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But yesterday, the word of Cæsar might Ayainst the world, Have stood against the world *—now lies he the Roman Empire, there, ruled, included nearly And none so poor as to do him reverence ! the whole of the then O masters ! if I were disposed to stir

Your hearts and mind to mutiny and rage, None so poor, &c.,

40 I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius* wrong, person is now too Who, you all know, are honourable men ! high opinion to do honour

I will not do them wrong; I rather choose to Cæsar,

To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you, Cassius was a Roman Than I will wrong such honourable men - 45 noble, upon whom Cæsar bestowed great But here's a parchment * with the seal of Cæsarhonours. He was the I found it in his closet *_'tis his will ! author of the conspi- Let but the commons * hear his testamentracy to murder his

(Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read),Parchment, the skin and they will go and kiss dead Cæsar's wounds, 50 of eda receber Orient And dip their napkins in his sacred blood ; for writing

Yea, beg a hair of him for memory ; Closet, private

And, dying, mention it within their wills, Commons, the com- Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy, mon people.

Unto their issue ! Legacy, anything left

55 by will


you have tears, prepare to shed them now. Issue, children, de. You all do know this mantle. I remember

The first time that ever Cæsar put it on :

'Twas on a summer's evening, in his tentThe Nervii were the That day he overcame the Nervii !*

60 most warlike of the Look! in this place ran Cassius' dagger Belgic tribes. Their

through !country was in the north-eastern portion See what a rent the envious Casca * made !of France. Il157 B.C. Through this, the well-beloved Brutus stabbed ! Cæsar so totally de. And as he pluck'd his cursed steel away, feat:d them, that tiey had only sco fighting Mark how the blood of Cæsar followed it ! men left out of 60,000. As rushing out of doors, to be resolved * spirator who aimed If Brutus so unkindly knocked, or no ;the first thrust at For Brutus, as you know, was Cæsar's angel ! * To be resolred, to be Judge, O ye gods. how dearly Cæsar loved him! certain This, this was the unkindest cut of all !

70 Ca sar's anvel here For when the noble Cæsar saw him stab, Ingratitude, more strong than traitors'*

arms, Traitor, who Quite vanquished bim. Then burst his mighty plots against his sove.

heart ; reign or the govern

And, in his mantle muffling up his face,
Pompey's statue, a
Even at the base of Pompey's statue *-

75 statue set up in the Which all the while ran blood !-great Cæsar Forum to the honour

fell ! of Pompey the Great, the predecessor o Oh! what a fall was there, my countrymen!

Then I, and you, and all of us fell down;



Casca was the con

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the treason which caused Cæsar's blood



Whilst bloody treason * flourished over us ! Bloody treason, &c., 80 Oh! now you weep, and I perceive you feel

The dint of pity :* these are gracious drops ! to be shed, triumphed Kind souls ! what! weep you when you but for the time being. behold

Dint of pity, the ef

fect of pity which Our Cæsar's vesture wounded ? look you here ! causes you to shed Here is himself-marred,* as you see, by

Marred, disfigured. traitors !85 Good friends ! sweet friends ! let me not stir

you up
To such a sudden flood of mutiny!
They that have done this deed are honourable !
What private griefs they have, alas, I know

That made them do it: they are wise and

honourable, 90 And will, no doubt, with reason answer you. Orator, one who is I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts. able to make a good

speech, public I am no orator,* as Brutus is ;

speaker. But, as you know me all, a plain blunt * man, Blunt, That loves his friend—and that they know straightforward.

