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without being able to earn $r a day. In his days / lege graduates are unfitted for State street. Public boys were taught a practical education. At thirteen schools, as they now are, are a detriment to preparahe was able to take a watch to pieces or build a tion for practical life. It wastes time and emasculates stone wall. In some of the smaller towns the same the habits of toil to prepare every one for college, state of affairs exists in some measure to-day, but the when only a part can go there. The system which larger places, like Fitchburg, Leominster, or the produced Butler, Theodore Parker, Wade and others, Brookfields, give children a city education. It is was better than the present system of instruction. an equal division of the school funds to say to one The present system takes the backbone out of youth. class, “We will fit you for the door of the col. More practical knowledge is needed-knowledge lege," and to another class, that cannot have college which the proposed institution would supply. But for advantages, “We will fit you for business." Boys the unusual brightness of the Yankee, the American of thirteen or fourteen years, who have studied all people must have deteriorated, through their defective their lives, are unprepared for manual labor. Col systems of education.

BOOK NOTICES

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING. Bystruction, and to determine the subject matter best

James Fohonnot. Pp.: 395. New York : D. adapted to each stage of development."
Appleton & Co. 1878.

The topics treated are in the following order : GenThis valuable contribution to the literature of the

eral Objects of Education, the Mental Powers, Ob. teachers' profession deserves more than passing notice,

jective Course of Instruction, Subjective Course of Inand we take pleasure in letting the distinguished au

struction, Object Teaching, Relative Value of the thor speak for himself from his preface, Says Mr.

Different Branches of Instruction, Pestalozzi, Froebel Johonnot: “ Experience is beginning to show that

and the Kndergarten, Agassiz; and Science in its teaching, like every other department of human

Relations to Teaching, Systems of Education Comthought and activity, must change with the changing

pared, Physical Culture, Æsthetic Culture, Moral Culconditions of society, or it will fall in the rear of civil

ture, General Course of Study, Country Schools and ization and become an obstacle to improvement.

their Organization. These chapters are again subTeachers imbued with modern thought, in comparing

divided, to render the book easy of reference and conthe ideals which such thought suggests with the actual

venient for study. results of their efforts in the ordinary routine of in

The “ General Course of Study,” for graded schools, struction, have become dissatisfied, and intelligent |

where there is opportunity for the complete developoutside observers have seen with great concern the ment of an educational system, is treated in Chapter continual divergence of education from: practical | XIV., which occupies some ninety pages. It is araffairs. Efforts to remove these difficulties have usu- ranged for four departments of three grades each, and ally been directed toward reforming the methods of requires an average of twelve years study on the part presenting the ordinary topics, rather than toward a , of the pupil passing through it—of course, presupmore radical change; and hence there have grown up posing the employment of competent teachers. This a great number of empirig methods, which have found chapter is, of itself, worth the cost of the book. expression in manuals for teachers, and in text-books. | APPLETON'S SCHOOL READERS.-First READER These have all contributed something to the solution Pp.: 90. SECOND READER, Pp.: 142. THIRD of the problem, and in the aggregate have been of READER, Pp.: 214. Fourth READER, Pp.: 248. great value to education, especially in the primary By Wm. T. Harris, Superintendent Schools St. grades. But the remedies have proved inadequate, Louis, Missouri; Andrew 7. Rickoff, Superinand the dissatisfaction remains, taking the form of tendent of Instruction, Cleveland, Ohio; and a wide-spread feeling that, in some way, the schools Mark Bailey, Instructor in Elocution, Yale Colare out of joint with the times, and that the instruction | lege. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1878. which they afford is not the highest and best, either as To find these readers ordinary text-books, after be. a disciplinary force or as a preparation for the duties ing prepared by the experienced talent that has been and occupations of life. This feeling gives rise to a employed upon them, would be a disappointment to demand that some means shall be devised by which “great expectations." We have been through them education may profit by the results of modern science carefully from first to last, and are delighted with and philosophy, and once more take rank as a leading them. No, i begins with the “word method,” anaforce in civilization. To meet this demand the lyzing the word into its elements and recombining changes required are organic and fundamental, and in these into the word, the children using slate and penclude the matter which shall be made the basis of in- cil for printing as soon as they begin to read. The struction, and the order of presenting the several sub- use of pictures, in arresting the attention of children, jects, as well as the methods to be pursued. In this is recognized by the authors, and no pains or expense volume, an endeavor has been made to examine edu has been spared to make the numbers throughout as cation from the stand-point of modern thought and to attractive and suggestive as possible through apt and contribute something to the solution of the problems artistic illustrations. These are also designed as that are forcing themselves upon the attention of edu. subjects of conversation with the little ones. No. 2 cators. To these ends a concise statement of the continues the plan of No. 1, giving prominence to the well-settled principles of psychology has been made, phonic analysis and the noting of silent letters, to the and a connected view of the inter-dependence of the placing of diacritical marks which must be learned by sciences given, to serve as a guide to methods of in- ' practice in marking words; also, to the spelling of words and to sentence making, using the words | As the contents of a very large number of mounds in occurrir.g in the reading lessons. Nos. 3 and 4 con many parts of the country are one after another" here tinue and enlarge upon the plan of the preceding laid before the reader, he feels a growing interest in numbers. The pieces to be read as wholes except for these pre-historic millions. He looks back to his the purpose of critical drill, every reading lesson to brother man of the far-off era when the mammoth be accompanied by an oral language exercise both on was upon the earth, much as he looks across wide the reading matter of the lesson and upon the picture. continents and broad expanse of waters to some Lessons on “How to Read” are placed at intervals strange race inhabiting a distant clime. All are of through Nos. 3 and 4. These present the most im “one blood," however far removed by time or disportant principles of good reading in so simple a way tance. that they can readily be understood by even a child. DINSMORE'S GRADED SPELLING BLANKS. For Being made reading exercises, they are not likely to Written Spelling. National Series. Three Num. be neglected, as lessons upon elocution frequently are bers. New York: Potter, Ainsworth & Co. when inserted as separate articles or by way of an in. This series of spelling blanks has been received troduction. The series possesses great merit, and will with much favor. No. 1, containing three columns be widely known.

