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CHAP.“ are not equally Laws. Besides this, the deXV.
“ nying. Liberty in all moral Things of Man
ners, in all Things of Obedience to the Laws “ of God and Man, and the allowing it in all " Things under no Law, is a Destruction of the very
Nature and Purpose of Liberty. For the only End of Liberty is to make us capable " of Laws, of Virtue and Reward, and to di“ ftinguish us from Beasts, by a distinct Manner “ of Approach to God, and a Way of Con“ formity to him proper to us; and except in “ the Matter of Virtue and Vice, except in or" der to Reward and Punishment, Liberty and “ Choice were good for nothing : For to keep « ourselves from Harm, from Poison, and Ene“ mies, a natural Instinct, and lower Appetites, “ would serye our Needs, as well as the Needs “ of Birds and Beasts. And therefore to allow “ it where it is good for nothing, and to deny “ it, where only
it can be useful and reasonable, " and fit to be done, and is given by the wise & Father of all his Creatures, must needs be
I shut up this Head with the Words of the Apostle, Heb. xiii. 20, 23. which include the three Offices of our Mediator, King, Prophet, Priest, and the inward Aids I have been treating of. Now the God of Peace that brought again from the Dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shep berd of the Sheep, thro' the Blood of the everlasting Covenant, make you perfe£t in every good Work to do his Will, working in you that which is wellpleasing in his Sight.
* Duct. Dub. Book IV. p. 752, 753.
CH A P. XVI.
Of EXTERNAL MOTIVES.
NDER this Head might be com-CHAP.
kindling in us any laudable Action that is done before us, shaming and dissolving all Objection of Slothfulness, or Impracticableness. Nor can any System of Religion pretend to a perfect Example of moral Behaviour but the Chriftian.
I MIGHT mention the Wisdom, Decency, Honour, and Reputation of Virtue ; and the Folly, Baseness, Shame, and Odiousness of Sin, as having the Devil for its Author. And the Author of Christianity as old, &c. says, “ Nothing “ operates more strongly, than the Desire Men “ have of being in Efteem, Credit, and Repuį tation with their Fellow-Creatures; nor is it os to be obtain'd without acting upon the Prins ciples of natural Justice, Equity, Benevo
lence *.” If this is the strong Principle of Religion with our Author, Christianity inculcates those Virtues far beyond his natural Religion.
I PASS by the Love and Goodness of God in sending his Son into the World; and the reciprocal Love resulting from the common Gra* P. 16.
CHA P. titude of human Nature ; that has been often
I might instance the Motive of public Spirit
I MIGHT hint at, what is very little mention'd, the Beauty and Loveliness of Virtute. Seeing the Scripture becomes all things to all Men, that it may save some ; accommodates itself to all Tempers and Dispositions; the Slothful and Diligent, Sanguine and Cold, Generous and Difingenuous, Polite and Uneducated; all have Motives and respective Arguments adapted to them, to excite them severally to good living.
But I select the EXTERNAL MOTIVES exciting Hope and Fear, as what chiefly moves and affects human Nature, as we are made ac-countable Creatures to the Author of our Being. The Chriftian Hope is establish'd upon the fure Bafis of glorious Rewards in a future Life; which Faith in God's Promise in the Mediator, in whom all the Promises are yea, and in bim Amen, from the Fall of Man, is realized into a Substance like their own Home, a Pledge of the best Reality and State of Man, a certain Expectation of, and Dependance upon the Things boped for, and into an Evidence of Things not seen, as operative and convincing, as if they had been seen; overcoming the present World, and the worst Thing in it, Death in its worst Appearance ; despising also Crowns, the finest Thing in it; and living above all its delusive Enjoyments, as Scrangers, Sojourners, Pilgrims, steadily bending their Course to their proper, and that a better Coun
try, which had their Hearts, and influenced CHAP, their Actions; as may be seen in the Catalogue XVI. of those glorious Martyrs and Confessors of that Recompence of Reward, Heb. xi. And if there were such stedfast lively Efforts of this Hope before the Advent of Christ, what abundance more must there have been, since his bringing Life and Immortality to light by his Gospel ? It being matter of perpetual Thanksgiving unto God ever since, for having, according to his abundant Mercy, begot us to a lively Hope, by the Refurretion of Jesus Christ from the Dead *
HAPPINESS being the uninterrupted Inclination of our Nature, and Misery its contrary Aversion; the wise Author of our Being has wrought the Passions of Hope and Fear in us as Springs of Action, and a Spur to Industry. The Body might be alive, but immoveable' like a Tree; the Understanding would grow languid, and the Will unactive, if the other did not bring in the Objects or Things that concern them to be occupied about. Reason could have no concern in Futurity was there neither Hope, nor Fear: And what is hope and fear of Rewards and Punishments but a State of Discipline of native Self-love and Preservation, and of its Tendency to Happiness, and Avoidance of Misery? They are the Wings and Sails of the Soul in her several Motions. All the Pallions are therefore given as domestick Instruments in every body's Hand for perfecting and accomplishing, or degrading and injuring his Nature, just as they are applied, or misapplied ; to che carrying on the Good and Interest of the inferior Animal, or the superior Rational Part of his Constitution;
1 Pet. i. 3.
CHA P. or both jointly together, in Subordination one XVI. to the other. Hope and Fear regarding Futurity,
with all the other Passions, spring out of Love, as will appear a few Pages afterwards ; Happiness or Misery, here and hereafter, depend upon the regular Conduct, or irregular Misapplication of our Love. If its supreme Respect is placed upon God and the Happiness propounded and promised with him in the Life to come, that supreme Good is infinitely abundant to fill up every Man's Happiness, being commensurate to all his Desires; and, at one and the fame Time, to satisfy the
Happiness of all Men, all together, without any Envy or the least Diffatisfaction at their Share'; then all the other Passions placidly fall under due Government. But if the same Respect is misplaced, and for so long as it is fo, upon worldly Things, which put all together are unable to make any one Man happy, and being limited in their Enjoyment, impoftible to be possessed by all together without the Lufts of Covetousness, Ambition, &c. whence Wars and Fighting, and all Disorders in Society ; Rebellion of Passions against Reason and Religion ; and, without Amendment, everlasting Misery. The Office of Reason then is not to suspend their Influence, but direct and regulate them to right Objects; and estimate those Objects by the Measures of Comparison, how much our innate Desire of Happiness and Aversion to Misery will be affected, and how lastingly involved therein.
And because he knows our Degeneracy, that as long as we continue in this World we are more affected with natural Good and Evil, or Pleasure and Pain in present Sensation, and Belief of that which is future, than we are with moral Good and Evil, i. e. right or wrong, fit