unity-one substance with a trinity of powers. guished as Retention and Recollection. By

The Intellect is the power by which we some writers these are regarded as separate think and know. Its products are ideas and faculties; and other again discard the element thoughts. An idea is a single notion, which of retention. Besides these, in an act of the may be expressed in one or more words, not memory, there is also a representation of that forming a proposition; as a man, an animal, which it recalls, and a recognition of it as etc. A thought is the combination of two or something of our past experience. more ideas, which when expressed in words, Imagination is the power by which we form give us a proposition; as, a man is an ideal conceptions. It is the power of forming animal.

mental images, by uniting different parts of The Sensibilities are the powers by which objects given by perception, and also of crewe feel. Their products are emotions, affecoating ideals of objects different from anything tions, and desires. An emotion is a simple we have perceived. Imagination is thus the feeling, as the emotion of joy, sorrow, etc. | power of ideal creation. Thus, I can conAn affection is an emotion that goes out to-ceive of a flying horse by uniting my ideas of wards an object, as love, hate, envy, etc. A wings and a horse; or I can imagine a landdesire is an emotion that goes out to an object scape or a strain of music different from anywith the wish of possession, as the desire of thing I have ever seen or heard. wealth, fame, etc.

The Understanding is the power by which The Will is the power by which we resolve we compare objects and derive abstract and to do. It is the executive power of the mind, general ideas and thoughts. It is the elaborthe power by which man becomes the con- ative power of the mind; it takes the scious author of an intentional act. The materials furnished by the other faculties and products of the will are volitions and voluntary works them up into new products. Its proactions. It is in the domain of the will that ducts are abstract and general ideas, truths, man becomes a moral and responsible being. | laws, causes, etc.

The relation of these three spheres of activ- Intuition, or the Reason, is the power ity may be illustrated in a variety of ways. I which gives us ideas and thoughts not furread of the destitution and suffering in a great nished by the senses nor elevated by the city, and understand the means taken for their Understanding. Its products are called primrelief: this is an act of the intellect. I feel ary ideas and primary truths. The Primary a deep sympathy with this suffering ; my Ideas are such as Space, Time, Cause, Idenheart is touched with pity, and I experience a tity, the True, the Beautiful, and the Good. strong desire to aid in relieving their dis- | The Primary Truths are all self-evident truths, tress; this is an act of the sensibilities. I de- as the axioms of mathematics and logic. sire to express my feelings of pity and follow The Understanding.The Understanding my sense of duty, and resolve to aid them by embraces several distinct faculties or forms of sending a contribution or going personally to operation. These are Abstraction, Conceptheir relief; this is an act of the will.

tion, Judgment, and Reasoning. This divisThe Intellect. -The Intellect embraces sev- | ion is now almost universally adopted, and eral distinct faculties; Perception, Memory, the same terms are employed by nearly all Imagination, Understanding and Intuition or modern writers. the Reason. This classification of the Intel- Abstraction is the power of forming ablect is now almost universally accepted, stract ideas. It is the power by which the though writers occasionally differ in the terms mind draws a quality away from its object, they use to name the different powers. and make of it a distinct object of thought. 1 Perception is the power by which we gain a Its products are abstract ideas, such as hardknowledge of external objects through the ness, softness, color, etc. The naming of senses. It is the faculty by which we gain a abstract ideas gives us abstract terms. The knowledge of objects and their qualities. Its term abstraction is derived from ab, from, products are ideas of external objects and of and traho, I draw,and signifies a drawing from. the qualities of objects. The ideas which we Conception is the power of forming general possess of persons, places, things, etc., are ideas. By it we take ideas of particular obmainly given by perception.

jects, and unite their common properties, and Memory is the power by which we retain thus form a general idea which embraces and recall knowledge. It enables us to hold them all. The products of Conception are fast to the knowledge we have acquired, and general ideas, or ideas of classes; as horse, also to recall it when we wish to use it. bird, man, etc. The naming of general ideas These two offices of the memory are distin- I gives us common terms. This faculty is often

called generalization; but the term Conception Other forms of Mental Activity. - Besides is more appropriate, and is the one generally the faculties now named, there are two other adopted by logicians, etc. The term Concep- forms of mental activities, or mental states, tion is derived from con, together, and capio, called Consciousness and Attention. These I take, and signifies a taking together. are not regarded as specific faculties of the

