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by Treasury Minute, dated 12th November, 1839, '40. 261, 263 ; average rates of, within the limits of the old twopenny district, since

the penny postage, 42. 97. Postage reduction duties. petition

for reduction of, '39. 200 ; reduce tion of, resolutions of the committee of the House of Commons relating to, '39. 107–112; de. bate, .40. 206, 207; penny proposed, and pledge of the House to make up deficiency, if any, id. 206 ; fourpenny comes into operation, '41. 253; penny comes into operation, id. ib.

stamps, payment by, successful result of, '42. 95, 97.

amount of, collected in several cities and towns of the United Kingdom, in the years ending 5th January, 1833 and 1831, '35. 192.

amount of collected at principal cities and towns of the United Kingdom, in 1832, 1833, and 1834, 36. 179; same, in 1835, '37. 178; same, in 1836, '38. 196; same, in 1837, '39. 196; see also, Post Office REVENUE.

of letters, particulars relating to, see LETTERS.

duties in Great Britain and Ireland, Act amending laws (varying according to weight and distance), '28.151–155: German, reduced, '42. 233; Act empowering reduction of postage by Postmaster-General in certain cases (5 and 6 W. IV. c. 25), '36. 117; Postage Duties Act (7 W.IV. and i l'ict. c. 31), 38. 141 ; altered as to packet-boats (1 and 2 Vict. c. 97.), *39. 162; Act for further regulation of the Duties on, &c. (2 and 3 Vict. c. 52), Penny Postage Act,'40. 155. 156; Duties Regulation Act (3 and 4. Vict. c. 96), '41. 166.

North American, Act for regulating (4. W. IV. c. 7), *35. 129.

- of newspapers, to the colo. nies and foreign parts, Act regu.

lating (4. W. IV. c. 44), '35. 144 — 146 ; on newspapers, by private ships, reduced, '36.117; Act consolidating and amending the laws relating to (6 and 7. W. IV. C.

54), 1836, '37. 124, 125. Postage (Ireland), penny, establish

ment, and franking regulated (2

W. IV. c. 15), '33. 125, 126. Post-horse duty, produce of, in 1827,

'29. 188 ; duties, '33. 168 ; stamp duty on, amount of, in 1837, '39. 178; duty and licenses, amount of, in 1837, id. 177; same, in 1838, 940. 173; duties, produce of, in years ending 5th January, 1839 and 1840, 41. 197; duties

decrease in amount of, from 1838 to 1010, '42. 116; amount of, paid in the several quarters in the years 1838, 1839, and 1840, id. ib. ; statement of amounts received in each excise collection of England and Scotland in 1839 and 1840, id. ib. 118; rate of, in

1548, '40. 62; in 1635, id. 63. Postmaster of England, the first, 40. 63.

foreign, established, '40. 63.

General, Marquis of Conynghain, '35. 258; Duke of

Richmond, '31. 240. Postmasters-General for Great Bri

tain and Ireland, offices uuited (1 W. IV. c. 8), '32. 138.

&c. clerks, &c., duty on, repealed (3 and 4 W. ÍV. c.

39), *34. 121. Post-office, history of the, '40. 62

76 ; establishment of, in England, '38. 115; reforms of, progress of, accelerated by private individuals, '40. 63; Mr. Palmer's improvements in, id. 68–73; Mr. Rowland Hill's plan for reform of, id. 74, 75; an Act for the management of (7 W. IV. and i Vict. c. 33), '38. 140; Act for consoli. dating laws relative to offences against, and regulating the judi. cial administration of (7 W.IV. and i Vict. c. 36), id. 144; description of the business of, and statement of its amount, &c., '30.

of 39 in

rst,

235, 236 ; effect of the arrangements of, on the number of letters, '41. 97-106; number of letters passing through, and through local post-offices in 1838, full particulars relating to, and amount and rate of postage, '40. 190–192; various tables shewing the number of letters transmitted through, and amount of postage received for, before and after the penny postage arrangement, '41. 97– 106 ; regulations in France to aid the transmission of letters to Eng. land, '30. 268; convention between Great Britain and France, '37. 60–62; convention signed in Paris, id. 253; convention, letters sent to, and received from, Fralice, prior to, and after, '38. 197; proposed new twopenny post system (1837), id. 115– 120; stamps for letters proposed, id. 115, 119, 120 ; see also

POSTAGE. Post-office, the new building for,

nearly completed, '28. 173; progress of (1828), '29. 216; opened, '30. 264 ; description of, id. 233-237.