Wit, knowledge. full well

Worth, influence. 95 That gave me public leave to speak of him- Speak right on, say For I have neither wit,* nor words, nor worth,* Dumb nouths, hero

what I know. Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech, the wounds of 'Cæsar To stir men's blood : I only speak right on ! *


mouths having no I tell you that which you ýourselves do know; power of speech. roo Show you sweet Cæsar's wounds, poor, poor And Brutus Antony, dumb mouths ! *

&c. If Antony were

as clever a speaker And bid them speak for me. But, were I as Brutus, he would Brutus,

so work upon their

feelings as to make And Brutus Antony,* there were an Antony them instantly rise Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue up against the traitors

who had so foully In every wound of Cæsar, that should move

murdered their great105 The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny!


honest and


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est benefactor,


But pleasures are like poppies * spread, Poppy, a plant hav.
You seize the flower, its bloom is shed :

ing large showy flow-
Or like the snow-fall in the river,
A moment white—then gone for ever :
Or like the borealis

Borealis race, here
That flit ere you can point their place:

" Northern Or like the rainbow's lovely form,


Evanishing * amid the storin.





reference is
to the





Magnificoes were Enter the DUKE; the MAGNIFICOES ;* ANTONIO, BASSANIO, GRATIANO, SALARINO, SALANIO, and others.

the higher or

chief nobles of Venice.

Antonio, a young

merchant, who used to lend

money to dis

tressed people

any interest for

Duke. What, is Antonio * here?

Ant. Ready, so please your grace.

Duke. I am sorry for thee; thou art come to


without receiving A stony adversary,* an inhuman wretch Uncapable of pity, void and empty From any dram * of mercy.


Adversary, an


Uncapable (now written incap

able), not being

able to pity.

Dram, the small

est quantity.
To qualify, &c.,

to turn him from
his cruel inten-

tion. Rigorous, severe, stern, cruel. Obdurate, harsh, very cruel, stubborn.

The Jew, Shylock, who hated Antonio because the latter had often insulted him in the streets and

public places, and found fault with him for lending money at a high

rate of interest. The world, those

interested in the matter; here means the people Where, whereas.

of Venice

Moiety, portion.



I have heard,
Your grace hath ta'en great pains to qualify
His rigorous* course; but, since he stands obdurate,*
And that no lawful means can carry me
Out of his envy's reach, I do oppose
My patience to his fury; and am arm'd
To suffer, with a quietness of spirit,
The very tyranny and rage of his.

Duke. Go one, and call the Jew* into the court.
Salan. He's ready at the door: he comes, my



Duke. Make room, and let him stand before our


Shylock, the world* thinks, and I think so too,
That thou but lead'st this fashion of thy malice
To the last hour of act; and then, 'tis thought,
Thou'lt show thy mercy and remorse more strange
Than is thy strange apparent cruelty,

And, where* thou now exact'st the penalty,
Which is a pound of this poor merchant's flesh,
Thou wilt not only lose the forfeiture,

But, touch'd with human gentleness and love,
Forgive a moiety* of the principal,

Glancing an eye of pity on his losses,

That have of late brought down such ruin on him,






Venice was once an important commercial city. It is situated on the islands at the mouth of the river Po, in northern Italy. It has canals for streets, and above 300 bridges over them, the chief of which is the Rialto, built of white marble.





which the laws were written.

30 Enough to press a royal merchant* down.

Roya! merchant, We all expect a gentle answer, Jew.

the great Italian

merchants who Shy. I have possess’d* your grace of what I had claims on purpose ;

kingdoms, and And by our holy Sabbath have I sworn

acquired princi To have the due and forfeit of my bond.*

palities for them35 If you deny it, let the danger light

Possessed, in. Upon your charter * and your city's freedom. *

formed. You'll ask me why I rather choose to have

Bond, a binding A weight of carrion flesh than to receive


Charter, that on Three thousand ducats. * I'll not answer that, 40 But say it is my humour. Is it answerd ?

City's freedom, What if my house be troubled with a rat,

the power to proAnd I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats

tect thefree rights

of the citizens, To have it baned ?* What, are you answer'd yet ?

Ducat, a silver Bass. This is no answer, thou unfeeling man, coin, varying in

value in different 45 To excuse the current* of thy cruelty.

countries, so callShy. I am not bound to ease thee with my, ed because coin. answer.

ed in the dominAnt. I pray you, think you question with the ions of a Duke.

