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RADICALISM IN BOSTON.

more writing in blank books and in other

exercises required. The great amount of time IMPORTANT CHANGES IN METHODS AND STUD. previously devoted to geography is reduced, IES PURSUED IN THE BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

and natural philosophy and physiology are to

be taken up in the third class. Music and THE readers of The Journal will be inter- drawing receive the same attention as during

| ested in learning of the latest radicalism previous years. The most important change in the management of the Boston Public here, as in the primary grade, is in reference Schools. One of the last acts of the School to oral instruction. It is not to be as in the Board at the July meeting was to adopt what old programme, merely mentioned and rarely is called the “ New Programme of Studies.” attended to by the teachers for want of time, This had been most carefully prepared by the but a specified amount of time per week is to Board of Supervisors and the present Super- be allotted to it, as well as to arithmetic or intendent, and was the result of months of reading. In the two lowest classes the consideration and discussion. It was adopted instruction will be almost entirely oral. In by the School Board with little discussion and the fourth class it will be largely so, and in without much opposition.

the other classes from one to two hours per To show what a departure it is from the week will be given to this exercise. In the beaten paths of the past, we present the lower classes the subjects for oral instruction main features of this new course of studies. will be natural history, plants from May to In the primary schools the instruction is al. November, animals from November to May, most entirely oral. Scholars are to learn trades, occupations, common phenomena, from objects and from the teacher, instead of stories, anecdotes, mythology, metals, and from the book. Oral lessons will be given minerals. In the upper classes, physiology, upon pictures, plants, animals, or whatever life in the Middle Ages, biographical and histhe ingenuity of the teacher may suggest, in torical sketches, and experiments in physics. order to accustom the scholars to express Every study has its specified time assigned to what they know in words. This exercise will it in the course. be called “ Language." Other oral instructions will be given upon form, color, measure; animals grouped by habits, traits, or struct. MEETINGS AND ASSOCIATIONS. ures ; vegetables, minerals, the human body, and hygiene. Fables, anecdotes and simple THE following, which we take from the poetry will receive proper attention. The | Educational Weekly of Chicago, is an abmetric system will be taught from the metric stract kindly furnished by Supt. F. W. Isham, apparatus. Heretofore much time has been of Walworth county, Wisconsin, of a paper given to spelling, and many hours spent over read by him at the late meeting of the county the primary speller ; that book is to be en- superintendents of that State, held at Maditirely discarded, and “some easy, common son. words from the reading lessons” substituted In educational work, especially, the effort in its place. Two new studies are introduced must be well organized and the purpose deficalled “Recreation” and “ Miscellaneous," nite. Cui bono, "for what good,” must be the to which an hour and a half a week is to be ever-recurring question. A superintendent, given. Whether this means work or play, in organizing a series of teachers' meetings teachers and scholars are yet to learn. must clearly apprehend what kind of work is

In the grammar grade, equally important most needed by his teachers, and then plan changes are indicated. Grammar is abolished, for its proper accomplishment. The old fashat least the name, and the spelling book goes ioned teachers' meeting failed because with it. How the eyes of the boys will glis teachers came unprepared for the work,—the ten when they learn this fact! But we ques. work not having been previously assigned ; tion, in fact, the wisdom of these ultra meas again, skillful teachers were not secured to ures. “Language" takes the place of gram- conduct the exercises. It did not meet their mar, which means less of technical grammar, I actual and immediate wants. These meetings such as parsing, &c., and more attention may be the medium whereby the superintend. given to composition, structure of sentences, ent may exert a powerful influence for good, use of capitals, letter-writing, and analysis. not only on the teachers but on school offi. Spelling is to be from the reader and other cers and the people of the localities where text-books. The amount of writing in copy- they are held. books is reduced more than one-half, and! In order that the meeting may be eminently Reading ........

Spelling ...........

Grammar ...

U. S. History.

Constitutions.....

Geography ......

Arithmetic......

