serious dramas of historical or legendary interest of the northern nations of Europe, especially the Russian, Swedish, Danish, and French, similar to Mr. W. C. Hazlitt's Dramatic Bibliography of England, and Von Schack's of Spain?

am engaged on a work of singular poetical interest (at least to me), a "History of Poetical Inventions," with especial reference to the drama; tracing the history and development of every celebrated dramatic (or poetical) theme through its various authors, from its earliest to its latest dramatist. My knowledge at present is limited to the English, Spanish, and German dramas, with a partial knowledge of the French. But it is probable that much of these has been derived from other nations, or been developed by them into new and perhaps improved forms.

The subject has already been amply treated, and perhaps exhausted, in the case of Shakspeare and Milton; also of Virgil in Heyne's edition, especially his "Disquisitio de rerum in Eneide tractatarum Inventione." It has also been occasionally touched on in "N. & Q.," as in the notices of Falconer's Shipwreck, and the Cid of Corneille and Calderon. ARCH.EUS. FRENCH KING'S BADGE AND MOTTO.-Fleming, in his famous work on Prophecy, says, "the French king takes the sun for his emblem, and this for his motto- Nec pluribus impar." (Edit. of 1809, p. 41; edit. of 1849, p. 75.)

Can any of your readers supply evidence corroborative of either part of this statement? W. ROBINSON.


DAVID GARRICK.—I see, among your notices in this volume, a "Life of David Garrick" announced as just ready for publication. The other day, whilst looking on, and listening to the sound of horns and the huntsman's exhilarating "Tallyho!" as the hounds dashed along through our peaceable valley, the beautiful lines started again into my memory, where they were lodged some forty years ago, which were put into the mouth of King Henry VI., in the Tower, in Shakespeare's play of King Richard ye 3

"What is there in this world but Grief and Care! What noise and bustle do Kings make to find it, When Life is a short Chase- our game-Content : Which most pursued is most compell'd to fly; And he who mounts him on the swiftest Hope Shall often put his Courser to a Stand: While the poor peasant from some distant hill, Undanger'd and at ease, views all the sport, And sees Content take shelter in his Cottage." These lines are as applicable at the present day as they were four hundred years ago. Are they really by the great English Roscius, as I was assured when I first heard them? P. A. L.

BISHOP GROSSETÊTE. - Being in possession of evidence almost conclusive as to the parentage of

the celebrated Grassetête, Bishop of Lincoln, 1234-53, I am desirous, before giving it to the world, of adding to it, if possible, the confirmation derivable from his armorial bearings; and for that purpose would be glad to obtain information respecting any seal that may exist of his official dignity, from which they may be deduced. There is one seal of the bishopric of Lincoln in the British Museum assignable to his date, but it presents only the arms of the see, and may have been issued at an early period of his episcopacy, after which he may have had one executed with his own personal bearings in pale, in like manner as several other bishops of the same and subsequent ages. I have been told that several charters, grants, or leases bearing his signature, and possibly his seal, are to be found in the archives of the cathedral of Canterbury and elsewhere. The arms-those of Copley-ascribed to him in the recently-published Blazon of Episcopacy are merely inferred from the, now known to be false, presumption of his connection with that family. T. M. M.

INDIAN BASKET TRICK. Has any reasonable explanation of the famous Indian "basket trick" ever been suggested? A relative who has lately returned from India had a description of it from an officer who had actually seen it performed; and I must confess it positively, to use an expressive phrase, staggers one! Though no believer in spiritualism or animal magnetism, it seems difficult to account for this trick on merely natural grounds. I may add that, on the above occasion, the regimental doctor subjected some of the blood to analysis, and it was really human blood. Perhaps some Anglo-Indian will reply to this query. YOUNG ITALY.

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MAWE SURNAME. A family called De la Mawe lived in Suffolk in the time of Edward I. (See Rotuli Hundredorum, vol. ii. pp. 168, 169). Can any one suggest the origin of their surname ? It is clearly one of the class like De la Pole, De la Mare, De la Le, De la Field, derived from some common object, not from territorial possessions. I do not think Mawe occurs in any of the glossaries with a meaning that will help me.


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THE OPERA HOUSE. Half a century ago and more I was told by Mr. Waters, for some time lessee of the Opera House, that there were pipes opening into the orchestra by which the sound was conveyed to all parts of the house, and hence its extraordinary merits. Can any of your readers give me any further information on the subject?

