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teenth century a young German artist, / and with few exceptions the best glassson of a merchant at Ulm, visited Rome painters were foreign, or the Italian pupils in 1432, and being seized with a strong of foreign masters. religious longing," he entered the order Spain also availed itself of the genius of the Frati Predicatori of the convent of of the north. Toledo was famous for its S. Domenico at Bologna, and there he painted glass as early as the thirteenth spent a devoted life, succeeding, as, his century, and from the records there apbiographer says, some other saintly men pears to have a continual succession have done, in making the pursuit of art a of native and Flemish glass-painters from means toward the perfection of religious the beginning of the fifteenth to that of life.” The best known of his works are the eighteenth century. Specimens of the “the great windows in the church of S. art in France, Germany, Holland, and Petronio, executed with assistance of his Belgium Mr. Gambier Parry passes over pupils, Frati Ambrogino and Anastasio, as too numerous to be recorded, and in in his adopted city Bologna,” where he the case of France “ too well known to was known by the name of Fra Beato Gia- need further reference.” The causes of como d' Ulma. “A very different man decline are traced in these countries to the was the Frenchman from Verdun, whose abandonment of the brilliant old-fashioned story has been told by Vasari under the colors, and to the use of white glass to be name of Gulielmo di Marsilla.” He came painted upon with “enamels, as in oil or to Italy, to assist a friend and fellow- water-color.". Other technicalities were countryman, named Claude, in decorating introduced from the beginning of the the Vatican for Pope Julius II. with sixteenth century, "till glass - painting painted glass, after designs by Raphael. changed its function, and produced cabi. He entered the Dominican order to es- net pictures, landscape transparencies, cape from the secular courts of justice, to miniatures and copies of the works of the which he had become amenable; but as great masters in oil and fresco, as when soon as he felt assured of his safety, he Bernard Palissy · . . painted on glass threw up his conventual obligations and copies of Raphael's history of Cupid and went to Rome, where he attained to the Psyche for the family of Montmorency at highest reputation as a glass-painter. It Ecouen." is much to be regretted that the glass In the Netherlands a school of glasswindows in the Vatican were destroyed painting adopted the supposed improveat the siege of Rome in 1527 by the Con- ments of the sixteenth century, “the greatstable de Bourbon. Mr. Gambier Parry est works thus executed being those in traces the progress of the art both north the cathedral of St. Gudule at Brussels, and south of the Alps

by Jan Haek and Bernard von Orley,' the character of the advance from the thir. which were more artistic, but less brilliant teenth to the fourteenth century having been in color, than earlier windows. from exclusive conventionalisın to Nature, In Germany Albert Dürer is described from the fourteenth to the fifteenth that of im- as “the founder of an improved school of provement in the higher qualities of design, more correct perspective and architecture, and in the following century by the introduction and for sacred subjects, particularly for of the use of colored glass enamels, affording painted glass;” and we know that glassto the glass-painter as varied a palette as the painters were among his intimate friends. painter in oil.

Whether any glass-paintings by him still This system was adopted by Gulielmo so exist is uncertain ; if any, those in the completely that Vasari says of his works cathedral at Cologne, on the north side of at Cortona and Arezzo that “one would the nave, have the best claim. " The insay that they were composed of living fuence of his school is noticeable far and figures, and not of colored and transparent wide. Not only his genius can be plainly glass, but in truth marvellous pictures." | traced, but that of the Van Eycks and In spite of this success, Gulielmo aban- Hemling left their impress on the glassdoned glass-painting and took to fresco, painting of the age. It is difficult to supprobably anticipating the destruction of pose that the decay of the art can be in works in so perishable a material as glass. any way attributable to them. But Adrian

The art owed much of its success in de Vriee and the brothers Crabeth at Italy to northern influence. The best Gouda despised the conventionalities of materials were imported; for, as Vasari glass-painting, and contributed by their says, the best glass came from Germany, freedom of treatment to its downfall. France, and England, and the best smalti One main cause of the decay of glass- i. e., colored enamels were German, painting is the destructibility of windows.