Topics

successful, the folowing conditions must be, or her inspection district will be, and will considered: An accessible location; a defi- thereby have ample opportunity to make nite programme, prepared and announced in thorough preparation therefor. Every teacher advance; a professional, as well as a teacha- at work in the county, all intending to teach ble spirit on the part of the teachers; a care- during the year, and the advanced pupils of ful preparation on the part of the superintend- ! the public schools are earnestly invited to ent, as well as the teachers; the coöperation prepare for, and attend these meetings. The and encouragement of school boards; the Superintendent calls to his aid, in conducting conductors of the excercises to be teachers in the exercises, the best teachers of the county ; whom the rest have confidence. Something and such additions to, or variations from, the of a system should be secured throughout above scheme are made, as tend to improve the State in regard to these Saturday meetings, the character of the meetings. as has been secured in the case of the annual institutes. In Walworth county, composed of sixteen

NIAGARA REVISA. townships, a plan was carried out during the past winter, whereby teachers held monthly | the early part of last August, I joined meetings in each of the four inspection dis- ! | a party of pleasure, principally from York, tricts, and worked in accordance with a defi- | Lancaster, Columbia and Harrisburgh, whose nite programme, previously announced by final destination was Niagara, via Minnequa, the superintendent. The following are the | Watkins Glen and Seneca Lake. This excurmain features of this scheme of work:

sion was under the efficient management of Dr Dale, of York. Undertakings like this are a real benefit to our country, which so greatly needs ästhetic culture to counteract the groveling tendencies of our preëminently " practical” nation. Their influence as a means of education is incalculable.

On our northward way, beautiful glimpses of the Susquehanna.—the winding streamflashed upon us for a moment here and there, as we followed the steady and unerring guidance of the iron steed, with its sinews and muscles that never tire, through sylvan dale and by sequestered cottage and hamlet, and arrived, in the evening, at Watkins Glen, which was our first stopping place.

Watkins Glen was a disappointment to me; but the disappointment was of that kind, rare in the case of scenery as well as that of character, in which the delightful reality surpasses one's expectations. “The Artist's Dream" was the part of the Glen which our own little | party admired most, and the “Pool of the

Nymphs,” we all thought charming. Of the i naiads themselves, however, we saw none in their chosen place; but we met three of them in a secluded spot, a little below, clothed and in their right minds, all engaged, as was to be expected in this utilitarian age, in reading modern novels. Here and there the little pink blossoms of the Herb Robert gleamed forth from a crevice of the rock, and the azure chalice of the pendant Harebell hung down from a ledge above.

Our passage over Seneca Lake was very By reference to this scheme, any teacher pleasant, though there is nothing in the scenin the county may ascertain just when, where, ery especially beautiful. Indeed, the shores and what the nature of each meeting in his ' of this lake are very tame, and it is only

Theory Discussions...

0 Team, School Organization School Discipline.

EACH DISTRICT.
FIRST MEETING IN

and ac, syllables.

vow. in monosyi's
Phonics, Marking of Marking of Vowels

and of consonants.
in unac. syllables, Analysis of Tho't.

Word Analysis, Pre-Ru

sis compared.

fixes and Suffixes.Rules for Spelling. Geographic'l Nam's." Spelling
Parsing and Analy-Iconiug of Verbs.
Conjug. of Verbs.

ticiples.
Infinitives ar
Infinitives and Par- Letter Writin

itals, Punctuation.

Down"

America.
tution of U.S.

Degree.
Origin of the Consti- Presidential

numbers ; scales.
Notation of whole, Fractions, Common

tions,
Government.

Contour and relief.
Circles, Zones, Outline Map of NA: Railroads of State.

and Decimal.
Early Discoveries in Colonial Forms of French and Indian Territorial Growth

War.

ing in the State.

Simple Interest.
Elec- Process of Law-mak- Judiciary of State

I
U. S.

and U.S.
of the U.S.

ships and Ranges.
Land Surv., Town.
Bonds and Notes.

Securities,

"

jects, Methods. Recitations

b. School Records. - Ob. School R

SECOND MEETING. THIRD MEETING. FOURTH MEETING.