Judgment is the power of perceiving the mind, but as conditions or accomplishments agreement or disagreement of two objects of of these faculties. thought. Thus man is one idea and animal Consciousness is that power or attribute of is another idea, and a comparison of them the mind by which it knows its own states gives us the judgment “A man is an animal." and actions. The term is derived from con, Judgment is the power of comparison; it with, and scio, I know, and means a knowing compares one object directly with another, with the mental acts or states. It is regarded and gives us a proposition. A proposition is as an attribute of the mind, involved in the a judgment expressed in words. Thus a bird very idea of mind, and not as a mental facis an animal, is an expression of the mental | ulty. Thus, to know is to know we know, to judgment which compares bird and animal. feel is to know we feel, to will is to know we

The term judgment is applied to both the will. The expressions " I know that I mental faculty and its product.

know." "I know that I feel," etc., are Reasoning is the power of comparing two equivalent to I am conscious that I know. I ideas through their relation to a third. It is am conscious that I feel, etc. Consciousness a process of indirect or mediate comparison. is a kind of inner light by which one knows It deals with three objects of thought and re- what is going on within his mind; it is a reyquires three propositions. Thus, suppose Ielation of internal phenomena of thought, wish to compare A and B, and perceiving no feeling, and will. relation between them, see that A equals C, Attention is the power of directing the and B equals C, and thus infer that A equals mind voluntarily to any object of thought to B, such an inference is an act of reasoning. the exclusion of others. It is the power of Reasoning differs from Judgment in that the selecting one of several objects and concenlatter compares two objects directly, while the trating the mental energies upon it. The former compares two objects indirectly by term is derived from ad, to, and tendo, I bend, first comparing them with a third object. which was probably suggested by the attitude

The form in which reasoning is expressed of the body in listening attentively to a is called a Syllogism. A Syllogism consists sound. of three propositions so related that one of Attention is not a distinct form of mental them is an inference from the other two. activity, but is involved in and underlies the Two of these propositions are called the prem- activities of all the faculties. The voluntary ises and the third the conclusion. Thus, in operation of any of the mental powers, as the above example, the two proportions "A Perception, Memory, etc., carries with it an equals C,” and “ B equals C,” are the prem act of attention. It is not a power of knowises; and “A equals B" is the conclusion. ing but of directing that which may know.

Reasoning is of two kinds; Inductive It has no distinct field or province of its own, Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning. Induc- yet without it the faculties would be of little tive Reasoning is the process of deriving a use to us. It works with them and through general truth from particular truths. Thus, them, increasing their efficiency, and giving if I find that heat expands several metals, as them a power they would not otherwise poszinc, iron, copper, etc., I may infer that heat | sess. will expand all metals. Such an inference Conception.—The term Conception is often of a general truth from the particular parts is used in a general and popular sense meaning called Induction. Inductive reasoning pro- that power which the mind has of making ceeds upon the principle that what is true of anything a distinct object of thought. In the many is true of the whole.

this sense it is intimately related to all the Deductive Reasoning is the process of de- mental faculties. Thus I can conceive of a riving a particular truth from a general truth. tree or a house which I have seen, a landscape Thus, from the general proposition that heat which I may not have seen, a proposition in expands all metals, I may infer by Deduction geometry, a truth in natural philosophy, etc. that heat will expand any particular metal, as Some writers have used the term in a more silver. Deduction proceeds upon the princi- specific sense, as the power of forming an ple that what is true of the whole is true of exact transcript of a past perception. In the parts.

| Logic the term is restricted to the power of

ri. The Intellect

4. Understanding. 33. Judgment.

4. Reasoning.


1. Emotions.

13. Desires.

forming general ideas, as we have previously and varied intonation. Foreigners have nodefined it.

ticed the same peculiarity upon the same key. I recommend the young teachers of the The only model of many of our political State who have not studied mental philosophy speakers is apparently the revival preacher, to commit this brief statement of the mental and nothing is more common than to hear faculties to memory. It is the same as that an excellent address almost ruined by an artiwhich we give to the classes in teaching inficial style of delivery. Our best orators have our Normal school, and we require them to ! invariably cultivated the habit of using the recite it almost word for word. It is the deeper chest tones, through the development alphabet of the study of mental science, and of which the true power and compass of the when committed and thoroughly digested will voice can only be attained. In the “Rules make the study of any ordinary text-book on for Declamation," which Goethe wrote for the subject comparatively easy. The follow- the training of actors at the Weimar Theatre,

ing outline will present a complete synopsis of he says: “The greatest necessity is, that the . the subject :

actor should utter everything he declaims in (1. Perception.

as deep a tone as possible; for he thereby

1. Retention. 2. Memory.


reaches a greater compass of voice, and with 3. Imagination.

it the power of giving all shades of expression. I, Abstraction. 2. Conception.