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They are liable to be broken by any acci- | its laws, so has picture-painting. How dent, and cannot, as a rule, bé repaired. can glass-painting claim to be free from Mr. Gambier Parry shows the great loss laws which bind all other branches of art? not only to art, but also to historic knowl. As a matter of fact, glass-painters erred edge, thereby sustained. He also points by aiming at effects beyond their art, by out the architectural objection to large disregarding the bounds of space, by atwindows.

tempting pictorial effects of atmosphere, The windows of the thirteenth and four- and by excessive finish. “A perfect work teenth centuries increased in height and of art must be thought out in its own lanbreadth; and in the fourteenth and fifteenth, guage.' so universally did this fashion prevail, that the

Those who have not painted on glass or constructive principles of buildings were af- canvas themselves, and have not thought fected by it, and all the weight of the groined out the different conditions of the differroof and the arcades within, and of the spires ent branches of art, will nevertheless do and towers without, was left to rest on slender well to recognize the truth of the statepiers and flying buttresses, which alone re- ment “ that glass.painting is a special art, mained for their support, the solid walls hav- with its own laws, its own powers, its own ing given place to sheets of pictured glass.

limits; that it is light that has to be dealt “ The earliest form of this development with, not shadow; translucent glass, not was in the great wheel windows, solid canvas; open air, not a pictureamong the earliest of which was the circu- frame.” lar window of the north transept of Lin.

Mr. Gambier Parry says: “The history coln Cathedral,” date about 1200. Gothic of this art in England has as yet been but architects adopted this form of window, imperfectly written." His readers will, which was probably " the origin of the de- we think, acknowledge that he has himself velopment of ordinary window-heads to made a very valuable contribution towards the entire space under the groining.” In- such a history in laying down the true stances of this are given from the Ste. principles of the art, upon which, as upon Chapelle at Paris, completed 1248, most a solid foundation, a superstructure might of the windows of which contain the be raised by some one who had the lei. original glass, and from the east window sure and inclination to “sketch the ins of Gloucester Cathedral, “ where the walls and outs of artistic life in England in the of the most eastern bay are sloped out. Middle Ages, its styles and schools, its wards to obtain an extra space for the connection with foreign countries, its pamouldings of the window-frame, and thus tronage, its roving confraternities, and so to secure the entire width of the choir for forth.” the glass. This great window still retains The eighth essay, on the adornment of its original glass, dating from about 1370 sacred buildings, Part I., begins with an A.D."

eloquent, but not very clearly expressed, Mr. Gambier Parry proceeds to show, attempt to account for the “deep sadness with great force, how greater pictorial that pervaded all pagan religions.”. Nafreedom and naturalism becaine the ruin tional religion, in the opinion of Mr. of the art of glass-painting :

Gambier Parry, requires, more than indi

vidual religion, the aid of externals, and It happily took centuries before that degra- has always called for the best that the dation brought it to its close. It had been by nation can give to lend dignity to public that thoroughly architectonic sense, which pre worship. If this be the case, it follows vailed in its earlier phases, and till the closing that the responsibility of the artist is years of the fifteenth century, that this noble art, with all the dignified reserve of self- great, as his work is intended not only for respect, had held its right place among its the present, but for future generations. compeers; but as time advanced it happened The purpose of the adornment of sacred with it, as with other things, that the idea of buildings is stated. It is the “expression development became confounded with that of of the universal religious sense of manprogress, and a system was introduced which kind.” Human infirmity sought aids to delighted the unthinking popular sense with faith by representing objects “in which much that was admirable in the strictest sense both memory and hope were centred.” of art, and glorious in effect, but with it also a loss of principle and a flattery of ambition Association hallowed the sacred shrines, that brought it to a lingering but certain fall.

and brought together the souls of the live

ing worshippers and of those who had This is followed by the assertion of the gone before. Mr. Ganıbier Parry asks, sound principle that every art should rec- “ Who would offend their household ognize its own limits. Architecture has gods?” His attempt to make this clear

