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UNION.-Dec. 16, five days ; 84 members enrolled, | Tod Ford, Wallace Bruce, Rev. Dr. Warren, Eliza83 per cent. Instructors: Prof. J. Johonnot, J. V. beth Cady Stanton and Daniel Dougherty. Topics: Montgomery, Wm. Noetling, D. J. Waller, jr., and School Discipline, methods of instruction, mental Col. Sanford. Topics : Language, arithmetic, read. philosophy, metric system, drawing, etymology, reading, drawing, penmanship, spelling, and science and ing, arithmetic and history. Lectures : Force in a art of teaching. Lectures : Our Public Schools, Sunbeam, Landmarks of Scott, “Go West, Young Forces of Society, and Old Times and New. Ex-Man," Our Girls, and The Stage. Expenses, $652, penses, $181.

VENANGO.-Oct. 14, five days ; 242 members en rolled, or 63 per cent. Instructors: Prof. S. R.

OVER THE SEA.
Thompson, H. S. Jones, Geo. P. Hays and Frank
Beard. Topics : Reading, language lessons, geogra
phy, arithmetic and school organization. Lectures :

LETTERS FROM THE EDITOR.-NO. VIII.
The Beautiful, The Queer Teacher, Character and
Manners. Expenses, $459.

IN BELGIUM. WARREN.-Sept. 2, five days; 235 teachers en- | IT was growing dark when we left London. rolled, 94 per cent. Instructors: Dr. John H. French and Prof. J. A. Cooper. Topics: Mental philosophy,

1 on the oth of July, so that our ride in the

1 on the school government and management, and business cars along the banks of the Thames was of day” in school, which included methods of conduct little interest. It was 10 p. m. when we went ing recitations in each of the common English on board the steamer, at Harwich, which was branches. Lecture: Educational Forces and Capaci.

to carry us across the North Sea. We had ties, Wonders of the Living World, and The Past and Present of Our Schools. Expenses, $185. A series

185 A series engaged, or thought we had engaged, stateof local institutes is being held in different parts of rooms some days in advance; but when we the county, with much benefit to those attending and came to inquire into the matter we found that to the schools under their charge.

like promises had been made to about five WASHINGTON.-Dec. 30, five days; 205 members,

times as many as could be accommodated. 67 per cent. Instructors : Prof. J. H. Shoemaker, Maria L. Sanford, Wallace Bruce, and Geo. P. Beard.

The boat was greatly overcrowded. Seeing Topics: Arithmetic, grammar, reading, school gov- our disappointment at the prospect of lasing ernment, English literature, geography, history, and a night's rest, a friend who had traveled on methods of teaching. Lectures: The Labor Ques- this line before, whispered : “Find an empty tion, Landmarks of Scott, Womanhood in Shakspeare, berth and take possession of it. The whole and Invisible Forces. Expenses, $452. WAYNE.—Nov. 19, five days; 255 members, 84 per

thing is a grab game." We followed his adcent. Instructors : H. R, Sanford, 'W.C. Tilden, D. , vice and had a comfortable night's rest; but Copeland, O. E. French, D. N. Lathrop, B. B. Smith many other passengers to whom rooms had and Wallace Bruce. Topics: Primary reading, lan- been promised were compelled to spend the guage, arithmetic, geography, history, theory of teach- night with scarcely a seat upon which to sit. ing, school management. Lectures : Integrity, Culture, The Forces that Win, and Washington Irving.

much less a bed to lie down upon. Expenses, $253.

It was light when we went on deck and the WESTMORELAND.-Dec. 23, twenty-second session, low coast of Holland was visible a short disfive days; of 374 teachers in the county 342 were prestance away, and we soon entered the mouth ent. Instructors: Profs. J. A. Brush, Geo. T. McCord, I of the Scheldt and landed at Flushing, or as Dr. Jno. H. French, Dr. Watkins, Prof. Harkey, Wal

the Dutch call it, Vlissingen. lace Bruce, W. C. Moreland, Esq., Dr. R. W. Pear

The surface of son, Hon Edgar Cowan and Hon. Jos, A. Hunter, the country here is sixteen or eightee Topics: Geography, language lessons, grammar, below the level of the sea at high tide, and methods of instruction and school management. Lec- the land is protected from overflow by imtures: Cries from the Cradle, Education as it Ought

mense dykes, over which from the deck of to be ; Heat, Its Sources and Effects; The Wonders of the Living World, Washington Irving, Peculiari

the steamer we could just see the spires of the ties of American Speech, Macaulay, Our Home Speech churches and the tops of the houses. and Education. Expenses, $384.