American Literature.

after one has left a long vista behind him and This pronunciation is certainly more sonorous the common place minutiæ of the scenery and pleasing to the ear than the prevailing one. have faded away into the vague and dreamy, As I have never met with any one who that one sees anything very attractive in had taken a certain view of the Fall from the Seneca Lake. I remarked to a friend the American side which enjoys some advantages absence of the “wild swan,” which the poet over all others, I will call the attention of the instructs us to believe habitually "spreads his reader to it especially. Half way down the snowy sail” on the bosom of this favored covered railway there is a door opening upon sheet of water; but that gentleman explained a bank of debris, which has accumulated from the lack by reminding me that as twilight was the disintegration of the rock above. Taking approaching, the poetical bird had probably one's stand on a certain point of this bank, gone to roost.

the American Fall and the great Canadian We arrived at Niagara on the 7th of August, Cataract are united into one, the profile of about midnight, so we did not see the cataract Goat Island disappearing entirely. This vista till the morning of the 8th After the lapse of falling waters is the finest of all attainable of years I found myself once more in the ones. I speak of it as a vista, for it is as presence of all its perennial beauty. The viewed in this character only that it surpasses whole is an "embarras des richesses," which all others. The British Fall is, I believe, unino one can appreciate who has never been versally admitted to be the most perfectly there. I will not dilate upon the hackneyed beautiful. The impression of enormous voltopic of the scenery of this unequaled Fall. ume is greatest there, and that exquisite and It is enough to say that it seemed more beau- unrivaled green of the water is there distiful than ever. The late Mr. Edmund Quincy played in the greatest perfection. When the said many years ago, that the impression great Horseshoe Fall, enveloped in its veil which the cataract left upon his mind was not of mist, has faded away into a ghost-like vision so much one of grandeur as of exquisite of vagueness under the shadow of a passing beauty, and this, I think, must be the feeling cloud, it is wonderful to see it glowing into of all people of fine organization.

renewed beauty under the magical beams of Prof. Haldeman, who has devoted some the sunlight as it brightens into the perfect time to the study of several of the Indian splendor of unclouded day. The trembling dialects, once told the writer that the name and impalpable iris that plays over the snow Niagara signifies “ The Broken Water.” An of the falling waters, adds a last touch of etymology, at one time somewhat in vogue, glory to this unrivaled scene. was “The Wonderful,” which was suspicious, Vision of Beauty! when we were at last as savoring too much of the transcendental, forced to say to thee farewell, the feeling of perhaps, for the savage mind; though in the our hearts was that of abiding thankfulpride of our so-called civilization, we often ness to the Creator of thee and all other lovely underrate those nations we call savage, and things for this perennial banquet, and of equal complacently overrate ourselves.

gratitude for the measure of power with which The name of this Fall is almost universally we are endowed for its enjoyment. pronounced with the accent on the antepenultimate-Ni-ag'-ara. But Schoolcraft, whose mother was a squaw, and who was, I believe, TEACHERS' EXAMINATIONS. familiar with the Indian dialects of this region, says that the word was, by the aborigines, NE of the superintendent's least pleasant accented on the penultimate-Ni-a-ga'-ra. duties, and the teacher's most trying and The paternal grandparents of the writer were, vexatious ordeals is the teachers' examination. with a number of other relatives, captured, However intelligent the latter may be, it is during the Revolutionary War, by a party of always difficult to arrive at the exact extent of Mohawks and other Iroquois Indians, and his qualifications as a teacher, and more diffitaken prisoners into Canada, crossing the cult still, if not utterly impossible to indicate river just below and in sight of the cataract. it on the certificate. On the other hand, the These ancestors of his always pronounced the teacher never feels as though he had obtained narne Niaga'ra, saying that this was the pro- exactly what he deserved. He is always sure nunciation of the Indians themselves, who that something is wrong with the superintend. may reasonably be supposed to have spoken ent. Again, the method of examining is their own language correctly. Goldsmith ac- anything but satisfactory to all concerned. if cents the name in this manner, but his author- oral, too much time will be required, to say ity will probably be regarded as doubtful. ! nothing of innumerable other objections; and

B.

if written, too much labor is imposed on the is, to ascertain whether in an emergency, or teacher examined. In fact, the whole modus whenever occasion requires, he can summon operandi is open to criticism on every side, all his mental powers, and concentrate them and it is with a view to direct thought to it upon the subject under consideration : to that this article is written.

ascertain the degree of the applicant's presNow, it will be admitted that the object of lence of mind, and hence the extent of his the examination is to arrive at a knowledge control over his own intellectual faculties, as of the qualifications of the teacher as such. In | an essential preliminary condition of havother words, the superintendent's business is ing control over the minds of others. Now not so much to ascertain how thoroughly this can best be done by an oral examination, versed in English grammar A is, but rather which will also best reveal the gift of lanhow competent he is to teach it.