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Reverence withheld the hands of the of those worshippers who were wearied early Christians from the representation of symbolic representation, by ordering of our Lord's death, and till the sixth cen- that, in place of the received symbols, the tury “no hand had dared to portray a figure of Christ should be represented. subject surrounded with such awful mys- Mr. Gambier Parry supplies a reason for tery as the self-sacrifice of Christ - an this, which goes deeper than the craving event so stupendous as the crucifixion of of the human heart to see portrayed obthe Son of God.” : “ The symbols of the jects of worship. lamb, the cross, the altar, and the book as the Word of God' were employed and

Realism is the absolute opposite to that approved.” Illustrations of this are given, mysticism in which disordered imagination

loses chiefly drawn from churches in Italy :

way into the regions of idolatry:

A vaguer art, symbolic and ideal, whether For above one thousand years, among the simply so or made so by consummate artifice, numberless subjects which have covered the touches another chord in human nature, sets walls of sacred places, the bare cross was still the heart free, and opens wide the springs of prominent. In the sacred solitudes of the association - an art apparently unconscious Catacombs the crucified figure was not seen of itself, that all generations have loved for till for seven hundred years the cross alone its pure and fresh suggestiveness, an art that had sufficed to fill the minds of Christian wor- had no power to satisfy, but set the mind ponshippers.

dering far off in time and place, on the realiThe unoccupied cross expressed the idea of ties of the past and of the future, where the Christendom as the symbol of victory. Its affections might rest or the imagination wanform was drawn upon the ground as the plan

der free. on which Constantine's great basilicas were built, the Church of the Holy Apostles at

The progress towards the more grave Constantinople, and of St. Peter's within and reality of Christ's figure was slow but St. Paul's without the walls of Rome.

sure. “ Still reverence stayed the artist's

hand.” And so the figure was fully draped. The same subject is illustrated in great The exception of a rude caricature in the variety of detail. Both to painting and palace of the Cæsars at Rome is easily sculpture the same remark applies - that accounted for by the fact that “the scene the crucified figure of Jesus is, down to of a crucifixion was common at Rome at the close of the tenth century, the one sub. that time, and furnished the caricaturist ject omitted. How reverence withheld with all he needed to throw scorn on those Christians from the realistic exhibition of who were Christians of Cæsar's houseour Lord's death, and how artists em hold.” ployed various symbols to signify his Among the earliest representations of crucifixion, forms a large and instructive the crucifixion with which Mr. Gambier portion of this very interesting essay. Parry is acquainted is one of the date 586.

Mr. Gambier Parry gives instances of “ It is on the first page of a manuscript of the treatment of the subject of the cruci- the Gospels in the Laurentian Library at fixion in early English art.

Florence. Here the figure of Christ is A gravestone belonging to the Saxon entirely draped, hanging upon a cross period * was discovered at Wirkworth, or somewhat higher than those on each side, Wirksworth Church, in Derbyshire, ic where hang the two thieves.” The next 1820, of which the side that had been re- in date is A. D. 642, among the treasures versed was found covered with elaborate of the cathedral at Monza, where is a sculpture, though of the rudest kind. A small cross, sent by Gregory the Great to detailed account, in which special atten- the queen Theodolinda on the birth of tion is drawn to the figure of a dead lamb her son Adulowald. “The figure of Christ “ with his head drooped and his legs is here designed as standing on a suppecrumpled together," is followed by the re- daneum, and nailed to an inlaid piece of mark, having reference to some previous the true cross, his body being draped observations: “Thus the poorest art often from the neck to the feet, the arms and contains the deepest poetry, and is often feet being left bare." These are both more effective from its pure an simple Greek. suggestiveness, incapable of realism." Reverence was shown in the famous

In the year 692 the Greek Council at crucifix at Lucca by the figure of Christ Constantinople gave effect to the wishes as the Lord of Life, standing before the

cross crowned." The date of this is prob• In Dr. Westcott's admirable essay on the “ Rela- ably not later than the sixth century. It tion of Christianity to Art," in his edition of St. John's Epistles, second edition, 1886, special mention is made

was brought to Lucca in A. D. 782. A of this slab, p. 360.

similar instance is found in painting in a 3114

LIVING AGE,

VOL. LX.

