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bassador had just arrived for the ceremo- great timidity she evinced, which seemed nial of the morrow, and with the princes to please him. The ladies and gentlemen and princesses of the house of Bonaparte, of her household were presented the next some in full dress, others en deshabille, day, and on the following one the court waited in the grand hall to receive the left Compiègne for St. Cloud. There, on illustrious pair. Between ten and eleven the ist of April, the civil marriage took signal guns announced their arrival. The place. The religious ceremony after torches borne by the outriders were ex- the grand state entry into Paris tinguished by the fast-falling torrent, and performed in the great gallery of the but that there glimmered a réverbère here Louvre. It is remarkable that of the sevand there, to whose feeble rays were added eral cardinals who were required to assist those of the tallow candles doing duty for at the civil marriage, all, with the excepan illumination, all around the palace was tion of Cardinals Maury and Fesch, re. darkness, notwithstanding the efforts of a quested to be excused from being present company of torchbearers to light the cor. at the nuptial benediction; alleging as a tége up the grand avenue. This untoward reason, that the pope's intervention had disarrangement of a programme thor- not been sought to dissolve the first maroughly studied by all who on the follow- riage. Napoleon refused to admit this as ing day were to take part in the ceremo- a valid excuse, and banished them to difnies created a great commotion in the ferent and distant departments of the palace. However, the empress having empire. He forbade them also to wear alighted, the princes and princesses of his that mark of their dignity the scarlet robe ; family, with Prince Schwartzenberg and a high-handed proceeding that obtained one or two others, were hurriedly presented them the sobriquet of “the black cardito her by the emperor. They then retired, nals.” together with the king and queen of Na- Accustomed to see the empress Joseples, to partake of a petit souper prepared phine invariably dressed with the most for them in the emperor's private apart- exquisite taste, the shortcomings of Maria ments. Although the presentations occu- Louisa in that respect were the more pied but a few minutes, the keen, scruti- strikingly apparent to Napoleon. Believnizing eyes of the ladies discovered that ing himself to be a great connoisseur in the toilette of the German princess left such matters, he made a point of presiding much to be desired. Short waists and at the bridal toilette. "The crown he se. short petticoats were then in high favor, lected for the occasion (there were two) he but Maria Louisa wore a long-waisted saw properly placed on the bride's head dress, and the skirt of her gown, cut after by the mistress of the robes, and the im. a fashion discarded in Paris a twelve. perial mantle gracefully arranged on her month or more, was too long by several shoulders. The train was borne by the inches. They remarked also that she was queens of Spain, Naples, Holland, and deficient in grace; that, considering her Westphalia, the grand duchess of Tusyouth, her embonpoint was excessive, and cany, and the Princess Borghese — all that on the whole (as described by Count these ladies, with the exception of the Metternich in a letter to his wife) “ her queen of Westphalia (a princess of Bavaface was rather ugly than pretty.” Ma- ria), being royal by the grace of Napoleon. ria Louisa had a broad, full face with the The bridal presents prepared for Maria ugly Hapsburg mouth, and a peculiar up-Louisa were similar, though probably far ward slant in the position of the eyes that exceeding them in value, to those made gave to it a singular expression of affec- by Louis XVI. to Marie Antoinette. The tation. She was of about the middle municipality of Paris offered a complete height, but her figure was not symmetri- toilet service, including an armchair and cal, her arms being small and thin, and massive framed mirror, of silver gilt, of her bust and shoulders largely developed. exquisite design and elaborate workmanBut she was in the bloom of youth - in ship. In the course of the following year itself a charm — had a very fair complex- a silver cradle, superlly wrought, was ion, an abundance of light chestnut hair, added to this present. The marriage fêtes and a good set of teeth. Naturally she are said to have surpassed in splendor any felt much embarrassment at being thus that had preceded them in Paris. Yet unceremoniously launched, as it were, for these grand doings were but the prelude criticism into the midst of a group of ladies to still grander ones then in preparation. of the French court. The gallant atten. The imperial couple meanwhile returned tions of the bridegroom were therefore to Compiègne, which, like all the royal needed to enable her to overcome the residences of France, had been embel