revenue of, farming of, '40. 65; revenue of, in 1644, id. 61; revenue under the Protectorate, '30.235; at various other times, id. ib: revenue in 1653, 1663, 1674, 1718, 1724, 1749, 1774, 1799, 182t, and 1837, '40. 75 ; gross and net proceeds of, in 1838, id. 76; produce of, in 1827, "29. 188 ; gross receipts of, in 1827, '30. 235 ; revenue of, for year ending January 5, 1828, 29. 184, 188; produce of, in 1830 and 1831, 32. 175; in 1831 and 1832, '33. 172; in Great Britain, in the years ended 10th October, 1832 and 1833, 34. 148; the same, for the year ended 10th October, 1834, '35. 166 ; net produce of, in 1834 and 1835, '36. 151; statement of the revenue of, and from what sources, in Great Britain, in the year ended 5th January, 1836, and same relating to Ireland, '37. 154; gross income of, in 1835

and 1836, '38. 171; gross and net produce of, in Great Britain and Ireland, in the year ended 5th January, 1838, '39. 179; gross receipt. charges of management, net receipt, and per centage rate of collection of, in Great Britain, each tenth year from 1758 to 1838, '40. 174; gross and net revenue of, for the year 1839, '41. 180; net produce of, in years ended 10th October, 1835 and 1836, '37. 153; the same, in 1836 and 1837, '38. 170 ; the same,

in 1837 and 1838, '39. 175; the same, in 1838 and 1839, '40. 170; the

same,

in 1839 and 1840, '41. 178; gross and net revenue. of, and cost of management of, in the years ending January 1839, 1810, and 1841, '42. 98; gross income of, on 5th January, 1841, id. 152; revenue of, before and after the penny postage, '41, 104, 105; various statements and tables, shewing the beneficial

operation of, '42. 92-100. Post-office, number of letters regis

tered at ls. in Great Britain, from January to May 1841, in England, Wales, and Scotland, '42. 170.

in India, revenue and charges of, '33. 100.

United States, expenses and other particulars of, for various years from 1789 to 1828, '32. 122; rates of, in 1831, id.

122. Postcomb Road Act, '39. 213. Posts, in France, '28. 58. Potail, what he is, '33. 95. Potash, effect of, on yellow leaves,

'30. 45. Potass, solution of, remedy against

the poisonous effects of, '28. 117. Potato, its nutritious qualities, '29.

129; bread, mode of making, id.

130; pie, mode of making, id. ib. Potatoes, modes of cooking,'29.129;

price of, in the reign of James l., '34. 37; exports of, value of, in 1834 and 1835, -37. 161; the same, in 1835, 1836, and 1837, '39. 183 ; export of, from Ireland, in 1825 and 1835, id. 189; spirit

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distilled from, in 1835, '37.

170. Potocki, '31. 79; '32. 76. Potosi mines, discovered, '30. 95. Potsdam and Berlin Railway opened,

'40. 253. Potter, John, '31. 71; '32. 61. Potter, M. de, committed to prison,

'31. 235 ; banished, id. ib. 236. Potteries, particulars relating to the, '35. 85.

and Newcastle (Stafford), postage collected at, in 1832 and 1833, '35. 192; amount collected at, in 1832, 1833, and 1834, '36. 179; same, in 1835, '37. 179; same, in 1836, '38. 196; same, in

1837, '39. 196. Pottinger, Sir Henry, appointed to

the command in China, '42.

238. Poulett Thomson, Vice-President of

the Board of Trade, and Treasurer of the Navy, '31. 240; see SYDEN

HAM, LORD. Poultry, quantity of, shipped from

Dublin (1830), '31. 111; domes

tic, '28. 33. Pound, penalties for keeping animals in the, without food, '36. 127.

troy, standard, '28. 98. Pouqueville, F. C. H. L., dies, '40.

141. Pouse, a Bengalee month, '30. 26. Povey, Mr., his post suppressed, '38.

116. Power, definition and sign of a, '28. 106.

Mr. Tyrone, supposed loss of, in “ the President," '42. 238.

of attorney, agent unlawfully selling stock under, or misappropriating the produce of, punishment for, '28. 137, 138.

looms, when generally adopted, '34. 49; importance of, id. ib.; number of, employed, in 1820 and 1830, id. 50; number of, in use in districts visited by the factory inspectors (1836), '37.