SEPTUAGENARIUS. TOM PAINE. It is said, in the Protestant Dissenters' Magazine (ii. 167), that —

"A small French piece, entitled 'Le Christianisme dévoilé, par feu M. Boulanger' ('Christianity Unveiled, by the late M. Boulanger, London, 1767), contains the substance of laine's Age of Reason; and that his witticisms are at best the poor plagiarisms of a miserable performance. not written by M. Boulanger."


Have of any your readers seen this book? If so, is the Age of Reason suspiciously like it? CYRIL. HOW TO RESTORE PARCHMENT OR VELLUM INJURED BY FIRE.-I shall be much obliged if any one will kindly inform me how and by what process I can best unfold a large vellum MS. roll which by the action of fire has become distorted and perfectly hardened.

C. J.

PASSAGE IN "BOOK OF CURTESYE."-Can any one give me an illustration of the following lines from a MS. Lytil Johan, or the Book of Curtesye, supposed to be that printed by Caxton?

"Like to a prysoner of saynt malowes, A sonny busshe able to the galowes."

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THE SABRE.-As your valuable miscellany does not contain any information anent this weapon, I venture to inquire if it is known by whom, in England, the steel was manufactured and forged, and the instrument finished for the first supply to British troops? J. MANUEL.


THE SKYRACK OAK.-In the village of Headingley, near Leeds, Yorkshire, there stands all that remains of an ancient oak-tree, known as the "Skyrack Oak." The county of York is divided into sections called "Wapentakes," or, as some say, "Wapon-tacks"; and the division in which stands the Headingley oak is named from the venerable tree, "The Wapontake of Skyrack." Most probably the Skyrack Oak was the place where the men of the district, a sort of local militia, periodically mustered to show that they were well armed with weapons of defence. Hence the term "Wapon-tack," or, as it is called in Scotland, "Wapon-schaw." There is a place near Worksop, in Nottinghamshire, called "ShireOaks"; and I conjecture that "Skyr-Ack" has the same meaning: for in old writings, shire, which means a share, is sometimes spelt scire and skire. Ack evidently means oak, which is commonly pronounced in the Yorkshire dialect yack. Upwards of fifty years ago, when I first saw the Skyrack Oak, it was a large and venerable ruin, throwing out a coronet of slender green boughs: now, as I am informed by the courteous landlord of the Skyrack Hotel, close by the tree, it puts forth no leaves, but is clad in ivy. It is of interest to know when, and in whose reign, Yorkshire was divided into Wapontakes, as it is quite possible that the Skyrack Oak may have witnessed G. H. OF S.

the event.

Queries with Answers.

CROMWELL AND MORLAND.—Can any correspondent of "N. & Q.," who is well read in the literature and history of the Commonwealth, inform me who is M. Guizot's authority for the following charge which he brings against Cromwell in his life of the Protector, and which I for the present take the liberty of regarding as an atrocious libel? At p. 433 of the English translation of M. Guizot's book (ed. 1860), I find the following passage:—

"Cromwell was ever ready to form sudden suspicions, and

to take extreme precautions: one night he went to confer secretly with Thurloe on a matter of great importance, and all at once he perceived Thurloe's clerk, Samuel Morland, sleeping on a desk in a corner of the room; fearing that he might have overheard them, Cromwell drew a dagger, and was about to despatch him, if Thurloe had not, with great entreaties, prevailed on him to desist, assuring him Morland had sat up two nights together, and was certainly fast asleep."

As I have for long been accustomed to regard Oliver Cromwell as one of the greatest of rulers and best of men, I have been considerably startled by this terrible accusation. One is of course tolerably accustomed to the charges of "hypocrisy," "cruelties in Ireland," "regicide," "selfseeking ambition," &c. &c., under which the memory of the great Protector lay buried, until the light of Mr. Carlyle's genius put to flight the whole flock of Royalist night-birds for ever. These tales are still, I believe, popular in the nursery, where children are taught to weep over the fate of the "martyr-king," but it is a new idea to me that Cromwell ever figured as a midnight stabber of sleeping men! JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