We made only a short stop at Flushing, WYOMING.--Dec. 23, six days; 148 teachers en-going directly from the quay to the cars in rolled, 74 per cent. Instructors: Prof. Geo. L. Maris, waiting to convey us to An

Geo. L. Maris, waiting to convey us to Antwerp. Our course J. H. Harris, John M. Gannan, Mrs. M. E. Weston and C. W. Bushnell. Topics : School management

was along the little peninsula consisting of and government, English grammar, arithmetic, ety-||

the island of Walcherin and Zuid Beveland, mology and geography. The instruction in these until turning to the right we crossed the branches embraced not only the branches themselves, boundary line between Holland and Belgium, but how to teach them, especially to beginners. Lec.) and reached Antwerp in time for a late breaktures: The State and the Public Schools, Education and the Republic, and the Teacher. Expenses, $126.

fast. Early in the morning as it was when YORK.-Dec. 23, twenty-fourth session, five days;

we left Flushing the country people were all 369 members enrolled, go per cent. Instructors: astir. Great numbers of woman were on Profs, A. N. Raub, S. B. Heiges, S. S. Haldeman, their way to market, some with donkey carts R. H. Carothers, J. V. Montgomery, Hon. H. Houck, and dog teams; but more with baskets and

vessels containing marketing on their heads | pleted. The tower is four hundred and two or attached to the ends of yokes worn across feet high. The exterior view of the church the shoulders.

| is marred by mean surroundings, but the It was the height of hay harvest, and barley principal façade is very fine. Upon entering was ripe in the fields. Vegetables, too, of the Cathedral the effect is grand and impresswhich a large acreage is grown in this coun- live. It was the first of the great church edtry, seemed to need some special attention. | ifices of the Continent that we had seen, and So on this pleasant July morning, at the ris- we stood in wonder, almost in awe, as we ing of the sun, the whole population, men, took in the dimensions and grandeur of the women and children, seemed to be at work great structure. The length is 384 feet, out of doors. The men wore straw hats and width 171 feet, with transepts, and height blouses like the French, and the women 130 feet. There are six aisles, and the vaultlooked quite picturesque in their white caps ing is supported by 125 pillars. Then, there and blue gowns.

are rich wood carvings, beautiful stained glass The Hollanders are a very industrious peo- windows, fine mural decorations and bas-reple, and what a fine country they have! and liefs, splendid marble busts, monuments and how they have battled for it against the sea ! altar-pieces, and a number of celebrated picBut we shall have occasion to see more of tures. Among the latter are the Descent them and it before we reach our journey's from the Cross, the Elevation of the Cross; end, so now we are at Antwerp.

and the Assumption, by Rubens. These are · Antwerp, or Anvers in French, is pleas- among the best paintings of the famous antly situated on the Scheldt, which is here Dutch master, and to us, seen in the light at high tide thirty feet deep, and was in its and with the surroundings of the grand old best days one of the most important and Cathedral, they seemed like the creation of a wealthy cities in Europe. Few places have genius more than human. Of course, we did experienced greater vicissitudes of fortune. not leave the Cathedral without a look at the Founded as early as the seventh century, itold Well, opposite the entrance to the tower, became in the sixteenth the leading commer which is protected by an iron canopy and cial city on the continent, its trade extending surmounted by the statue of the mythical to all parts of the world. Under Spanish hero Salvius Brabo, the work of Quentin rule it languished. Thousands of the most Massys, first blacksmith and then painter, enterprising citizens were banished by the changing the anvil for the palette to propi terrors of the Inquisition ; and. defeated in an tiate the father of a lady with whom he was effort to regain its liberties, it was subjected in love. to the merciless cruelty of the Duke of Parma. The Church of St. Paul contains a number It suffered also from the jealousy of its Dutch of fine pictures, and is noted for its elaborate neighbors, who succeeded in closing the wood carvings. The wainscoting, pulpits, Scheldt for many years against its com- confessionals, altars, choir-stalls, etc., are all merce. While in possession of the French, of finely-cut wood. An adjoining court con. from 1794 to 1814, its trade revived, but it | tains what purports to be a representation was again totally ruined by the revolution of of Mount Calvary, an artificial mound made 1830. Since 1863, a new tide of prosperity of earth and rock, with statues of saints, has set in, and Antwerp seems likely to as- angels, prophets, patriarchs, etc., the whole sume once more a high rank among Euro-crowned with a crucifix. A grotto near by pean cities. The population of the city is is intended to represent the Holy Sepulchre, now 150,000, and its system of quays and with the dead body of the Saviour. The docks is probably superior to that of any effect of the whole is to promote neither the other continental city. Lines of steamers cause of religion or art. St. Jacques is an run direct between Antwerp and New York. old and very rich church. It was begun in