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lished and refurnished by Napoleon. Fine Austrian emperor's name. One of the gardens were added to it, and many garlands suspended in the gallery of the needed improvements fully carried out. temporary ball-room erected in the garden

Josephine had passed the month of nup- of the hôtel took fire. The efforts made tial gaieties at Navarre. She now returned to snatch away the burning portion gave to Paris ; for Navarre, with its fountains, movement to the rest of the decorations, lakes, and rivers running through its and in an instant the whole were on fire, grounds, was found to be a damp and un- and the fragile ball-room in flames. The healthy residence. A large outlay was empress was safely removed, but several required to remedy this inconvenience, persons perished in the burning building; and to render the old château, that had amongst others the Princess Schwartzenlong been neglected, a suitable abode for berg. The unfortunate termination of the imperial châtelaine and her retinue. this fête naturally suggested the similar Napoleon suggested that while the works catastrophe at the marriage of Louis XVI. were in band she should go to Milan, and Marie Antoinette. Many regarded it where she was much beloved, and where, as an evil omen. Napoleon himself was in the society of her son and daughter-in-struck by it, but blamed the police, who law; the sadness that preyed on her health " should have been on the alert,” he said, and spirits might more readily be dis- “ to prevent any accident occurring.” The pelled. She preferred an excursion to melancholy event created bowever but a Switzerland. But at Geneva she was pri- passing impression, and as fête succeeded vately told that Napoleon was anxious to fête speedily faded away. keep her at a long distance from the capi- The little leisure this unwonted round tal, if not actually out of France, in order to of dissipation left at Maria Louisa's dis. soothe the ruffled feelings of Maria Louisa, posal was occupied in learning to ride in who had displayed some jealousy on find the manège at St. Cloud, and in lessons ing that so much consideration was still with the professors whom Napoleon had shown to the “dame de la Malmaison,”as appointed to teach her dancing, music, she named her rival. Hortense sought an and painting. The mot d'ordre at court explanation from Napoleon, who was in- and in the capital was to study the wishes dignant at such intentions being attributed of the young empress, and to amuse her. to him. Still he pressed Josephine to go But she was not liked by the ladies of the to Milan; but as she did not then feel palace, towards whom her demeanor was sufficiently reassured to obey him, she cold and reserved. Indeed she scarcely returned to her château of Navarre, and knew how to be gracious, being of a dull spent there the winter of 1810-11. But and sluggish temperament, and having whether at Navarre, at La Malmaison, at from childhood been hedged about with the baths of Aix, or wherever Josephine so much formal etiquette. Napoleon arwas, there was the court of France and its ranged her little evening reunions. Forty empress. Though her health was begin- or fifty ladies only were admitted to them, ning to fail and languor was creeping over and but twelve or fifteen at one time. her spirits, yet Napoleon's youthful bride They included the ladies of the palace could not supplant her, nor efface the im. and the households of the imperial family. pression which her goodness, grace, and He fancied that this sort of exclusiveness fascination had made on the minds of would attract the Faubourg St. Germain. those who had once spoken to or seen her. But the Faubourg St. Germain was still Of this Napoleon had full proof when, French, lively, spirituel

, and delighting in after Louis Bonaparte's abdication, he epigrammatic conversation. Maria Louisa chose to visit Holland and Belgium, ac- could not converse, and cared not to hear companied by Maria Louisa, as on a for- others. Her receptions therefore were mer occasion by Josephine. The latter found amazingly dull; besides, no gentlewon golden opinions both for herself and men were admitted. And what can be Napoleon ; Maria Louisa for neither; but, imagined duller than a party of ladies, ill at ease in the part she had to play, and expected to amuse and to feel amused by stiff and reserved in her manners, she looking on at the turning round of the rather repelled than attracted.

empress's ear; a feat she contrived in Towards the end of May they returned some way to perform, and seemed deto Paris, and on the ist of June began the lighted to astonish her company by exhibseries of fêtes prepared in their absence. iting her skill in accomplishing ít

. She The most memorable of them, owing to however did not care for society. She the sad catastrophe attending it, was that preferred her tapestry.frame and a quiet given by Prince Schwartzenberg in the chat in her boudoir with the Duchesse de