183. Prætors, at Rome, '28. 52. Praga, battle of, '28. 62. Pragmatic sanction, '28. 61; '31.

Prague, German university at, '28. 58.

peace of, '31. 47. Prairial, month of, '30. 20. Prati, Dr., and Mr. R. Owen, con

troversy between, '35. 253. Pratt, Mr., bis sea-couch for pre

venting sea-sickness, account of,

'28. 181. Pratt, Mr. John Tidd, his history of

savings' banks referred to, '31. 136t; his summary of the savings' banks of England, Wales, and Ireland (1831), '33. 113, 114; his summary of the length of the highway roads in England and Wales, and expenses of maintaining same, '12. 122.

Major, captures the Bogue Forts at Canton, '42. 235. Pravadi, battle of, '30. 262. Prayer-book and Homily Society,

'30. 152. Precious stones, measure of, weight

of, '29. 114. “Predestination, on,” '32. 63. Predictions, early inserted in alma

nacs, '29.7; forbidden in France,

id, ib. Pregnancy, protracted, considered,

'36.31 ; cases frequently fatal in

female hospitals, '39. 29. Prescription, period of, in certain

cases shortened (2 and 3 W.IV. c. 71), '33. 156, 157; (tithes) period of, shortened (2 and 3 W.

IV. c. 100), id. 164. Preliminary observations to the Com

panion for 1829, '29. 3, 4. Premium, rate of, payable at the

life assurance offices in London,

in 1831, '31. 86, 100-105. Presbourg, peace of, '28. 63; '31.

56. Prescot, population of, '33. 66;

Small Debts Act, '42. 195. Presentations, clerk of the, office

abolished, '34. 175. Presents, above a certain amount,

forbidden to be taken by ser. vants of the East India Company,

'32. 30. “ President,” steam-ship, supposed

loss of, '42. 238. President of the United States,

44, 50.

235; 228;

his authority, &c., '32. 110, Preston and Wyre Railway and 111.

Harbour, &c., Amendment Acts, President's message (1830), '32. '40. 217; railway and harbour,

December 6th, 1831, '33. account of, '38. 61 ; '41. 72.

December 4th, 1832, id. Prestwich-cum-Oldham and Mid233; speech to congress, '35. dleton Small Debts Act, '40. 252; message, '42. 239.

215. Press, suppression and restriction of, Presumption of survivorship, Beck's

ordinances for, in France, '31. rules for the, '36. 31, 32. 237.

Prévenus, number and punishment paper, duty on, '40. 146.

of, in France (1826), *29. 90. Pressley, Mr., his suggestion to pre Prevesa, consul-general at, 31. 182.

vent the forgery of post-office Prevost, Professor P., dies, '40. 141. stamps, '38. 120.

Prezer, G., dies, '41. 138. Pressure of air, Torricelli, '29. 63; Price, Dr., bis error concerning the

Pascal, id. ib.; of fluids, Archi. amount of the population of Great meiles, id. 61.

Britain, '40. 95, 96. Prestbury Small Debts Act, '37. R., '31. 76 ; '32. 62. 221.

“Prices Current,“ lists of, exempt Presteign, population of, '33. 81. from newspaper stamp duty, '37. Preston, population of (1821), '29. 137.

82; population and representation Prices, wages and, dissertation on, of, '33. 66; difference of time and historical inquiry iuto, '34. between, and London, *31. 17; 33–61. postage collected at, in 1832 and

and wages, observations on, 1833, '35. 192; amount collected '41. 125, 126. at, in 1832, 1833, and 1834, '36. Prickly acacia, '31. 37. 179; same, in 1835, '37. 179; Prideaux, Edmund, bis improvesame, in 1836, '38. 196 ; same, in ments in the post-office system, 1837, '39. 196; Gas Light Act, 40. 64, 65. '40. 214; Water Works Act, '33. Priestley, Joseph, '31. 76; '32. 62. 210; St. Ignatius Catholic Church Priests, forbidden to marry, '28. 56. at, *37. 232.

Prima Vista, '30. 94. and Bolton Railway Act, Primidi,a French revolutionary day, '38. 213; Extension Act, '39. '30. 20. 214; railway, particulars of,'41. Primrose, the, '28. 33; '29. 31. 80; its total length and extent Prince, Colonel, bis conduct in Ca. opened up to 1841, '42. 57; fur. nada censured, '40. 203. ther particulars of same, id. 71.

· Edward's Island, period of and Lancaster Junction settlement of, how governed, poRailway Further Act, '41. 221; pulation, imports and exports, and railway, account and progress of, tonnage inwards and outwards id. 88; particulars of, id. 78.