to the page, is designed only for written spelling and A SYSTEM OF PUNCTUATION. By John G. R. Mc. the correction of misspelled words. No. 2, with two

Elroy, A. M., Prof. of Rhetoric and English Lan columns to page, for written spelling, defining and guage in the University of Pennsylvania. Pp.:

correcting, with practical drills in the use of capitals 36. Price, 50 cents. Philadelphia : Porter & and in punctuation. No. 3, an open page, for written Coates.

spelling, defining, sentence writing and correcting, This little book presents substantially the notes of with drills continued in the use of capital letters and lectures delivered to several classes in the University. | punctuation marks. A fine grade of paper is used in • They are printed,” says the author, “ both in order the several books, and they are bound with neat and to save time in giving my own instruction, and in the | attractive cover. hope that this method of presenting the subject may

ELLSWORTH REVERSIBLE WRITING Books. Six' recommend itself to others. I have tried different

Numbers. New Copies. Graded according to the plans of initiating studer's of composition into the

New York City Course of Study. By the Aumystery of punctuation. The least successful has thor of the Ellsworth System of Penmanship and been that which rested on usage; the most successful,

Book-keeping. New York: H. W. Ellsworth, the one presented here." The rules presented do not

Publisher. American News Company, General number more than ten or a dozen, but they are deduced

Trade Agents. from foundation principles, and are illustrated by ex The publisher makes definite claim for the followamples sufficient to render them clearly intelligible to ing points of excellence in his Series of Reversible the average student.

Writing Books, viz.: “They occupy but half the desk PRE-HISTORIC RACES OF THE UNITED STATES. By

room of others. But one page is exposed at a time. 7. W. Foster, LL. D., Author of Physical

Each page is full size, lies flat without fold, curve or Geography of the Mississippi Valley,President

wrinkle. They permit spoiled or unwritten pages to Chicago Academy of Sciences, etc., etc. Pp.: 415.

be removed without affecting the rest. Each book Fourth Edition. Chicago : S. C. Griggs & Co.

has a full-page hinged blotter attached to the cover Price, $3.00.

without extra expense to the pupil.” An examination “Who were the Mound Builders ?” Dr. Foster

of the books proves this an excellent business series, tells, in this book of absorbing interest, more than we

with common-sense style of hand-writing that has not

the fault of being “ too good." thought any one was ever likely to know of the mysterious people who once inhabited the Mississippi

