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mirably lighted, that the spectator is never incommoded by darkness, nor dazzled by glare.
In 1735, the great west window was filled with stained glass, representing Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; Moses and Aaron, and the twelve patriarchs; the arms of King Sebert, King Edward the Confessor, Queen Elizabeth, King George, II. and Dean Wilcocks, Bishop of Rochester. To the left, in a smaller window, is a painting of one of our kings (supposed of Edward the Confessor); but the colours being of a water blue, no particular face can be distinguished. In the window on the other side is a figure represetning Edward the Black Prince. The three windows at the east end contain each two figures. In the left window, the first figure represents our Saviour, the second the Virgin Mary, the third Edward the Confessor, the fourth St. John the Baptist, the fifth St. Augustine, and the sixth Melitus, Bishop of London, in the right-hand window. The north, or rose window, was put up in the year 1722, and represents our Saviour, the twelve apostles, and four evangelists; the latter, with their emblems, lay down, two on each side. In 1847, the gorgeous south, or marigold window, was filled with stained glass from designs by Messrs Ward and Nixon. In the centre is the word " JEHOVAH," surrounded by angels; and in the circle of surrounding light are thirtytwo subjects illustrative of the principal incidents, miracles, and events in the life and sufferings of the Redeemer. In the twelve lower lights are subjects from Old Testament history. The window of stained glass, in Henry V.'s chantry, was filled at Dean Ireland's expense; the arms are those of Edward the Confessor, Henry III., Henry V., the arms of Queens of England, and at the very top of the window, those of the Dean.
The choir is fitted up with oak stalls, in the style of architecture of the time of Edward III., from designs by Mr. Blore, the Abbey architect, admirably executed by Mr. Ruddle, of Peterborough.
At the altar in the choir, just under the centre of the four great pillars under the lantern, the ceremony of the coronation is performed : under the seat of the throne is the “ Stone of Fate," on which the kings of Scotland were enthroned, which was brought as a trophy to England in the wars of the Plantagenets. According to tradition, it was the stone on which Jacob laid his head when he had the vision in Bethel.
The names of the several chapels, beginning from the south cross, and so passing round to the north cross, are in order as follows:-1. St. Benedict; 2. St. Edmund; 3. St. Nicholas; 4. Henry VII.; 5. St. Paul; 6. St. Edward the Confessor ; 7. Št. Erasmus; 8. Abbot Inslip's Chapel, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist; 9. St. John, St. Michael, and St. Andrew. The three last are now laid together. The Chapel of Edward the Confessor stands, as it were, in the centre, and is enclosed in the body of the church
The length of this church from east to west, is three hundred and seventy-five feet, measuring from the steps of Henry VII.'s chapel; from north to south, the breadth is two hundred feet: the width of the nave and sideaisles is seventy-five feet: the height from the pavement of the nave to the inner roof is one hundred and one feet: from the choir pavement to the roof of the lantern is about one hundred and forty feet high.
HENRY VII.'S CHAPEL This magnificent chapel, which adjoins to the east end of the Abbey church, and communicates with the ambulatory by a flight of several steps, was erected by the monarch whose name it bears, as the place of sepulchre for himself and the royal blood of England. It was commenced in 1503, and completed in 1512; and is one of the most exquisite specimens of florid Gothic in the world. Its cost is said to have been £15,000, equal to £200,000 of our present money. During a period of eleven years (from 1809 to 1822) the exterior of this superb chapel underwent a complete restoration, under the superintendence of the late James Wyatt, Esq., at a cost of about £40,000.
HENRY VII.'S CHAPEL. The ascent to the interior of Henry VII.'s Chapel is from the ambulatory, by steps of black marble, under a stately portico, which leads to the gates opening to the body, or nave of the chapel. On each side of the entrance there is a door opening into the side-aisles. The gates are of brass, most curiously wrought, in the manner of
frame-work, having in every other panel a rose and porto cullis alternately. Having entered, the eye will naturally be directed to the lofty ceiling, which is in stone, wrought with such astonishing variety of figures, as no description can reach. The stalls are of brown wainscot,
INTERIOR OF HENRY VII.'S CHAPEL. with Gothic canopies, most beautifully carved, as are the seats, with strange devices, which nothing on wood is now equal to. The pavement is of black and white marble, done at the charge of Dr. Killigrew, once
Prebendary of the abbey. The east view from the entrance presents a view of the brass chapel and tomb of the royal founder; and round it, in the eastern semicircle, are the chapels of the Dukes of Buckingham and Richmond. At the east end of the south aisle is the royal vault; and in the corresponding part of the north aisles is the tomb of the murdered princes. No part of this chapel is more worthy of admiration than the roof, which is nearly flat, and supported upon arches rising from twelve magnificent gothic pillars between the nave and side-aisles.
The entrance to the Abbey is through the eastern gateway, leading to Poet's Corner, opposite the House of Lords. The Poet's Corner, the nave, and north transepts, are free at all times. Guides are in attendance, for the purpose of showing the chapels, from nine till six o'clock every day, except Sundays, Good Friday, Christmas Day, and general fasts, at a charge of Sixpence for each person. On entering Poet's Corner, Dryden's monument is on the right-hand, and the entrance to the ambulatory, in which are the nine chapels, next to it.
Not far from the Abbey stood the Sanctuary, the place of refuge absurdly granted in former times to criminals of certain denominations. The church belonging to it was in the form of a cross. It is supposed to have been the work of the Confessor. Within its precincts was born Edward V.; and here his unhappy mother took refuge with her younger son Richard, to secure him from his cruel uncle, who had already possession of the elder brother.
To the west of the Sanctuary stood the Eleemosynary, or Almonry, where the alms of the Abbey were distributed. But it is still more remarkable for having been the place where the first printing-press ever known in England was erected. It was in 1474, when William Caxton, encouraged by “the great," and probably by the learned Thomas Milling, then Abbot, produced - The Game and Play of the Chesse.”