guage, the ease of utterance, the facility of The question is not so much, Can B solve illustration, and the general bearing and mana question in cube root, as, Is he conversantner of the person examined. with the best method of teaching C to do it? If this position is considered correct, it fol. lows that the entire examination is in the HINTS TO KINDERGARTNERS. theory and practice of teaching. That the examination should show, not as it does now, THE following is a lesson on the cylinder who is the best scholar, which is of no concern, 1 of the second gift of Freebel's Kinderbut who is the best teacher, which is what garten occupations, which was handed in by the employers want to know. It would also one of Mrs. Pollock's Normal scholars in the follow that the examination would not place Kindergarten Normal Institute of Washingthe young student, who has never given the ton, D. C. It will be suggestrive to many theory and practice of teaching a thought, | teachers in the public schools under whose far above the far superior conscientious eyes it may come. teacher, who has made this, as he should, his | “What have I in my hand, children ?"-holding up chief study. Finally it would follow that teach- | the cylinder of the second gift. ing would be recognized, if not as a profes

Ans. “A roller." sion, at least as a calling requiring something

" Why do you call it a roller ?”

“ Because it will roll, and looks like mamma's more than a mere knowledge of the common rolling-pin with which she rolls her pie-crust." school branches. Would it not also bar the

It can roll and it can stand, door against that crowd of interlopers, who

Obedient to your little hand. always have the impudence to call themselves “Our sphere would roll; is it anything like the teachers, whenever business in other avoca- cylinder ?" tions is dull? Let it not be supposed that I “Yes, but not just like it, because it is not all

round like the ball.” undervalue literary qualifications; but what is "

“ How is it like the ball, children ?" insisted on here, is that they are only means

“ It has a curved surface one way, and will roll." to the end ability to teach.

“Is it the same color as the sphere and cube?”. Supposing all this to be conceded, it can, "Yes." I think, be shown that both time and place, as

“ Why do you think this color is the same ?"

“ Because it is made of the same material.” well as method of examination, should be

“ What material were they all made of, children?” changed. The best time to examine one al

“ They were made of wood.” ready engaged in teaching, is certainly not “ Where do we get the wood ?” during vacation, but while at work. Why “ From the great forest trees.” should not the superintendent examine the

Bring in a lesson on material, trees, etc., at another

time. teacher while imparting his instructions to

"Is all wood of the same color ?”. the class, while governing and managing his “No; some kinds of wood are very white, while school? What more favorable and more other kinds are very dark.” suitable time, place and circumstances could | “I think this cylinder is made from the maple or be chosen? Finally, the method of examina- | pine tree. Is it hard or soft, children, if it is made

of wood po tion should be the oral and written combined,

; “It is hard.” but principally the oral. Were the object | “How do you know wood is hard ?” simply to arrive at a teacher's literary quali- “When we press it with our fingers it will not dent fications, I would grant that the written in like the soft ball.” method would be preferable: but the obiect | Anything is soft that yields to the pressure, any

thing is hard that resists pressure. Let the children is not only to do this, but also to test his

mention other hard substances, as stones, marbles, ability to avail himself of them under the metals, and give lessons on some of these, at different trying circumstances of the schoolroom, that times.

“ What have you ever seen, that was the shape of, thoughts. In his leisure hours he generally reads, this cylinder, children ?”

í or, as he feels too old to play about the streets, he “Gas and water-pipes, trunks of trees, stems of will take a quiet stroll about the Anlagen, the Stadtflowers, lead-pencils, pen-holders, lamp-chimneys, Hof, or Schloss-garten. This may be good exercise stove-pipes and drums."

for an old gentleman, but not for a boy whose energy Sometimes give a lesson on some of these, and tell has been accumulating for hours while sitting on why they were made this shape, were hollow and the hard school bench, England can hardly over. not solid like our cube. Explain the difference in rate the value of its outdoor sports. sound of a solid body and a drum.

The German school-boy is wanting, too, in that "Does the cylinder look anything like the cube? | peculiar institution which must exercise a great influHas it any edges or corners as the cube has ?”. ence upon the character-namely, the fight. The

“ Yes, it has two edges, but they are curved edges Germans have certainly a somewhat similar institution and do not form any corners.”