the nunnery

manuscript of the Gospels belonging to drawing of Michel Angelo, now in the

of Niedermünster, at Řegens. British Museum, is referred to as being burg, which represents Christ standing “evidently a design for a great altar-piece draped, before the cross, with a nimbus. in basso-relievo." The figure of our Lord The date of this is early in the eleventh in this drawing is beautiful; "stretched century.

with its arms raised upward on a Y-shaped An early painting of the crucifixion, on cross, painless, motionless, exquisitely paa wall in the cathedral of Narbonne, is tient.” “It is the picture of a tragedy mentioned by St. Gregory of Tours, about indeed, for what else could it be? but A. D. 600. In this the body of the Saviour composed with such reverence, and exwas nude, which so distressed the bishop pressed with such intensity of mingled that he ordered a curtain to be hung be. tenderness and power, as to engage the fore it. On the other hand, a wall painting deepest sympathy, and arouse ideas that in the Julian catacomb at Rome repre- will not be forgotten.” Thus in all stages sented the Saviour clothed from the neck of art, from the rude workmen of the slab to the feet in a long white robe, standing at Wirkworth to the design of Michel before the cross on a suppedaneum. Angelo, the same principle may be traced

The general conclusion drawn from that beyond and above all power of these instances is that, with very few ex- realistic expression is the idea of rever. ceptions, down to A. D. 1000 the figure of ence, aiming especially at expressing the Christ was represented alive, and that central thought of the artist. It is in this types of suffering and death date from the sense that we can heartily echo the words eleventh century. In that age the ideal with which Mr. Gambier Parry concludes of suffering had mastered the idea of art. this part of the eighth essay: Henceforth for a season Christ is no longer exhibited as the spotless Lamb, or

Sacred imagery is precious to those who as the Lord of Life, but as suffering and can respond to it; an aid to the weak, a de

light to the strong, a store unfailing for art to dead.

use, to adorn not walls alone but minds, with By gradual stages the artists who

treated thought of what is highest, noblest, loveliest, this subject advanced from "dignified rev- that the blessed God has spread along the

to a morbid attempt to represent path of life, to lead them upward to Himself. the load of suffering which the Saviour bore for man's redemption :

The second part of this essay deals with

emblematic figures, style, and motive. Whether from the roughness of the times The author says, especially with regard to or the false ideal of terror as the only element architecture, that the true motive of relig. of power to affect the rudeness of the publicious art is “Sursum corda.” As art mind, the true idea of the crucifixion was became exclusively realistic, it lost its missed or ignored. A finer sense could alone conceive and portray the beauty of self-deva spiritual influence, till at last it became tion, in a sacrifice self-imposed, a death ac

absolutely vulgar, as may be seen in some cepted as the only mode of sacrifice, irrespec- of the monuments in our metropolitan tive of its terror or its pain.

churches. It was otherwise in paganism,

so long as the spirit of poetry prevailed, The young Giotto brought a healthier and in early Christianity, which suggested feeling to bear on art when he painted the by such symbols as the palm, the dove subject of the crucifixion on the sacred with the olive branch, etc., spiritual realwalls of Assisi. Though his art was still ities. imperfect, he brought the spirit of life and The emblematic figure which was repfreedom into southern Europe. Two pic-resented longest in Christian art was the tures are selected by Mr. Gambier Parry Church — Ecclesia, under the figure of an as showing the influence of Giotto on two Orante in the catacombs. The same figure men of different natures and times, Beato represented a female martyr, or a saint, da Fiesole and Tintoretto. The devo- afterwards the Virgin Mary. Sometimes tional character of the one and the dra- the Christian Church is contrasted with matic character of the other are well the Jewish Church - the one as the ac. described, Nicholas of Pisa represented i cepted bride of Christ, the other as the on a panel, in the thirteenth century, the faithless bride. References illustrative figure of the Crucified in a calm and dig. of this are given to the churches of Charnified attitude without sign of pain. As a tres, Mans, Bruges, and St. Denis. Sortie fine example of concentration of interest times, as in the sacramentary of Metz, now in a single figure, the crucifixion by Guido in the National Library at Paris, "the at Modena is mentioned; and, lastly, a Church is represented starding close to

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