THE FRANKLIN WRITTEN ARITHMETIC, with Er. Valley, and certain other parts of this continent. The amples for Oral Practice. By E. P. Seaver and story of their origin and extinction—with all the his G. A. Walton. Pp.: 316. Boston: Wm. Ware tory of human experience, both individual and tribal Su Co. 1878. or national, that came between-he does not touch, There is not much waste timber in this book. It for of all this we as yet know absolutely nothing.

seems to cover the ground of arithmetic in a single These ancient inhabitants are known only through the text-book quite satisfactorily. Oral problems precede earthworks and tumuli which they have left behind,

those for the slate. Definitions and principles are and in the more or less rude but intensely interesting thoroughly illustrated and explained, and the prob. objects found in such mounds as have been opened lems are numerous, practical, and of every-day interest. by archäologists and others in prosecuting their re Miscellaneous examples are numerous and in great searches. The book is filled with results of original | variety, and each section is followed by a set of ques. observation on the part of the author. Most of his tions for review. A special feature of the book is its illustrations have been derived from materials here drill exercises. The Metric System has been treated for the first time brought together. The general plan | in such a manner as will be suggestive to teachers. of the work may be learned from the headings of the ELEMENTS OF CHEMISTRY. By Sidney A. Norton, leading chapters, which are as follows; Antiquity of Professor in Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical Man, Ēvidences in Europe; Antiquity of Man, Evil College. Pp. 300. Cincinnati : Van Antwerp, dences in the United States; Mound Builders, Geo- ! Bragg & Co. graphical Distribution of their Works; Shell Banks, This work is not intended as a manual for reference, Geographical Distribution; Mounds and Enclosures; but as a text-book for class-room use. Such pheMound Builders, their Arts and Manufactures; An- nomena of chemistry have been selected as represent cient Mining by the Mound Builders; Crania of the the leading principles of the science. Experiments Mound Builders; Manners and Customs as the Basis that can easily be made by the student are given in of Ethnic Relations; Who were the Mound Builders ? preference to those more brilliant or more striking, The Unity of the Human Race; and Chronometric which require more expensive apparatus. “The enMeasurements as Applied to the Antiquity of Man. 'gravings represent well-fashioned apparatus, but,"

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says the author, “no one should be deterred from therefore, be expected to present a considerable attempting an experiment because he has not the exact amount of information of equal interest to that conshaped figure. Any drug store or kitchen will afford tained in the “Cyclopædia;” since it is the living bottles and tumblers which may be used in place of questions and issues of the present which, in educaflasks and beakers. In some way the experiments tional matters especially, attract and engage the attenought to be tried. Glass tubing, rubber tubing, and tion of the public. The contents of the “ Year-Book good corks are the first requisites, and are easily of Education for 1878” embrace the following: obtainable. The most essential thing in experiment. Original articles on the progress of education in the ing is the experimenter. He should know (1) what United States and in foreign countries up to the close be proposes to do; (2) what are the means at his of the year 1877; statistical tables, chiefly compiled command; and (3) how he intends to use them. He from information recently received; reviews and nomust bear in mind that a Chinese fidelity is not required | tices of recent educational publications; a list of -2. g., that one alkali may replace another, or that cor collegiate, denominational, special, and private eduresponding salts may be substituted one for another, as cational institutions; a classified descriptive catalogue occasion requires. Nevertheless he must remember | of American, British, German, French, and other forthat Chemistry is cxact in her methods; that careless eign publications on education and general philology, manipulation will not secure good results; and that together with works of reference, teachers' handsuch words as neutral, acid, basic, excess, must not books, etc.-exclusive of text-books; select lists of be neglected." As regards nomenclature, the author educational publications, etc., arranged by the pub. has used those names which have become a part of lishers themselves, together with a complete alphaour language, with as little change as possible. In betical subject-index of all the books and other artistyle and make-up, as well as in matter and arrange- cles enumerated therein. It will be seen from the ment, the book leaves a very favorable impression. I above that the scope of the “ Year-Book” is as comCRITTENDEN'S NEW BOOK-KEEPING SERIES. Printed prehensive as that of the “Cyclopædia,” though, O.