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Montebello (Madame Lannes), the only | 1812, Napoleon and Maria Louisa leave lady of Napoleon's court with whom she St. Cloud (he will have no political in. formed any intimacy.

trigues, he says ; so takes her with him). Towards the end of 1810 both Maria A fine army, five hundred thousand Louisa and Napoleon were frequently oc- strong, preceding and following in detachcupied in giving sittings to Canova, who ments, and by different routes, is shortly had visited France for the purpose of mak- after encamped around the pleasant caping a bust of the emperor. The famous ital of Saxony. There, Maria Louisa sculptor had succeeded so admirably with again meets her father and her family. the celebrated statue of the princess Pau- There too are assembled the kings and line, as Venus, that he was now commis- princes of the Rhenish Confederation, and sioned to execute one in white marble of with them the timid and humbled Fred. Maria Louisa, as Concord. This he prob- erick William III. of Prussia. All, proably found a less perilous undertaking fessedly, are Napoleon's allies, but in than that of the statue of the goddess of reality his enemies, watching for the falove I not being in danger, as he pro- vorable moment for throwing off his yoke. fessed to be on that occasion, of failing to But for the nonce, pleasure is the order complete his work from falling distractedly of the day. The autocrat of the north in love with his model.

alone has assumed a defiant attitude, and But although 1810 was drawing to a determines to maintain it. He must take close the marriage fêtes were not yet the consequences of his temerity. On ended. It was proposed to continue them the 20th June war is declared, and "Foruntil the first anniversary of the wedding- ward " is the order given to Napoleon's day. However, the appointment of the mighty host, who with light hearts begin Comtesse de Montesquieu, after the forms the march to their dreadful doom with the of the old régime, as "gouvernante des cry "To Moscow! to Moscow !” Maria enfants de France,” reminded the nation Louisa accompanies her family to Prague that other fêtes were also impending, and for a month's visit, and General Count on the 20th March, 1811, one hundred and Neipperg — destined to play so important one guns announced the birth of a King of a part in her future - is appointed to at. Rome. Napoleon's highest aims seemed tend her as chamberlain. On the ist of to be now attained the establishment of July she returned to St. Cloud, and during his dynasty by the birth of an heir to the the disastrous Russian campaign, though imperial throne. But dark clouds were France was in so critical a position, she beginning to gather on the northern hori- seemed not to feel it. Her German phlegm zon, heralding a tempest that was to lay allowed her to work composedly at her low and destroy those lofty aims and tapestry, to trot about in the park of St. hopes. The nation, however, regarded Cloud on her pony, and to follow very the new-born babe as a pledge of enduring contentedly her humdrum daily round of peace, and rejoiced in his birth according: occupations. She evinced but little interly. Never before, surely, was any child est in her son; Madame de Montesquieu christened with so much pomp, ecclesi- seems to have usurped the mother's place astical, civil, and military.' The fronts of in his affections. When she was willing the houses on the line of procession were to bestow a caress on him, the tall plume draped with tapestries, as at the Fête of feathers she was fond of wearing so Dieu, and a double row of troops extended frightened the child that he would turn from the Tuileries to Notre Dame. All from her and cling to his nurse. Paris was in the streets, and many persons In spite of Napoleon's efforts to withhad come from distant departments to hold it, news of the real state of affairs obtain, if possible, but a glimpse of this in Russia reached Paris from private child, on whom rested the hopes of the sources, and filled all hearts with gloom. nation, and the hopes of its “fourth dy- Those who needed sympathy and consonasty,” as all unconscious, poor ill-fated | lation sought and received them from the child, of the hopes and fears he excited, empress Josephine, to whom Count Ségur he lay peacefully slumbering in his gou- by every opportunity sent authentic inforvernante's lap.

mation. Most unexpectedly, however, on And now the mighty emperor - who the night of the 12th December Napowould seem to have been fulfilling the leon arrived at St. Cloud, but only to preMosaic injunction, Deut. xxiv. 5

for another campaign. Maria Louisa prepare for war. One more scene of glory was appointed regent, Cambacérès and and power has yet to be played, and its Joseph Bonaparte carrying on the governtheatre is Dresden. On the oth of March, ment in her name. The Senate expressed

