New Universal Etymological


CONTAINING An Additional Collection of Words (not in

the First Volume) with their Explications and Etymologies from the Original Languages, each in its

proper Character.


An Explication of Hard and Technical Words, or

Terms, in all Arts and Sciences, properly Accented.


With Two Hundred and Sixty Cut s.

To which is added,


VOL. Il.

The FIFTH EDITION, Corrected, and much improved throughout, by the Addition of Great

Variety of Examples, explaining the true Significations of the Words, taken from the beft Authors.


Printed for W. JOHNSTON, in Ludgate-Street.


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Etymological and Explanatory




Old English, Aa

a people of Ætbiopia.

in farey, faft, &c.

the French e masculine,



A or AA or Æ (with Pbysicians) ia a Roman Character, Aa Italick, a

used in prescriptions, and denotes fimply equal are the first letters of the alphabet ; Greek, x Hebrew,

parts of the ingredients therein mentioned. and in all languages, ancient and modern, the

AAA (with Chymifts) is sometimes used character appropriated to the fame found,

to fignify Amalgama or Amalgamation. is the firft letter, except in the Abyffee, i. e.

AB, at the beginning of English Saxon

names, is generally a contraction of Abboz, heldig letter has in the English language, names of places, it may be generally con

i.e. an Abbot or Abby; so that as to the three different sounds, the broad, open, and cluded, that the place belonged to a monastery in our monosyllables all, wall, malt, salt ; in which a is pronounced as au" in cause, or

AB (of 2x, a father, Heb.) according cu in law; many of which words were an

to the Jewish computation, is the uth which happens to be ftill retained in fault. ciently written with au", as fault, waulk ; ecclefiaftical year, which latter begins with

month of their civil, and the sth of their is found in fatber, ratber, and more obscurely A open, not unlike the a of the Italians, to part of our July.

the month Nisan, and the former answering

The Jerus observe the first day of this A lender or close is the peculiar a of the Aaron, and the gth on account

month as a fast, on account of the death of

the burnEnglish language, resembling the sound of ling of Solomon's temple by the Cbaldeans ; pass, or perhaps a middle found between them, after the captivity by the Romans: and also

or diphthong ai in and also of the building of the second temple, face, waste, and all those that terminate in Adrian, whereby they were banished out of or between the a and e, as in the words place, in remembrance of the edict of the emperor aze; as relation, nation, generation. A is short, as grass, glass; or long, as towards Jerusalem, tho' at a diftance, with

Yudea, and forbid so much as to look back grazi, glazı ; it is marked long, generally, defign to lament the ruin of it. piain. or by an i added, as

They have also a notion, that on this day, kwake, the same with rise, rouse, wake. A is sometimes redundant ; as arise, eroules from the camp, returned to the camp and

the persons who were sent as spies by Joshua

engaged the people in rebellion. universal affirmative proposition ; according month as a fast, on account of the going out

They likewise observe the 18th of this Aferit A, negat E, verum generaliter amba. the time of king Abaz,

of the lamp in the Sanctuary that night, in Thus in the first mood, a syllogism confilling of three universal affirmative proposi- table, anciently used in calculations: this was

ABACUS (A Gaxos, Gr.) a counting tions, is said to be in Bar-be-ra. The a sometimes a board covered with fand, duft, thrice repeated denoting so many of the pro- &c. Exfted evenly upon it, on which Geome

tricians, &c. used to draw their schemes.



by an e final, as plane,

to the verse,

galitions to be universal.

colours ;

ABACUS (in Arcbitecture) is the upper- times to beat down the price in buying. most member or capital of a column, which TO ABATE, to grow less ; as, his paflion ferves as a sort of crowning both to the capi-abates ; the storm abates. : It is used fometal and coluinn, tho' some erroncously make times with the particle of before the thing it to be the capital itself.

leffened ; a disease abates of its virulence. The ABACUS is something different, in TO ABATE (in common Law) it is in different orders. It is a flat square member law used both actively and neuterly, as to in the Tuscan, Dorick, and ancient Ionick or- abate a castle, to beat it down. To abate ders. In the richer orders, the Corinthian a writ, is by some exception to defeat or overand Composit, it loses its native form, having throw it. A stranger abateth, that is, enterits four fides or faces arcb'd or cut inward cih upon a house or land, void by the death with some ornament, as a rose, some other of him, that last poflefied it, before the heir flower, a filh's tail, c.