After securing rooms and eating our break- 1491. Where wood is used in St. Paul's, fast at the hotel, we directed our steps to the St. Jacques' has marble. In its stained glass Cathedral, passing on our way, in the Place windows, its costly monuments, its relics, and Verte, the statue of Rubens, the great painter, decorations, it far exceeds in sumptuousness who lived in Antwerp, and whose house still the cathedral itself. Back of the high altar stands in the Place de Meir, although built is the chapel of Rubens, where the great in 1611. The Cathedral is the largest and painter is buried. most beautiful Gothic church in the Nether- From the churches to the Museum. Passlands. It was begun in 1322, but more than ing through a gate and a garden, we ascend two hundred years elapsed before it was com- I to the Entrance Hall, and our attention is at once arrested by the beautiful frescoes repre- 1 of worsted or calico, and long-eared white senting the history of the Antwerp School of caps. The donkey carts and dog teams in art. “The Museum consists of a series of fine which they have brought the fruit, vegetables, saloons opening into one another, constituting etc., they are offering for sale are resting paa single gallery, lighted from the top, which tiently around the outer edges of the square, can be viewed as a whole or in its several and around the pavements. To an Ameriparts. The arrangement is admirable, the can the sight is novel and exceedingly picpictures being shown to the very best advant- turesque. age. Of the six or seven hundred pictures in · Away to Brussels. The country through the Museum, there are but few that do not which we pass is rich and well cultivated. belong to the Flemish School-in other words, The farm houses and barns are better than in it is a museum of home productions. The England. There are no fences, except here most celebrated artists represented are John and there a hedge but the fields are frequently Van Eyck, Roger Vander Weyden, Quentin separated by trees. The houses are mostly Massys, Anthony' Van Dyck, Peter Paul white, with red tile roofs. The typical village Rubens, and Rembrandt Harmentz van Rijn. | house is built of stone, has a low, narrow door, The pictures that impressed me most were small windows without shutters, a steep roof “Christ Crucified between the two Thieves," with little dormer windows. by Rubens; the “Dead Saviour," by Massys; ! Brussels is a city of 130,000 inhabitants, and a portrait of his wife, by Rembrandt; the in its general appearance it is more modern Crucifixion, by Van Dyck. Mental copies | than Antwerp. It has clean streets, fine of these, very imperfect doubtless, I tried to stores, handsome buildings, beautiful parks carry away with me. The two or three hours and boulevards. Its shops, cafés, public spent in the Museum were exceedingly pleas- amusements and general life are so much like ant; but directly after the visit the ideal | those of the French capital that it has been world into which my imagination had carried called “Paris in Miniature.” me was rather suddenly changed to a real | We visited the cathedral, an old Gothic one by a walk about the city. Of this walk structure, commenced in the 12th century. I find the following notes in my notebook : Our attention was particularly attracted to its

The city has a large trade. Many ships stained glass windows, the finest we had seen. from all countries are lying along the quays | Then, curious to see the process of lace makand in the docks. There are fine streets and ing, we directed our steps to one of the many large stores, but many of the houses are old manufactories in the city. In the rooms we and built in the regular Dutch style with visited a large number of women were emgables towards the street, and the upper stor-ployed in weaving lace. Each had a cushion ies projecting over it. The streets in the to which the patterns to be worked are at: older parts of the city, are crooked, narrow tached. Pins are stuck in at regular intervals and quaint. The people are of mixed nation in the lines or at the angles of the patterns. alities; you hear spoken on the streets Dutch, | The threads are in bobbins; and the process French, German and English; and at the of weaving consists in twisting or plaiting hotels and in the large warehouses and stores them around the pins in such a way as to form all these languages are used. Antwerp must the net-work arrangement, which is characterbe a religious place, judging from the num- istic of point-lace, the figured portions being ber of churches, and more particularly from worked out by crossing the threads. The the hundreds of images of the Virgin and the process of weaving is very slow and requires saints that are erected at the corners of the great patience and skill. The most artistic streets, and attached to the houses in all parts part of the work, however, consists in making of the city, Lamps are kept burning near the patterns. In the salesroom attached to them, and devout Catholics cross themselves the manufactory, we were shown many artiand seem to utter a prayer in passing. Young cles of lace of great beauty but at fabulous and old of both sexes, among the lower prices. Our purchases were few and modest. classes, wear heavy wooden shoes, or clogs. A ride about the city enabled us to see the They are exceedingly clumsy, and when used Boulevards, new and old, the Park, the Palais in walking make a dreadful clatter on floors du Roi, the Palais Ducal, the Palais de la Naand pavements. The markets are a curiosity. tion, the Colonne du Congress, the Hotel de Hundreds of women_few men attend mar- Ville, the statues of Counts Egmont and Horn, ket-have their marketing on tables or in two of the cruel Duke of Alva's victims, the baskets in a public square. Nearly all of statue of Godfrey de Bouillon and other sights them are dressed alike, in blue short gowns of interest ; but to me the feature of my stay