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a wish that she and the King of Rome | A Russian general and an escort of Cos. should be crowned, in order that an oath sacks then conducted her to Orleans. might bind France to the heir to the There her perplexities returned, now urgthrone. Napoleon replied that his treas- ing her to attempt to join Napoleon at ure was wholly needed at that moment for Fontainebleau, now alarming, her with supplies for his armies. Perbaps Jose. many fancied difficulties and dangers atphine's "ineffaceable title " was to his tending such a step. The abdication mind an obstacle also. On the 15th of being signed, and Elba allotted to NapoApril, 1813, he left France for the army. leon, and Parma and Placentia to Maria His victories of Bautzen and Wurtzchen Louisa, the emperor Francis despatched led to an armistice and the Congress of Prince Paul Esterhazy to inform his Prague; but hostilities were renewed on daughter of it, and to attend her to Ramthe 15th of August, Austria then joining bouillet, where he proposed to meet her. the allies. Maria Louisa desired to me- Escorted by twenty-five Cossacks she diate. Napoleon smiled — rancor and bit- arrived there on the 13th of April, still ter antagonism had long subsisted between anxious and doubtful, and unable to decide him and Austria, and was far too intense on the best course to pursue. On the 15th to allow either one or the other to be Francis and bis minister, Metternich moved by a weak woman's tearful en- now created a prince of the empire treaties. Victory, attended Napoleon's made their appearance, and a long private arms at Dresden; but cavalry was want. interview took place. The nature of the ing to follow it up. Reverses ensued, de communications made to her did not tranfections also of the confederate princes, spire. She however seemed much disand at Leipzig the Saxon and Wurtemberg tressed by them, and announced to her troops crossed over to the enemy on the attendants that she purposed returning to field of battle. A skirmish or two, while Vienna, vid Switzerland and the Tyrol. retreating, when he put to the rout one of While awaiting the arrival of an Aushis deserting generals, ended this unfor- trian guard of honor she received a visit tunate campaign, and on the 9th of No- from the emperor Alexander, who breakvember the emperor once more reached fasted with her. On the following day St. Cloud.