(1831), '32. 104, 105; value of and Longridge Railway imports and exports into and Act, '37. 223; further Act, '42. from, in 1833, '37. 164; vessels, 197; railway, account of, '41. number and tonnage of, belong88; particulars of, id. 78.

ing to, in 1838, '40. 185. and Wigan Railway Com. Prince's Dock, Liverpool, Further pany, and Wigan Branch Rail.

Act, '42. 197; see also, LIVERway Company Union Act, '35. 223 ; railway, particulars of, '41.

street, Bank, intended sta

tue of William IV, near, '42. and Wyre Railway Act, 204. '36. 209; railway, further ac Princess Royal, made Princess of count of, '41. 90, 91.

Wales, '28. 57.

POOL.

70.

Princess Royal, daughter of Queen

Victoria, born, '41. 256. Princess's Theatre, Oxford-street,

account of, '41. 241, 242; the

sale of same, '42. 242. Principal in second degree, punish

ment of, '28. 140; punishable as principal, id. 145. “Principia,” '32. 60; published, '29.

59. Pringle, Thomas, dies, '36. 238. Priuos verticillatus, '29. 66. Prinsep, M. Macaire, his remarks

on the autumnal colouring of

leaves, referred to, '30. 44, 45. Printed calicoes, &c., regulations

conceruing (1 W. IV. c. 17), '32. 138, 139.

goods, amount produced by duties on, in 1827, 29. 187; duty on (1829),'30. 203; amount of duties on, from 1814 to 1829, and drawbacks on exportation thereof, '32. 183; amount of duty on, in 1830, 1831, and 1832; 34. 164.

papers, privilege, protection, debates on, '41. 203. Printers, average age of, '39. 30;

Act requiring name of, on every paper and book printed, in penalty of 201. (2 Vict. c. 12), '40.

144. Printers' Pension Society, '30. 148;

31. 138. Printing, invented, '28. 58; brought

into England, id. ib.; in England, uselessness of the works originally printed, '37. 27; parliamentary papers, bill for, debates on, '41. 203; Act to give summary protection to persons employed iu (3 Vict. c. 9), id. 139, 140.

press, for printing periodical works, may be entered at stamp-office, '37. 136; when first

erected in Russia, '32. 76 +. Prints, duty on (1829), '30. 205.

copyright, law of, extended to Ireland (6 and 7 W. IV. c. 59),

'37. 127. Prior, Matthew, '31. 74 ; '32. 61. Prior Park, intended Roman Catholic

buildings at, '36. 224. Priscianus, '32. 54.

Prismatic colours on angular glass,

Seneca, '29. 62. Prison discipline, Society for the

improvement of, '30. 150. Prisons, inspectors of, appointment

of, and their powers, '36. 122; expenses of, in 1836, 38. 187.

regulation of, resolutions of the Committee of the House of Lords on, '36. 60-62.

- and prisoners, expenses of, in England and Wales, in 1792 and 1832, 37. 176.

Regulation Act (5 and 6 W. IV. c. 38), '36. 121, 122; further Act, relating to Scotland (2 and 3 lict. c. 42), '40. 151, 152; Act for the better ordering of, in Eugland and Wales (2 and 3 Vict. c. 56), id. 157, 158 ; Act amending same (3 and 4 Vict. c. 25), '41. 147.

and prison discipline, in Scotland, Act to improve (2 and 3 Vict. c. 12), '40, 151, 152.

Ireland, Act relating to (6 and 7 W. IV. c. 51), '37. 123 ; Act amending 7 G. IV. c. 74 (3 and 4 Vict. c. 44), '41. 153, 154.

West Indies, Act relating to (1 and 2 Vict. c. 67), '39. 157. Prisoners, classification of, recom

mended by the House of Lords, 1831,"36.49+;(criminal) average number of, in gaols, in England and Wales, '40. 110.

for debt, number of, in the several gaols of London, in

1828, '30. 211 Prisoners' Counsel Bill, debate on,

'37. 191 ; passes the Commons, id. 195; read a third time in the Lords, id. 210; debates on,

Lords' amendments agreed to, id. 215, 216.

Act (6 and 7 W. IV. c. 114), '37. 147.

Conveyance (Ireland) Act (1 Vict. c. 6), '39. 144. Private banks, aggregate amount of

notes of, circulated in England and Wales, at various times, in 1833, 1834, 1835, and 1836, '37. 158; and joint stock banks, in

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