in Brussels was my visit to the battle-field of the south-east, a mile away. Beyond it, perWaterloo, some thirteen miles from the city. haps another mile, is the village of Plancenoit, My friends preferred seeing other sights, and where the terrible struggle took place at night I could not persuade them to accompany me, fall, between the freshly-arrived Prussians so I went alone. The cars took me through | under Blucher, and the French forces dea beautiful rolling country to the station of tached to oppose them. Between the two Braine l'Alleud, where a walk of a mile lines of battle, a half mile to the south-east brought me to the Mound of the Lion, of the Mound from which I was gazing, is the the very centre of the great fight. This mound old Chateau Hougomont; to the east of the was erected by the king of the Netherlands chateau, and much nearer where I stood is the soon after the battle, and is a huge pyramidal farm La Haye Sainte, and still farther to the mound of earth, 200 feet high, on which east, from a half a mile to a mile, are the stands a lion weighing twenty-eight tons, cast farms Papelotte, La Haye and Smouhen. No from the metal of captured French cannon. | one who has ever read an account of the bat. A part of the tail is wanting as it was hacked tle need be told how important were the parts off by French soldiers in 1832 on their way these several places were made to play in deto Antwerp. The mound marks the most ciding the issues of the dreadful day. Never, conspicuous spot in the field, near the centre perhaps, in the history of human warfare was of the Allied line of battle, and the place there a struggle more fierce or more bloody where the Prince of Orange was wounded. than that made by different divisions of the The approach to the top is up 230 or 240 French army to take possession of this chastone steps. Provided with a map of the teau and the houses on these farms. At last, field and a guide, I was not long in making when almost night, La Haye Sainte, Papemy way up, and in a short time I had all the lotte, La Haye and Smouhen yielded, but principal points of one of the world's greatest | Hougomont held out to the last, and won the struggles in my mind, a picture that will live day for Wellington. The other places named in memory forever.

seem to have recovered from the shock-show Facing north, the first line of the Allied l none of the scars of battle ; but Hougomont forces stretches away, along the crests of a remains as it was left, a mass of shattered ridge of low hills, directly east and west. Be- ruins. The wall around the garden still prehind this line in the hollows between the hills sents the loop-holes, through which the Engwere stationed the reserves and the cavalry. lish poured their deadly fire into the faces of Back a few hundred yards along the highway the French, and it and all the remaining is the village of St. Jean, immediately south buildings are battered by bullets and torn by of it the plain of St. Jean, and farther back a cannon balls. mile and a half from where I stood I could see It is well known that Napoleon attempted the village of Waterloo, the headquarters of at the last moment to retrieve the fortunes of Wellington before and after the battle, and the day by ordering a desperate charge of the the skirtings of the Bois de Soigne-Byron's Imperial Guards. They were led by Ney. Ardennes. A quarter of a mile to my right, Standing there in the centre of the field, in along the line of battle, is an obelisk erected full view of the ground occupied by both to the memory of the Hanoverian officers of armies, it was easy to see them form, start the German Legion who fell in the battle, and across the plain, dash up and over the hills, just opposite to it across the road is a monu- and charge like a hurricane upon the Allied ment to Col. Gordon. Forty or fifty feet forces. Then up, from their sheltered posidirectly north from this monument, on the tions behind the ridges and in the hollows other side of a by-road that crosses the main between the hills, rise the solid squares of road at this point, there once stood an elm English infantry, and with lines of steel and tree under which Wellington is said to have thundering gusts of fire and tempests of lead remained during a considerable time while the bid defiance to the Old Guard. Ney is there, battle was raging most fiercely. The tree | “the bravest of the brave,” four horses shot itself has been cut down and carried away by under him ; but what can heroism avail to relic hunters.