the king of Prussia arrived at RambouilAnother army is wanted. The Senate let; he, however, remained but a few assembles, and authorizes a levy of two minutes. Both wished to see the king of hundred and eighty thousand conscripts. Rome, now called Prince of Parma. His The troops are recalled from Spain; Fer-little Majesty received them ungraciously, dinand VII. returns to it; the pope is telling his nurse “qu'ils n'étaient pas liberated and leaves for Rome. The New beaux." Such visits, under the then exYear's day reception is numerously and isting circumstances, certainly showed a brilliantly attended, the regency is re- great want of delicacy of feeling, both newed, and Joseph Bonaparte named lieu- in those who paid, and the lady who retenant-general of the kingdom. Napoleon ceived them. A few days after, Maria confides his wife and son to the protection Louisa left Rambouillet. The account of of the National Guard during his absence. her journey, as given by one who accom. But he is destined to return to them no panied her, reads like that of an excursion more, and embraces them for the last time leisurely taken for pleasure. At the nuon the morning of the 25th of January, merous places she stopped at arrangewhen he sets out with a mere handful of ments had been made for her visiting veteran troops to join his youthful army. every point of interest, and apparently This short but wonderful campaign ended, much of her trouble was forgotten in the as all know, with the entry of the allies into pleasurable excitement of travel. At Vi. Paris on the 25th of March. Napoleon enna she was welcomed by her family and had directed - subject, however, to the the people with extravagant signs of joy, course of events — that the empress and as a victim snatched from the jaws of a the ministry should remove to Blois. Jo- monster; while about the same time seph advised her to remain in Paris to 2nd of June, 1814 – the empress Jose. uphold her son's rights; but her father phine, broken in health and broken-hearted promising not to neglect them, she left at the fate of Napoleon, died suddenly at forth with — repenting having done so as Malmaison. soon as Blois was reached. At times she Maria Louisa soon became aware that seemed desirous of sharing the fate and she and her son were prisoners, rigidly fortunes of Napoleon, but finally placed restricted from passing beyond the park herself under the protection of the allies. I of Schoenbrunn. The queen of Sicily, her maternal grandmother and the sister of wore on her dress, or carried in her hand, Marie Antoinette, was indignant at the as a token of welcome, a bouquet of the manœuvres set on foot to detach her from large Parma violets. But if her affections Napoleon. “She should tie the sheets of were ever given to Napoleon, they were her bed to the windows some night and his no longer. Count Neipperg had supescape in disguise. I would,” she said ; planted him. His countess had obligingly “ for marriage is for life.” She herself died some few months before, after only had, secretly, just fled from Sicily. But two days’ illness, leaving the count free to Maria Louisa had not her grandmother's mingle gallantry with his duties as coun. energy. Tired of Schoenbrunn, she asked sellor to the young duchess. But the leave of her father to go to the baths of spring and its fragrant flowers. passed Aix. It was granted, and Count Neip- away, and when the summer sun shone on perg attended her; but she could not take the Tuileries gardens their parterres were her son. The count was the illegitimate strewed with lilies, and the ladies' faded son of the Countess Neipperg, and was violet bouquets had given place to the born in France in 1775. He was inarried flower that had become the fashion of the to a woman whom he had seduced from day. Waterloo decided the fate of Maria her first husband, and who, with four or Louisa as well as that of Napoleon; and five children, was then living in retirement while he was on his way to perish at St. at Wurtemberg. He was reputed brave; Helena, she was put into possession of having been wounded in battle and lost an her duchies, Count Neipperg being named eye. He was still a handsome man, of her first minister, also grand master of fascinating manners and distinguished air. her household. Of the liaison that enOver the weak and irresolute Duchess of sued children were born before the death Parma he soon obtained complete ascend- of Napoleon. When that event occurred ency. Through his influence she was led a morganatic marriage gave a tardy sancto subscribe to all the conditions with tion to their union. The count was the which the Congress hampered the grant absolute ruler of the duchies ; but his

- for her life only — of the sovereignty administration is said to have been marked of the duchies of Parma and Placentia. by great ability, moderation, and tolerance. “None of the race of Bonaparte,” the He died of a painful disease in 1829, much allies declared, “could be allowed to bear regretted by the people. He was an irrepsway in Europe.”. Therefore she re- arable loss to the duchess, who as a tes. nounced in her son's name his right to timony of her grief and affection erected succeed her, and consented that he should a magnificent monument to his memory. be deprived of his baptismal name of Na- But she was incapable of taking up the poleon; that he should be brought up at reins of power after him. The people rethe Austrian court, should be called Fran. volted, and she fled from Parma. Auscis, Duke of Reichstadt, and that she trian troops escorted her back; but she should see him but once a year. All let. was an object of deep resentment to her ters from Napoleon were to be transmitted subjects, who, as she could not govern to her father, and although she did not them, fell under the oppressive yoke of consent to a divorce, she said “she would Austria. write and ask him to consent to a separa- In 1832 the death of the melancholy tion à l'aimable."

young Duke of Reichstadt occurred at These arrangements were about being Schoenbrunn, of consumption, in his 21st completed when the startling news of Na- year. Maria Louisa died in 1847, aged poleon's return to France put an end to 56. As Duchess of Parma she was merely the Congress. On the morning following an instrument of Austrian misrule in Ithis arrival at the Tuileries the sweet- aly. The very slight interest the French scented violets, the first flowers of the at any time took in her ceased altogether spring, were brought in by the people in when, renouncing all claims on France, such quantities, as a symbol of their fidel. she again became an Austrian archduchess ity to him, that the gardens were covered and her son was made an Austrian prince. with them, and the palace itself filled with She is now well-nigh forgotten, while Jotheir fragrant perfume. Confidently ex. sephine's memory remains as imperishable pecting Maria Louisa would rejoin him, in France as Napoleon's. every lady and élégante of the empire CATHERINE CHARLOTTE JACKSON.

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