take his poiieffion, and so keepeth him out. But there are other liberties taken in the Wherefore, as he who putteth out him in Abacus, by several architects. Some make poffeffion, is said to difliise; so he that stepit a perfect Ogee in the Ionick, and crown it peth in between the former poffeffor and his with a fillet. In the Dorick, some place a heir, is said to abate. In the neuter fignifiCymatium over it, and fo do not make it the cation thus the writ of the demandant Mall upper most member. In the Tuscan order, abate ; that is, thall be disabled, frustrated, where it is the largest and most mailive, and or overthrown. takes up one third part of the whole capital, ABATEMENT of bonour (with Heralds) they sometimes calj it the Die of the capital : is sometimes an absolute reversion or overand Scamozzi uses the name Abacus for a turning of the whole escutcheon, or else only concave moulding in the capital of the Tuscan a mark of diminution, as a Point dexter parted pedestal.

tenne, a Goar finifter, a Delf, &c. There TO ABANDON (F. abar donner, derived, marks must be either tawney, or murrey ; according to Merage, from the halian otherwise instead of diminutions, they beabandonar:; which hgnifies to forsake his come additions of honour.

bandum (vexillum) deferere. AB'BESS (of ’ACaleiz, Gr. Abutesse, Palquier thinks it a coalition of a ban donner, Sax.) a Governess of nons. to give up to a profcription : in which sense ABBEY 2 (of 'A Ccalcia, Gr. Abborrice, we at' this day m-ntion the Bar of the empire. ABBY S Sax. a government or kingdom) Ban, in our old dialect, fignifies a curse ; a convert or monastery, a house for religious and to abandon, if confidered as a compound persons. between Frencb and Saxon, is exa&tly equiva- AB'BOT (of Abos, Sax.) the chief ruler 1ent to diris devovere) fignifies, accord- of an abbey of monks and friars, who were ing to the different authors, 1. To give up, first lay persons, and subject to the bishop and resign, or quit to. 2. To desert. 3. To ordinary priests of the diocese, in which the forsake, generally with a tendency to an ill monastery or abby was built; and these being Sense.

for the most part in remote and solitary places, To ABANDON wver, to give up to, to they had no concern in the affairs of the church; resign.

but like other lay men were used to attend ABANDONED, given up, forsaken, de divine service in their respective parish churches ferted; corrupted in the highest degree, given on Sundays and holy-days; and if the abby up to wickedness.

was at too great a distance from the parish ABANDONMENT (abandonnement, F.) church, then a prieft was sent to them to ad1. The act of sbandoning. 2. The state of minifter the Sacrament, being abandonent.

Bishop ABBOTS, abbots, whose abbies To ABASE (Sea term) to lower or take have been erected into bishopricks. in, as to lower or take in a flag.

Cardinal ABBOTS, abbocs, who are also ABA'SED (in Herc!dry) is a term used of called cardinals. the vol or wing of eagles, &c. when the top Commendatory ABBOTS, or abbots in Com. or angle looks downwards towards the point mendam, are leculars, and do not perform any of the shield ; or when the wings are ihut: fpiritual offices, nor have any fpiritual juristhe natural way of bearing them being forcaddiction over their monks, altho' they have with the tip pointing to the chief or the undergone the tonsure, and are obliged by angles.

their bulls to take the orders, when they come A Bend, a Cheveron, a Pale, &c. arc said of age. to be abajed, when their points terminate in Crozier'd ABBOTS, are such as bear the or below the centre of the thield.

crolier or paftoral staff. : An Ordinary is said to be abasid, when be- Mitred ABBOTS, are so called, because low its duc fituation.

they wear a mitre when they officiate, and TO ABATE (from the F. abbatre, to are independent upon any person but the pope, beat down.) 1. To lessen; to diminish. 2. being free from the bishops's jurisdiction, and To deject, or depress the mind. 3. In com- having the same auchority within their bounds, merce, to let down the price in felling, fome


that the bilhop had : these mitred abbots inobedience or the assistance of a subject to any Espiand were also lords of parliament. other person claiming a right to the crown in

Regular ABBOTS, are real monks or re- prejudice of the king chen reigning ligicus, who have taken the vow, and wcar To AB'LEGATE ablegatum, L.) to send the habits

abroad upon some employment ; also to send ABBREVIATED (abbreviatus, L.) made a person out of the way that one is weary of, Aurter.