| arrest a hurricane of slot that sweeps away Turning around and facing south, I had at each furious gust whole masses of his comin fair view the whole line of rising ground mand, rider and horse. I turn away from occupied by the French army. Belle Alli- the dreadful strife. The Old Guard is anni. ance, a one-storied white house by the road. hilated, but what a wreck they have left beside, Napoleon's headquarters during the hind ! greater part of the battle, is plainly seen to'. Apart from the battle, the view from the

Mound of the Lion is magnificent. There where the green landscape. It is rare indeed is no fairer or more peaceful looking country that so much rural beauty can be found linked in the world than that to-day surrounding the with so much of historic interest. field of Waterloo. The whole appears like a Coming down from the Mound, I made a great garden. As I looked around, the rich hasty visit to a few points of special interest crops of barley and rye seemed ready for the on the field, plucked some flowers and a head sickle, a perfect sea of tall, heavily-headed of wheat from the very spot where the Old wheat waved gently in the summer breeze, Guard made their last charge, and rode back and here and there, in all directions, men to Brussels, to dream all night of lines of batand women were cheerily engaged in cut-| tle, bloody assaults, cavalry charges, so ting and making hay. Great rows of trees of infantry, La Belle Alliance, Hougomont, stretched away between the growing crops Napoleon, Wellington, Ney, Blucher, Grouand along the public highways, giving relief chy, defeat, victory. Next morning we left to the white houses that in ones and twos, for Cologne and the Rhine, by way of Liege and clusters forming villages, dotted every. I and Aix-la-Chapelle.

OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION,

OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL, ? HARRISBURG, March, 1879. S

HARRISBURG, Nov. 29th, 1878. } IN the case of City and Borough Superintendents. Hon. J. P. WICKERSHAM, Superintendent of Publie as well as in that of County Superintendents, when

Instruction the person receiving the highest number of votes is

| Dear Sir : It is my opinion that you have no power proven to be ineligible to the office, the commission

to appoint and commission a Superintendent of Pub must be given to the person receiving the next highest

lic Schools for the county of Lackawanna during the and no proceedings pending in the Supreme Court on

term of the present incumbent of that office in Laa mandamus affecting the case can be a supersedeas.

zerne county, who was elected by a convention of Attorney General Lear in Letters to the Šuperintend.

School Directors last May. He was employed for ent of Public Instruction dated September 27th and

the term of three years to perform the duty of County November 22d, 1878.

Superintendent for the county of Luzerne, at a salary graduated by the number of schools, and fixed by law.

That salary cannot be increased or diminished during The word “sureties," in the Act of May 1854,

the Act of May 1854, his term, according to the thirteenth section of the relating to the bond of the Treasurer of a school dis third article of the Constitution. He must be paid trict, does not necessarily imply that there must be even if the work be done by another. He has the more than one surety if that one is approved by the right to perform the work required by his appointboard, nor can it be used to relieve a person who has ment to the office. placed his name on the bond of a Treasurer from any But while he has the right to perform the duties, responsibility that may attach to that act. If only one have you a right to relieve him of a portion of his name is on the treasurer's bond that name is responsi- duties by the appointment of another for a portion of ble, if more than one all are responsible conjointly.-- the territory included in his district for which he was Judge Wickes, York County Court.

commissioned, even with his consent? His election

for the term of three years, although by a convention A CITY treasurer under the Act of May 23, 1874, |

of school directors, selected him to serve them in the and its several supplements, cannot receive any addi.

interest of the common schools of the county of Lution to his stipulated salary from the school board or

zerne, limited and bounded as it was at the time of town council for acting in an ex-officio capacity as the

his election. Can they be deprived of their choice treasurer of a school board. “Any duties which de

without direct legislation on the subject, but by the volve upon an officer ex-officio he must perform as

mere accident that the county has been divided dursuch officer without any compensation other than the

ing his term? Whether under the present Constitusalary attached to his office unless some additional

tion it can be done by a direct provision in the act for compensation is provided by law.” As the salary of

| the division of counties it is unnecessary to inquire, a city treasurer is fixed by ordinance, it is to be pre

| for no such attempt was made by that act. The quessumed that it is made to cover all ex-officio as well as

tion, therefore, arises : Does the necessity to appoint regular duties.—Attorney General Lear in a letter to

| in the new county, during the term of the present inDeputy Superintendent Lindsay, dated July 17th,

cumbent, result as an accident of the erection of the 1878.

county with a force which carries with it the right to make the appointment?

The act for the erection of new counties authorizes In next column will be found the opinion of the Governor to appoint county officers for any new the Attorney General in full in the case of the ap- county, who “shall continue in office until the next pointment of a County Superintendent in the new general election and until their successors shall be county of Lackawanna:

duly elected and qualified.” But this power to ap

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