But if he begin on a high pitch he soon loses

the habit of a deep masculine tone, and with 15. The Reason.

it the true expression of what is lofty and

intellectual." {2 The Sensibilities. {2. Affections.

The proper use of the voice should be taught in connection with the pronunciation

of the language. It is absurd to refer the i 3. The Will.

shrill or nasal voices of many Americans to the effect of climate; as well might the same

reason be given for the sharp a of the PennEDUCATION OF THE VOICE. sylvanian or the lost r of the Virginian.

Nasal voices are very common in some parts A T a recent inter collegiate oratorical con- of England, but the educated classes there

A test in this city, there was no more have inherited, through generations of culgratifying evidence of the good results of all ture, a deeper and more flexible larynx than such general competitions than the attention ours. Vocal habits are first and most easily which most of the speakers showed that they caught by children, and unlearned with most had given to the management of the voice. difficulty by men. Yet, certainly, the voice The first prize this year, as last, fell to a being next to the brain the vehicle of the student of Hamilton College; and at the re-orator's power, it should be forged, and ception given there to Mr. Laird, when he shaped, and tempered with the same patience returned with the same honors won by Mr. and craft as the chieftain's sword. We are Elliott, the services of Prof. Frink, who had glad that this subject is at last forcing itself carefully trained both gentlemen, received upon the attention of the Faculties of our merited acknowledgment. The substance of Colleges. There will probably be some diffian oration acquires its true value through a culty for awhile to come in finding compefinished delivery, and it has been justly de- tent instructors. The men who possess finely cided that the awarding of the prize shall developed voices, and are thus able to give depend upon the best union of both qualities. precept and example together, are rarely willThe competitors from Hamilton, Columbia, ing to relapse into pedagogues. President Williams, Lafayette and Rutgers showed a Gilman, of the Johns Hopkins University, marked improvement in this respect over we understand, intends to establish a chair their brethren of the previous year. In fact, of Reading and Speaking, as indispensable only one or two of the speakers betrayed the to a thoroughly organized institution of influence of the old-fashioned, high-pitched, | learning. But the same course ought to be monotonous twang.

adopted by every Normal School in the counThe ordinary American voice sorely lacks try, in order to reach the great multitude of compass and variety. In clearness of tone young pupils. Although a great deal of what and free and animated delivery, the Ameri- the latter receive is worn off by careless home can usually excels the English speaker; but habits, some little always sticks; and the he falls behind the latter in depth, richness poor boy or girl who approaches the door of society later in life will find it beset with | ability to frequent practice. Let the slate be fewer terrors. Even well pronounced and in ready use in writing verses from the read. agreeably modulated ignorance is much more ing lesson, the names in geography and other tolerable than when it reaches us through the branches, mental problems, short essays, and nose and accompanied by double negatives. anything that may take the form of language.

N. Y. Tribune. How many men and women, who talk well,

appear ridiculous as soon as they put pen to

paper! Therefore, let incessant writing on WHAT I KNOW ABOUT SPELLING. slate and paper worry boys and girls (for they

don't like it) at every step of their progress. w. W. DAVIS.

Besides spelling, punctuation, the use of capi

tals, grammar, and other good things, are IN many schools two, three or four spelling taught by the laborious pen and pencil. Re

| classes form the closing exercises in the member what Bacon says: “Conversation afternoon programme. Spelling, like geogra. makes a ready man, reading a full man, but phy or grammar, is considered a separate writing an exact man." The frequent writstudy. So the faithful dominie stands up ten examinations, now in all good schools, daily before an array of open mouths, and are, of course, a part of this same general gives out column after column of words, short discipline. But, I fear, in many cases, the or long, according to the capacity or age of correctness of answers is the only feature consaid mouths. No wonder his head aches, and sidered in marking the grade. This is not he finds it necessary to go up the Rhine every | enough. Let it be understood that every summer for his health. Spelling in this way manuscript in school should be prepared as always seemed to me a very tedious and me- carefully as for the press. Practical Teacher. chanical performance, and I long ago (forty years) gave it up in disgust. Well, what then ?

NANNY'S COMPOSITION. 1. Let spelling be a part of every study.