in Colors. Royal Octavo. New Single Entry. | course, without the same attempt at exhaustiveness; Pp.: 102. Price, 75 cents. Also an Inductive and | and it is believed by the publisher that a work dePractical Treatise on Book-keeping by Single and

voted to the record of the most memorable events in Double Entry. Pp.: 192. Price, $1.25. Phila

this interesting field of knowledge and effort, both in delphia : W. S. Fortescue & Co.

this country and among all the important nations of These text books are both by Samuel W. Critten the world, will not only prove attractive, but will den, Consulting Accountant, and for many years

meet an actual want-filling a vacant place in the edprincipal, of Crittenden's Philadelphia Commercial ucational literature of every English-speaking people. College. The first named work, on Single Entry, THE AMERICAN NATuralist, for July. McCalia contains five sets of books, showing successively the Su Stavely, 237-9 Dock St., Philadelphia. business of a painter and glazier, a village retail The present number fully sustains the reputation store, that of a cabinet maker with two partners for which this magazine has established. It opens with two years, that of a farmer, and that of a blacksmith.

an interesting article on the Diamond, which is fol. The book second named shows five sets of books by I lowed by a very readable one on “ The Mound. Single, and six sets by Double Entry. For each of making Ants of the Alleghanies." Under the head of these a full and minute history of the business is

“Recent Literature," in a notice of the “Report given, from which the student is to make his entries

of the President," there is a severe criticism of the aided by accompanying instructions. These books

present condition of the Academy of Natural Sciences " mean business," and will commend themselves at in Philadelphia, from which it appears, we are sorry to once to teachers who have to do with Book-keeping. | learn, that this ancient institution has degenerated into SYLLABUS OF LECTURES IN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOL a mere “show museum,” to use the expression of the OGY. · By T. B. Stowell, A. M. Syracuse, N. Y.: critic, instead of upholding the character which it Davis, Bardeen & Co. Price, 50 cents.

formerly possessed, of an institution for the promotion This little book was published for the students of of original scientific research. It is undoubtedly an the State Normal and Training School at Cortland, easy and pleasant thing to stroll through apartNew York. All the even pages present briefly the ments filled with rare scientific collections, staring at topics treated in the lecture course, while the odd them with ignorant and stupid wonder; but if the pages are blank, affording space for notes by the stu- / reputation of the Academy is to be maintained, and dent. The author was à pupil of Agassiz and is a | the character of the State as a seat of scientific culture successful teacher of Physiology. The book will be is to be established, work very different from this will of great use to all who give instruction in this branch

have to be done. Elsewhere people who pretend to of science, as well as to students.

scientific acquirements are actively engaged in original YEAR-BOOK OF EDUCATION FOR 1878. Edited by

and independent observation; and if Pennsylvania is

to keep pace with the rest of the world, she will have Henry Kiddle and Alexander 7. Schem. Pp.: 420.

to. contribute something more to the general stock Price : Paper cover, $1.25 ; Cloth, $2.00. New

than a “show museum.” York: E. Steiger, Publisher. This important work is a continuation of, and sim

| THE Excelsior School Furniture Manufacturing ilar in style to, the “Cyclopædia of Education” issued Company, in our last issue, announce their “Com. last year, and already widely adopted as a standardmon-Sense" Bent Wood Desks as the ne plus ultra educational authority. There is necessarily, during of school desks. In its bent wood and wrought-iron each successive year, a considerable accumulation of parts, its seats and backs solid and curved, thus obvi. fresh material, the addition of which in the form of a ating thc use of slats, and its ability to withstand year-book serves to complete the main work, and to rough usage--this desk presents certain strong features show, also, when compared with the Cyclopædia itself, of excellence that invite careful examination and will the progress made through each succeeding year in commend the desk to the favorable consideracion of each department treated. The “Year-Book" may, I school committees.