AB'LENESS (of b_bilitas, L. ) capableABBU'TTALS (of aboutire, F. to limit nels to perform. er bound, or of butan or onbutan, Sax.) the AB'LUENT (abluens, L.) washing away battirgs and boundings of lands, highways, cleansing. Er either towards the east, welt, north, or ABLUTION, a cleanfing or purifying by fouth

washing. ABDICA'TIVE (abdicatiuus, L.) belong- This ceremony was first used by the Jewish ing to abdication ; also negative.

priests before the offering of facrifice ; for which ABDOMEN (of abdo, L. to hide, and purpuse king Solomon made a great laver or sca Sextum, the caul.)

of brass, into which the priests having hirit ABDOʻMEN (with Anatomists) the lower-thrown the ashes of the sacrifice, they walh'd most of the three Ventres, or great cavities, themselves. which contains the stomach, liver, bladder, The ancient Romans likewise, in imitation (plezo, guts, so

of this ceremony, were wont to waih their A'BELE-tree (with Botanis) a finer kind head, hands, feet, or whole body, before of white poplar.

they began the office of Lacrifising. A'BER (Old British) the fall of a leffer The modern Roman Catbolicks apply it to water into a greater, ás of a brook into a what the priest, who consecrates the water or river, a river into a lake or sea. The mouth host, washes his hands with; and also to that of a river; as Abercontay, &c.

Imall quantity of vine and water that they ABERE-MURDER (of abere afpareat, drink after swallowing the wafer or host to and mopd murder, Sax.) plain or downright wash it down. seurder, in distinction from manDaughter and ABNEGA'TION, a denying a matter point chance medley.

blank. ABET'TORS (in Law) are also those per- ABOMINABLE (abominari, according sons, who without cause procure others to sue to the native sense of the word, from ab and out false appeals of felony or murder against omen, L. fignifies to account a thing for an ill persons, that they may thereby render them omen, or an unlucky sign, and therefore to infamous,

pray against it by certain forms of speech) fit ABGATO'RIA (of abgbittin, Irish) the or deserving to be abhorred, loathed or hated. alphabet A BC, &c.

To ABOMINATE abominari, of aband To ABHOR (abborreo, L.) to hate with omen) properly signifies to take a thing for an acrimony; to detest to extremity; to loath. ill lign or unlucky omen; to pray against it,

ABHORRENCE (from abbor) 1. The or with the contrary, by certain forms and act of abborring, detestation, 2. The dif- speeches; we use it for to abhor, hatc or position to abbor, hatred.

loath. ABHORRENCY. The same with ab. A'BON


( with the ancient Britains) barrenze.

AVON) signified a river, and was a geneABHORRENT (from abbor) 1. Struck ral name for all rivers. with abborrence. 2. Contrary to, foreign, TO ABORT (aborto, L.) to bring forth beinconlistent with; it is used with the particles fore the time ; to miscarry. from or to, but more properly with frim. ABORTION (abortio, L.) 1. The act

ABHORRER (from abbor) the person of bringing forth untimely. 3. The produce that abbors, a hater, detefter.

of an untimely birth. ABILITY (babileté, F.) 1. The power ABORTIVE, that which is born before to do any thing, whether depending upon skill, the due time. or riches, or strength, or any other quality. ABORTIVE (abortivus, L.) 1. That which 2. Capacity. 3. When in the plural num- is brought forth before the due time of birth. ker, Abilities frequently fignify the facul-2. Figuratively, that which fails for want ties or powers of the mind, and sometimes of time. 3. That which brings forth nothing. the force of understanding given by nature, ABORTIVELY (from abortive) born as distinguished from acquired qualifications. without the due time ; immaturely; untimely,

To AB'JUGATE (abjugarum, L.) to un- ABORTIVENESS (from abortive) the yoke, to uncouple.

ftate of abortion. AB JURATION (in our Old Cuftoms) sig- ABORTMENT (from abort) the thing nified a voluntary banishment of a man's self brought forth out of time; an untimely birth. from his native country or kingdom for ever. ABOR'TION (with Gardeners) a term

ABJURATION (in a Law Sense) figni- used of fruits that are produced too early besore fics a Lolemo promiáng, never to yield or give their time, as trees happening to be blasted by

B 2

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