arms, and show the meaning of the above word Argent, a scythe, the blade in chief, the sneyd (or handle) in bend sinister sable, &c.

B. F. SCARLETT.

The word is, I imagine, in general use in this part of Hertfordshire. My gardener habitually employs it, and only a few days ago I paid a bill to a local tradesman in which the handle of a scythe was called a sneath. H. DELEVINGNE. Castle Hill, Berkhampstead.

In Scotland and the north of Ireland snead is the name given to the handle of a scythe. The word is also used in the same sense in Cumberland, and probably in several other of the northern counties. W. GILMORE.

the waxen cere-cloths (so extremely combustible) were injured in the slightest degree.

His relics were preserved in several churches;
but all that now remains is a small piece of the
tibia in the Cathedral of Rennes.
E. COBHAM BREWER.

Ménage (Vocab. Hagiologique') gives, “Me-
lanius, S. Melaine, Ev. de Rennes; qu'on nomme
S. Melagne en un canton de Normandie."
R. S. CHARNOCK.

PAUL SCARRON IN LONDON (7th S. v. 405).— Paul Hentzner who visited London in 1598, describes it as "magnificently ornamented with public buildings and churches, of which there are above 120 Parochial." He refers to Paulus Jovius, the well-known Italian historian, whose panegyric of the city he quotes. My edition is the Aungrivyle Society's reprint of Horace Walpole's translation. Hentzner's description of the wonders and beauties of London is most interesting. C. DEEDES.

See an account of an embassy from the Emperor of Constantinople to King Henry IV., in a letter from Manuel Chrysoloras, edited by Codinus, in one of the volumes of the "Byzantine Historians." "Snathe, the handle of a scythe" (Ray's 'South See also 'N. & Q.,' 6th S. vi. 31. and East Country Words').

112, Gower Street.

JOHN P. HAWORTH.

ST. MALAN (7th S. v. 427).-St. Malan was born in the diocese of Vannes in 442 or 456, at Platz, on the bank of the river Vilaine, and died 530. He was called by the Bretons St. Malani, by the French St. Malaine. His life was written by Dom Lobineau. He was bishop of Rennes. See St. Aug., Serm. 108. His day is January 6. The following are extracts from his life:

One day he raised a dead man to life by laying a crucifix on him, and by this miracle he converted all the inhabitants of Vannes.

Wynfrid, Clevedon.

THOMAS KERSLAKE.

VERNON (7th S. v. 487).-PROF. BUTLER asks for the etymology of Vernon, a hamlet in the Department of the Eure, which has given its name to several English families, as well as to Mount Vernon, the plantation of George Washington. Cocheris, in his useful little book 'Origine et Formation des Noms de Lieu,' enumerates Vernon among the sixty-four places whose names are derived from the Armorioan gwern, the alder tree, which appears as vernus in Medieval Latin, and as verne in Modern French. The suffix -on is not, as At Angers one Lent he gave what is called the might be supposed, a corruption of -etum, as this, "eulogie" (sacred bread) to four bishops. St. owing to the accent, becomes ay in Modern Mars of Nantes, instead of eating it, let it fall into French names, e. g., Vernay from Vernetum, Chatehis bosom, where it turned into an adder. Re-nay from Castanetum, or Rouvray from Roboretum. turning to St. Malan, he obtained absolution, and The suffix seems to be merely the usual Kymric was healed of his wounds. plural in -on. Vernon would, therefore, mean the alders," just as Rouvron means "the oaks " and Fousson "the beeches."

He cured with holy oil Eusebius, King of Vannes, and by prayer the Princess Áspasia, the king's daughter, whose convulsions were attributed to Satanic influence.

ISAAC TAYLOR.

NORFOLK SONG (7th S. v. 488).—The ballad of At his funeral, November 6, 530, four prisoners' Arthur of Bradley' is printed in 'An Antidote confined in a strong tower at Rennes, hearing the against Melancholy,' 1661, and in Ritson's 'Robin chant, joined in the singing, and immediately the Hood,' ii. 210. There are two other ballads of tower fell with a crash, and the prisoners were re-Arthur-a-Bradley,' one commencing "All in the leased. A blind woman kissed the feet of the dead body, and instantly received her sight.

St. Gregory of Tours tells us that a shrine of prodigious height was raised over the tomb of St. Malan. One day it caught fire, and though burnt to the ground, neither the body of the saint nor

merry month of May" (vol. iii. of Roxburghe Ballads'), and the second," Come neighbours, and listen awhile," reprinted in 'Ancient Poems, Ballads, and Songs of the Peasantry of England,' by J. H. Dixon. These are evidently of later date (see The Ballad Literature and Popular Music of

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