[M. Guizot's authority for his statement is no other than James Welwood, M.D., who was no "royalist nightbird," but "an author," says the Earl of Chatham, "strongly attached to republican principles." It was in the beginning of the year 1657, that Thurloe, Cromwell, and Sir Richard Willis, formed a design of ruining King Charles II. at one blow, by sending over messengers with plausible letters, to invite him to come over in a single ship, with only his brother and a few more, to a certain port in Sussex upon an appointed day, where they were promised to be received and supported by 500 foot at their landing, and 2000 horse within one day after. Here is Welwood's account of the conspiracy: "The Protector coming late at night to Thurloe's office, and beginning to give him directions about something of great importance and secresy, he took notice that Mr. Morland was in the room, which he had not observed before; and fearing that he might have overheard their discourse, though he pretended to be asleep upon his desk, he drew a poniard, which he always carried under his coat, and was going to dispatch Morland upon the spot, if Thurloe had not with great entreaties prevailed with him to desist, assuring

him that Morland had sat up two nights together, and was now certainly fast asleep." (Welwood's Memoirs, edit. 1700, p. 11, edit. 1820, p. 98.) Consult also for other narratives of this plot, Eachard's History of England, edit. 1720, p. 728; Birch's Life of John Thurloe, Esq. prefixed to Thurloe's State Papers, p. xv.; Biographia Britannica, ed. 1763-6, Supplement, p. 237; and Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, xxii 416.]

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[Sir William Hamilton's remarks on the heterodox opinions of Luther appeared in an article on “The Admission of Dissenters to the English Universities," printed in the Edinburgh Review of Oct. 1834 (vol. lx. pp. 202-230). This article is reprinted, with additions, in Sir William Hamilton's Discussions of Philosophy and Literature, Education and University Reform, second edition, Lond. 1853, 8vo, pp. 479-559. Sir William's remarks on the Free Kirk question may be found in his pamphlet entitled "Be not Schismatics, Be not Martyrs by Mistake. A Demonstration that the Principle of Non-Intrusion, so far from being Fundamental in the Church of Scotland, is subversive of the Fundamental Principles of that and every other Presbyterian Church Establishment." Edinb. Maclachlan & Co. 1843, 8vo.]

AGGAS'S MAP OF LONDON, 1560.-In Mr. Bohn's excellent edition of Lowndes, it is stated that there is a copy of this very rare map in the Sloane Collection in the British Museum. I have a reduced copy of it, "done from a print engraven on wood in S Hans Sloane's Collection, and copyed in small, 1738." Did Sir Hans Sloane's collection of prints and maps form part of the original collection of the British Museum, and can you give me a reference to the old woodcut map?

J. O. HALLIWELL. [It is doubtful whether Aggas's Map of London, 1560, is in the Sloane Collection at the British Museum. At any rate it has never been seen either by the Keeper of the Maps, or by the gentlemen connected with Manuscript and Print departments. We believe the only copy of the original map is in the possession of Mr. John Crace, No. 14, Wigmore Street, London, W., who would no doubt gladly favour our correspondent with a view of it. Sir Hans Sloane's library was removed to Montague House during the years 1756-7, together with the Harleian and Cottonian Collections. }

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(3rd S. xii. 394.)

I agree with MR. HAMST in thinking that the career of Sir Richard Phillips might be made the groundwork of a very interesting biography. But who shall write it? One cannot but wish that some account of the life of the enterprising author and publisher had been written by himself. In Holland and Everett's Memoirs of Montgomery, vol. iv. p. 283, occurs a notice of his introduction to the "Christian Poet" when he visited Sheffield during his "tour" in 1828. On that occasion I saw a good deal of him, and heard him relate many anecdotes illustrative of those "tricks of trade which are now so inseparably connected with his name. He certainly was a fine specimen of a very able feeder, and of an inordinate snufftaker, having his waistcoat pocket constantly replenished with the "titillating dust." As an entirely self-made man, as the conductor of an

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instructive magazine, and especially as the originator and publisher of so many elementary books for the young, he ought not to be forgotten. J. H.

The "Rev. C. C. Clarke was editor of a work dedicated to the Royal Society, under date Sept. 1828, and consisting entirely of selections from the Philosophical Transactions, pp. xx.-700. The copy I have is marked "Second Edition, printed for Whittaker, Treacher, & Co., Ave Maria Lane," but the type shows that it is only a reissue with a new title-page. The title is The Treasury of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, but it does not follow that that was the original title. The preface ends with the following words, which are pretty strong evidence of identity between the Rev. C. C. Clarke and Sir Richard Phillips: "The Editor has prepared 500 questions for the use of schools, on its contents.' JOB J. BARDWELL WORKARD, M.A.


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An account of Sir R. Phillips's discovery of an early panel portrait of Chaucer, in a lumber-room of Cromwell's House, Huntingdon, 1802, will be found in Elmes' Arts and Artists, iii. 70. It is there stated that Sir Richard made this picture the basis of his gallery of original portraits of English poets and men of letters. Where is this portrait now? CUTHBERT BEDE.