-the duel. But the duel has, in the existing state of “ What is a corner?”

society, lost its intensity of meaning; our age has “ A point where two lines meet to say how do you grown too old for it; only boys are young enough to do to-day?' to each other.”

need it. The student, however, has remained a boy “ Will the cylinder stand like the cube ?”

up to an age at which he ought to be a man. For “ Yes, when it is set on one of its plane faces. I him the duel, though dead, is not yet buried; perThere are some objects which are nearly this form, haps it would be stricter to say that it has lost its liv. but not quite."

ing, manly earnestness and reached its second child. Let children name examples, as door-knobs, dishes, hood. Dueling is one of the chief occupations of etc. These forms are called cylindrical.

the “ corps-student." The institution of “corps" has “Which of these three forms of blocks differ most lost the aim and end by which it was called forth; from each other?”

its mission is fulfilled, and so there ensues, as is al. “ The sphere and the cube."

ways the case in history when the true motives and “ Things that are very different from each other ends of institutions have been realized and have are called opposites, and then we can always find played their part, a time when some mere outward something that will connect them by resembling both. concomitant, a formal matter, is clung to; an attribute What connects the sphere and the cube?”

is made the essence. Drawing an analogy from “ The cylinder.”

chivalry, we call this “ Quixotism.” The sensible Let children name two objects very different, as a German “ corps-student" feels the sham in moments fish and a bird.

when he is not beerfully enthusiastic, in moments of • What is the difference?"

reflective relaxation ; but the English fifth-form boy “One flies in the air; the other swims in the has learned it thoroughly, and even in his cups des. water."

pises those who play at fighting. “Are they not alike in anything? What connects In German schools great attention is given to the them together?”

education of the intellect, but the forming of the “Both have heads and tails. They both float, one character is sorely neglected. Nay, it is not only nein the air, the other in the water.”

glected, but much is done positively to spoil the charLessons of this kind can frequently be introduced. acter. How frequent are the offenses against the pu

pils' self-respect! Words like Du Esel," Du

lügst,” are not at all infrequent. Nor, again, is there THE GERMAN SCHOOL-BOY.

the “wholesome equality' between master and pupil.

Entire submission, as well in thought as in action, is WRITER in the Nineteenth Century, a exacted. Hence springs a habit of dissimulation, A leading English periodical, who seems | trickery, or tale-telling while in the master's pres. to treat his subject from the standpoint of

int of ence, ridicule and bravado behind his back. The

idea of “gentleman," which has worked so well personal knowledge, paints a picture of life with the little boys in American public schools, is toin the German gymnasia and universities tally unknown. Much has been said as to German which is certainly less attractive than that schools, and they have constantly been held up to the usually presented. If it be true—and we eyes of the world as models; but though this high

opinion is no doubt justified in the department of have little reason to doubt the evidence of a

learning, yet we cannot hold it as regards the formaso seemingly credible-our American tion of character. In this respect the system of youth need not cross the sea for better schol- | American public schools is certainly better. astic training or for higher development in | Look at the pale young “ Primaner” who has outall that constitutes true manhood. Says our

grown his strength, and compare him with the Ger

man youth of Tacitus who bathed in snow! His author :

life, which ought at that age to be essentially of the From his earliest years the German school-boy is present, is of the future. He eagerly looks forward overworked at the gymnasiums and lyceums, and his to the time when he will be a student at the univerwork increases as he advances, until he is about to sity. On this goal of happiness all his night and day enter the university. Besides being in school from dreams concentrate. He sees himself with his col. 8 a, m, in winter and 7 a. m. in summer until 3 or ored cap and his high boots, his rapier in one hand, 4 p. m., he is so busily occupied in preparing his les his glass in the other, jeering at all the laws and resons that the writer has known boys of the unter se strictions before which he has had so long to cringe. cunda (the fourth from the highest class) at work till | That will be happiness! And what does he find? midnight, with but very little time for recreation. At first his fancy is captivated by the charm of nov. Then the German boy has not those exhilarating out- elty; he is enchanted so long as his illusion can door sports which drive away pale faces and pale make flowery what would otherwise be most barren.

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