I NEVER can do it, mamma-never in the world," Besides the words placed before every reading

I said Nanny John, coming in from school and exercise, let the pupil be prepared to spell dropping down on a chair at her mother's side, utterly any word in the lesson. Insist on the same dispirited. readiness in geography, grammar, history. I “ Do what?” inquired the mother, as she raised physiology, philosophy, chemistry, or what

her flushed face from the noisy machine she had been

running all day. ever the study may be. You will be surprised “Why, write a composition to-night. I've been at the blunders by bright pupils not trained thinking about it all afternoon. Eva Morris gave me on this plan. See if some of them don't say a subject, a splendid one, she said, “Self Esteem,' and imperitive, oxigen, put two t's in Cincinnati, started me on it. But, dear me! it was pumping and insert a d in John Hancock of blessed

from a dry well. There wasn't anything in me about

| it, and of course nothing could come out; so I just mernory. Spelling thus goes side by side rubbed out all she had written. And beside it wasn't with reading and studying. The pupil is mine. If she fancies big-sounding words she may trained to look closely. He knows the mean- | use them, but it isn't like me." ing of what he pronounces; for if he is in

“Sure enough,” said the mother, smiling, “it

would be something very odd indeed, for simple, philosophy, for instance, it is presumed that

practical Nanny John to go off into high-sounding he is able to understand the text. According | phrases; and beside, Nanny, it isn't strictly honest to to the old plan, youngsters of eight with good have some one write your essay for you, and pass it memories are often discovered, lost like Liv- off as your own." ingstone, in the Ethiopia of the back part of

“I know it,” said Nanny. “Plenty of the girls do

it, though, but I'm too independent for that. I never the spelling book. They can rattle off con

want credit that belongs to somebody else." catenation, coup de soleil, and circumlocutory, ' “ Well said, my daughter,” responded mother with the pertness of parrots. The big words John; “but what other subjects were tried.” have no more meaning to these infants than “O, a half dozen or more. I got the Rhetoric so much Hebrew. Why spend time in vain

and looked over the list of subjects—there's such a

string of them. Very nice ones, too, if you could repetitions ? Why memorize a set of huge

only manage them. The Seasons-Spring, Sumterms that a lad will never use. It seems to mer, Autumn, Winter'--I wouldn't touch. There'll me that the only philosophical method is to be a dozen or more on them. Then I tried • Hon. enlarge the pupil's vocabulary gradually and esty,' and I thought I could say a good deal on that, intelligently by dealing with those words that

but I soon came to a dead stop, and what I had writ

ten sounded so much like preaching that I rubbed it arise in the course of daily studies.

out. Then. Selfishness,' but that was no better, and 2. As soon as pupils can write, put their so on to the end of the chapter. I knew a little of

a good many things, but not enough of anything. I Then I filled my apron with the eggs-eleven of them--but

though I searched faithfully I couldn't find the one that would And now, mother, what is to be done? I feel quite have made it a dozen. sick about it."

“Coming back to the house, I watched the most beautiful

of sunsets. Purple, gold, violet, every tint, every shade, was a What is to be done?" said the mother, thought

there in the sky. Here by the window I sit and see it still, and fully. "Well, the first thing I have to do is to finish all the good and pleasant things that I have know in my life, this sleeve, and then get supper, and while I am doing seem to crowd into this moment, as I sit here writing for it, run out, Nanny, for half an hour, and take a play

mamma what I saw and enjoyed in one half-hour. Bless

her dear heart!" in the yard. Look at the flower-bed, and see if the lady-slippers and zinnias are up, and the lilies-of-the | “There, Nanny!” said her mother, “ring the valley-possibly they are out. “Then skip to the barn gong for supper, and never mind writing any more. and gather the eggs. Look at the beautiful sunset. I Just slip what is written under my plate at the table. Don't think anything about the essay. Let it be and please set up the chairs, and bring a pitcher of forgotten for an hour or two, and after that we will water. see about it."

“Yes," said Nanny, glancing over it as she wiped “0, but mamma, it is on my mind, and I can't for her pen, “I guess it will do, though I could have said get it."

twice that much." and then she hastened to do her “ Try,” said her mother, "just to please me. Look mother's bidding. around and see what is to be seen. Be gay and When supper was over, mamma leaned. back and playful, but notice whatever is beautiful or interesting, read what her little girl had written for her. Her so as to be able to tell me something about it. This eyes brightened as she went along, and when she was is to please mother, remember, and in return, she will done she looked quite happy. help after supper about the essay—not write a word

“Well, Nanny,” she said, “ was it very hard ?” of it, of course, but give a plan perhaps. So run off.