A silver ducat is Jew :*

worth about 45. You may as well go stand upon the beach,

60. ; a gold one,

twice as much. And bid the main flood* bate* his usual height;

Baned, destroyed, 50 You may as well use question with the wolf

poisoned. Why he hath made the ewe * bleat for the lamb,

Current, course.

Think you quesAs try to melt his Jewish heart to kindness.

tion with the Jew, Bass. For thy three thousand ducats here are six. remember you

are dealing with Shy. If every ducat in six thousand ducats 55 Were in six parts, and every part a ducat,

heart is hardened I would not draw them ; I would have my bond.

against arguDuke. How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering Main flood, the none ?

ocean, the rising

tide. Shy. What judgment* shall I dread, doing no

Bate, to stop, lowwrong?

er, or diminish. The pound of flesh, which I demand of him,

Ewe, a female

sheep. 60 Is dearly bought; 'tis mine, and I will have it : Judgment, If you deny me, fie upon your law!


There is no force in the decrees * of Venice:

Decrees, laws.
I stand for judgment : * answer; shall I have it ? Judgment here
Duke. Upon
my power * I may dismiss this court, Upon my power


. 65 Unless Bellario, a learned doctor,

on my authority. Whom I have sent for to determine * this,

Determine, de

cide, Come here to-day.

New, just now,

My lord, here stays without
A messenger with letters from the doctor,

Padua, an an

cient city in Lomcome from Padua."

bardy, about Duke. Bring us the letters ; call the messenger. twenty miles

from Venice.



who e




this instant.


70 New

Buss. Good cheer, Antonio! What, man ? courage


was in order to








The Jew shall have my flesh, blood, bones, and all, Lose for me, it Ere thou shalt lose for me one drop of blood.

Ant. I am a tainted wether * of the flock, Assist Bassanio

75 that Antonio bor. Meetest * for death ; the weakest kind of fruit rowed the money. Drops earliest to the ground, and so let me : A tainted wether. You cannot better be employ'd, Bassanio, a sheep that carries infection or Than to live still, and write mine epitaph.* disease the finck. Meetest, fittest, Enter NERISSA,* dressed like a lawyer's clerk. most proper or suitable. Epitaph, that

Duke. Came you from Padua, from Bellario? which is written Ner. From both, my lord : Bellario greets * your on a tombstone

grace. to the memory of

[Presents a letter. the dead.

Bass. Why dost thou whet thy knife so earnestly? Nerissa, wife of Shy. To cut the forfeiture * from that bankrupt Gratiano

there. Greets, salutes, sends his compli- Gra. Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew, ments.

Thou mak’st thy knife keen : but no metal can, Forfeiture, the fine or penalty.

No, not the hangman's axe, bear half the keenness Bankrupt, a Of thy sharp envy. Can no prayers pierce thee ? tradesman who cannot fulfil his

Shy. No, none that thou hast wit enough to make. engagements, one Gra. O, for thy life let justice be accused. * who has lost his Thou almost mak’st me waver in my faith, credit.

90 Let justice be ac- To hold opinion with Pythagoras, cused, justice That souls of animals infuse themselves should be blamed Into the trunks of men : for thy desires for allowing such a wretch to live. Are wolfish, bloody, starved, and ravenous. Pythagoras, an Shy. Till thou canst rail the seal from off my bond, 95 ancient Grecian philosopher, who Thou but offend'st * thy lungs to speak so loud : said that the souls Repair thy wit, good youth, or it will fall of men, after death, passed

To cureless * ruin.-I stand here for law.
into the bodies of Duke. This letter from Bellario doth commend

A and learned doctor to our court :-

100 Offend, to annoy or hurt.

Where is he?
Cureless, cannot Ner. He attendeth here hard by,
be restored,

To know your answer whether you'll admit him.
Duke. With all my heart :-some three or four of

Go give him cordial conduct to this place.





Portia, wife of

Enter PORTIA,* dressed like a doctor of laws.
Duke. Give me your hand. Came you from old

Por I did, my lord.

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