ACCENT.-The subject of accent has been often, it is safe to trust the feet without it. A regular misunderstood in its practical application. The regu. drum-like recurrence of it in vocal music is usually at larly returning accent of measure should not usually variance with good taste; nor does it belong to inprevail in any very marked manner. Such an accent strumental music of a high order. To the fact that belongs chiefly to a lower class of music, which makes this element is much concealed by the organ is to be ils appeal to the mere external sense; it is heard, and attributed one of the chief excellencies of this noble indeed is often the only element, in the music of say. | instrument, and one which renders it peculiarly approage life. The march and the dance are somewhat priate to the dignity, solemnity and spirituality of dependent upon it, though in the higher department | divine worship. The rhythmic accent which belongs of these forms of music, it is often designedly hidden to phrases, or periods, and also the rhetorical accent by higher properties for a short time, or as long as | or emphasis belonging to emotion or expression, on

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How my childhood feet-ed by, The mirth of its December, And the warmth of its Ju-ly.

the contrary, are of the highest importance; they makes a pleasant voice," and, we may add, does are, in all cases, essential to a tasteful and appropriate much toward making others happy. Also, the com. performance, and they should never be disregarded. | plaint is often made that the words cannot be heard,

HINTS.-As it is not uncommon to see a person, or are not carefully spoken in singing; but it cannot when singing, assume a disquieted and troubled coun. be expected that one who delivers tones in a careless, tenance, and by frowning or scowling indicate un indifferent, lifeless manner, should articulate or pro. easiness and distress, sometimes alarming to others, nounce words in any other way; whereas, if the habit it may not be amiss to add a note by way of caution of a careful utterance or emission of tones has been against wry faces and sour looks while singing, or at formed, it is almost sure that there will be a corres. other times, and tɔ recommend a pleasant counte- ponding attention to words. A good delivery of the nance; for, as the old saying is, "a pleasant face tones is a pre-requisite to a good delivery of words.

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“Invaluable to the Teacher, and to all who have Children to Educate, School Funds to Disburse, or School Taxes to Pay.”

How can any Teacher or School Director assord to be without an Educational Journal?

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USEFUL TO SCHOOL OFFICERS--GOOD FOR SCHOOLS.

49 DOES YOUR BOARD SUBSCRIBE FOR THE PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL?

TO THE SCHOOL BOARD.--The number of Boards of Directors on our subscription list in all parts of the State is steadily increasing. May we not hope that this increase will keep pace with the growing interest in education everywhere manifested ? It is believed that the schools of every district would be greatly benefited were The JOURNAL generally received by the members of School Boards. Every Director ought, therefore, to take a copy in the interest of the schools under his charge; and the Law seems to contemplate this in making provision for allowing Boards to sub. scribe for a Copy for Each Member out of the funds of their respective districts. Directors need the information concerning school matters which it contains; and, besides, its cost to a district is a small price to pay for the gratuitous service rendered by its school officers. The “ School Law and Decisions,” page 151, contains the following paragraph:

"Each Board has the right to subscribe for one copy of The Pennsylvania School Journal for each member, at the cost of the district. as a means of information in relation to the duties of their office and the general condition and operations of the system in other parts of the State."

WHAT DIRECTORS SAY." Largest of the Educational Monthlies"-"Handsomest and best". " A fixture in our arrangements"-"We find it indispensable"-" Cannot think of being without it"-"The longer we take it the better we like It"_" Can't keep house without it"-"Should be in the hands of every Teacher and Director in the State"-"We most heartily endorse it"-" Most valuable to school officers as well as teachers"-" The new members as desirous of having it as the old"-" Have taken it for ten years, are unanimous in favor of continuing & Lscription"--"If Directors knew the benefits to be derived from reading it, no Board would be without THE JOURNAL."

“ Invaluable to all who have School Funds to Disburse or School Taxes to Pay." Full Official and Editorial Departments each month. Four hundred royal octavo pages. Choice School Song or School Hymn in each number. Lists of Examination Questions given frequently. Subscription rate, $1.60. To Boards of Direc. tors: Five copies I year. $7.00, Remnit amounts of Three Dollars or over by Check, Money Order, or Registered Letter, The fee in the latter case ( 10 Cents) may be deducted from amount to be remitted. Receipt is always sent. The JOURNAL is mailed promptly. Address,

J. P. WICKERSHAM & CO., Lancaster, Pa. BT Will the Secretary please present this Note at an Early Meeting of the School Board, that the Directors may consider and act upon the matter of

matter of Subscription for The Penn

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YOUR PATRONAGE RESPECTFULLY SOLICITED.

THE SCHOOL BOARD. The Most Responsible Position to be filled by Popular Election in any District is that of School Director. Districts so fortunate as to have progressive School Directors, always have

the Best Teachers and the Best Schools.

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