“No, indeed,” said Nanny. “It was a real pleasIn a half hour precisely by the clock, I will call, and ure to do it, and the thoughts came faster than I then don't delay, but come at once."

could write them. The only thing was, when I forNanny was very glad to do as her mother had sug. got to forget my composition; then I got into a stew gested. Her brain was so tired of its fruitless think. | again, but the pleasant thoughts soon drove it away. ing, and it was such a rest to just look at things to Indeed, mamma, I have had a good time, and now, tell mamma—that was no trouble. When the half- to pay up, I will wash the dishes myself, and then hour was up, and her mother called her, she was quite

that dreadful com—," and Nanny sighed. ready to come in, full and overflowing with news.

“ There, dear, don't worry," said her mother. Nanny began as fast as her little tongue could run.

could run. “And now, Nanny, I might as well tell my design. “ No," said her mother, “ not that, I am busy now

Here, in my hand, is the composition.” in the kitchen about supper, and can't listen. Sit

My composition ! O no, mamma, that would down here by this nice open window at papa's desk. I never do. Everybody would laugh at it.” There is paper, pen, ink, everything. Write it all | “Not at all,” said her mother. “It is just the down for me to read when I am done my work. Put right kind of a composition for a little girl to write. it in just as good language as possible, and talk We will have it copied neatly, and perhaps changed freely."

in a few places, but it doesn't want much. Handling "O, mamma,” said Nanny, “how foolish !" | will take the freshness out. It is just like Nanny

“ Yes, I know,” said her mother, “but I have a John now, and as it is her essay, I want it to keep fancy for it, and can't I be indulged just this once ?” | so.” Nanny's heart was very tender.

“But,” said Nanny, coming round and looking at “Yes, mamma,” she said, and went to work. How it over her mother's shoulder with a doubtful eye, “ it easy it all came.

has no title. A composition without a title—who ever She sat by the open window and thus she wrote:

heard of such a thing ?”

“Children come into the world and then we name “I have been out enjoying myself for half an hour. Thirty them,” said her mother, smiling. So let us find a minutes by the clock mamma gave me for a pleasure tour, and I have made it,

name for this. What shall we call it? Help me "I found the lilies-of-the-valley in my own little flower-bed think!” just bursting into bloom--two white and waxy flowers already Nanny's eye lightened with a thought. out, and more buds than I could count. My lady-slippers and zinnias are up and growing nicely, but so thick that I was

“Out with it, Nanny," said her mother. forced to weed out about half of them, that the rest might have

“ What I Saw and Enjoyed in Thirty Minutes." room and strength to grow. The grass had pushed up around “That will do capitally," responded her mother, my mignonette-papa calls it a weed, and says he sees no

repeating it over. “I could hardly improve on it, beauty in such a thing as that-but it is to me the sweetest, daintiest thing in my whole garden and whenever you put it in even if I wanted to. And now, Nanny, the dreaded a bouquet, it fills the air with fragrance, I have seen people composition is written. It has a title, a beginning, just like it, plain, and hotnely, and quiet, but always doing the little things that make the folks around them happy and good.

and an end-and best of all, it is your own, every “Then I ran down to the orchard to see if the early queens

word of it. The whole trouble is over, for the copyand harvest apples were ripe, I found some on the ground, ing is nothing." that felt a little soft, and were slightly streaked with red, but

“Nothing at all,” said Nanny, and she skipped when I sunk my teeth in them, they proved only blights all wormy at the core. These made me think of certain people

of certain people about her work brisker than ever.' of whom I heard mamma speak and a few of whom I have The children, even the sleepy ones, opened their myself met, very fair and pleasing on the outside, but sad to

eyes the next day, when Nanny John read her comtell, faulty at heart.. "I patted old Brindle as I came by, and helped Johnny give position. It was certainly something quite ou

out of the his pet calf, Spotty, her supper. Talk about cats and dogs! usual order, for the smallest child in the room underThere is no nicer or cleaner pet in the world than a dear, affectionate litile calf.

stood every word of it, and the teacher, who hap“Next to the barn in search of eggs. The mows with the pened to be a good one, said, with a beaming face, as new hay were smelling so fresh and sweet that I jumped up Nanny handed it to her for correction : and tumbled about on them, and when Harry called to me to

“Very good, indeed, Nanny John! I like such an throw down some hay for the horses, I picked up the fork and dropped down one forkful after another, till he shouted enough. 'essay as that. It is as grateful to me as a breath of

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