To me, who well knew the late William Mavor, LL.D., it is not a little amusing to find the name of "Mavor, Wm," mentioned as a possible pseudonym of Sir Richard Phillips.

Scotch descent, having Anglicised his name from William Mavor was no myth. He was of M'Ivor. He held the honorary distinction of domestic chaplain to the Earl of Moira; had been vicar of Harley, Berkshire, and rector of Honesfield, Oxfordshire, and when I knew him, was rector of Bladon-cum-Woodstock, Oxfordshire, as well as master of the Woodstock Grammar School. He was many times mayor, and for seven years was alderman and magistrate of that borough, as well as a county magistrate.

On retiring from the county bench, he was much pressed to continue his services to the county, but his reply was, "I have been head gamekeeper to the Duke of Marlborough long enough.' From that we gather his ideas of what was a chief part of a country justice's work thirty years ago, before the presence of reporters in justice rooms, and newspaper leaders, had modified the severity of laws still sufficiently severe.

I have on the table whereon I write a book entitled

"General View of the Agriculture of Berkshire. By William Mavor, LL.D. London: printed for Richard Phillips, 1809."

So that Phillips was probably Mavor's pub

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(3rd S. xii. 457, 471.)

There seems to be little doubt that the question so warmly discussed fifty years since, when Mason Good's edition of Junius was published-Who was Junius?—will be reopened by the appearance of Messrs. Parkes and Merivale's Life of Sir P. Francis.

I for one shall not object to it, for the question is a question both of great literary and great historical interest. But if it is to be discussed, at least in "N. & Q.," I warn you, Mr. Editor, that a heavy responsibility will rest upon you if do not keep a sharp eye upon the disputants, and insist upon their quoting edition, page, and volume of their respective authorities; and not admit those random assertions, Junius wrote so and so, when perhaps the words are only in a letter or pamphlet which Good or Parkes has without the slightest authority attributed to Junius, or that George III. knew Junius, as DR. WILKINS asserted, who, in reply to your challenge, says Sir David Brewster has stated so in the North British Review. As to what was Sir David's authority he gives not one word. There are two points in reference to the Francis-Junius theory on which, if any of your readers can give me any such precise information as I am contending for, with chapter and verse, I should be greatly obliged;

but I want, as I have said, precise information, and for that only shall I feel grateful.

1. I have heard it asserted that Francis owed his Indian appointment to George III. Is there any evidence of this? Mr. Parkes does not seem to be aware of it.

2. I have seen it stated in print that Sir Philip Francis, when offered a peerage, declined it because his eldest son was born out of wedlock. Where is this statement to be found? I cannot find it in any of the books to which I have reference at the present moment, and it is entirely at variance with the account of his early marriage given by Mr. Parkes.

[The Rev. William Mavor, LL.D., died on Dec. 29, 1887, in the eightieth year of his age. The inscription on his tablet fixed on the west front, near the porch of the church at Woodstock, is printed in the Gentleman's Magazine for Sept. 1841, p. 252.-ED.]

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MR. WILKINS'S communication, referring as it does to something which I wrote, I believe, more than a year ago, comes upon one like a tune from the frozen horn in Baron Munchausen.

Like Rip van Winkle, MR. WILKINS descends among us with his thoughts and feelings of the past fresh upon him, totally unconscious of all that has been going on during his protracted absence. Even his little vendetta with me about 66 you my curtness" quite an hallucination, by the bye-crops up in his first sentence, as if it were carried over from only last week. The lapse of time has not removed one, at least, of MR. WILKINS's failings. He is still, unfortunately, too ready to accept inferences and rumours for facts; and even those he deals with in a very loose way. Surprised at the allegation that "Charles Butler, in his Reminiscences, states that government spies tracked the messenger employed by Junius, and found him to be Isaac Reed, the editor of Shakespeare, who then resided in Staples Inn," I turned to the volume, and found nothing to support the statement. The only passage in the text bearing upon the point is the following:

"Sir Philip Francis might, too, Du Bois said, have had a peerage from Lord Grenville, but Francis did not wish it, as his eldest son was born out of wedlock; so Sir Philip was made a Knight of the Bath." From Du Bois' long connection with Francis this story has gained credence which it appears not to have deserved, for Mr. Parkes shows that Francis was married at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields on February 27, 1762; while his only son Philip (his fourth child) was not born till 1768. ]

"It was also mentioned to us," from very good authority, that Lord North had declared that government had traced the porterage of the letters to an obscure person in Staples Inn; but could never trace them further."

To this passage a note is appended in these words:

* Butler and Wilks.

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