the desolating hand of social and political power to respond to art's poetry?" is change.

well answered, and there follows an eloThis is a good sample of Mr. Gambier quent passage, in which the effect of a Parry's style. A much longer quotation sunset is explained upon a theory like the might have been made, but this is enough Platonic áváurnois. Its fascination “is not to show that he, like Mr. Ruskin, desires that of novelty, but of reminiscence.” The to see fine art ministering to enjoy- same train of thought is pursued further, ment of life, not only among the wealthy and finally we are told that beauty is the and highly educated, but among the poor. symbol of divine love. It is more than a

Some good remarks will be found on poetic fancy in the mind. It is as a bridge, the comparative effect of art in town and connecting two worlds, material and spircountry life; and these are illustrated by itual, an assurance to our spirits that God the example of two cottages; one of which, is perfect in wisdom and love. Some of in the course of a year or two, completely our readers will recognize in this chapter changed its aspect from gloom and dirt to thoughts which occur in Michael Angelo's brightness and cheerfulness, showing that sonnets. That they are pure and noble art has a refining and cheering influence and elevating to the mind will not be on individual life, and how we may “hope questioned. It is, however, to be regretto introduce with patience the materials of ted that they are not always presented to a higher and happier life."

the mind of the reader in the clearest The aim of this excellent essay may language, and that occasionally sentences be gathered from its concluding sen- occur which would be better for recasting, tences :

with a view to greater lucidity and regard The perception of beauty is one of the most

for grammar. They are precisely such precious endowments with which God has shortcomings as the author would detect blessed humanity. The wise and benevolent if the essays were revised by him with a do well to foster it in their fellow-men; and view to republication. we do well to bless God for the inestimable The fourth essay is on fine art in gift, so far as we possess it ourselves, accept- archæology. There the author is on firm ing the ministry of art as the surest means for ground. His antiquarian knowledge is its cultivation to enlighten and refresh the great, and he is familiar with the recent world, and accepting, in relation to it, the discoveries in Greece, Asia Minor, and fundamental testimony of Nature, that God Assyria. After a few general remarks on has spread man's path with beauty because the interest of archæological studies, and He has consigned his life to work.

a reference to the well-known story of The third essay treats of the ministry Solon and the Egyptian priest, he says of fine art to spiritual life. Nature, it that archæology employs all the powers is said, needs an interpreter to translate of the scholar, philosopher, poet, and his. effects in the outward world into thoughts torian. Moreover, art and history must and feelings which can awaken the spirit go side by side in archæology to supple

The early sculptor was haunted ment and illustrate each other. The remby an idea, and had no rest till he em- nants of ancient art bring before us the bodied it in marble. This is especially life of a people. Even the roughest art the case with the religious ideal. Poetry tells its tale, sometimes more vividly than peopled the material universe with spirit. if it were more highly finished. For vigor ual beings. It is the mission of Christian of life and heroic grandeur the sculptures art to teach the world, through the element of Nineveh surpass modern works of art. of beauty, the love of God to his creatures. Every one can see the faults of technique, This is what no analytical process can do. but only a sympathetic mind can appreThe artist is not a logician. His sense ciate their rude grandeur. of beauty is intuitive, and he can but take In answer to the question “What is the forms of beauty which surround him the atmosphere most favorable to the proto interpret his thought.

duction of works of art?” he reminds us The question “Whence comes our that it was not in unbroken peace, but in

of man.

the short and stirring intervals between of the soul by form.” Gibson took a great wars, that the great works of Greek wider view when he wrote : “Form is art were produced; and the glories of re- spiritualized by tinting; it makes us for. ligious art in the Middle Ages correspond get the material: the Greeks were right.” with a time when there were great moral Why, then, is marble the best material for principles at stake.

sculpture ? Because it shows the model. To the thoughtful archæologist the ling and finish the best. It is better than world's life is always young; not so indi- dark materials, which show a few bright vidual life. We may find corresponding spots, and not a surface of modified lustraces of the artistic feeling in prehistoric tre. This effect is helped by a warm times and in the Middle Ages. Mr. Gam- tint, which gives the mellowing effect of bier Parry compares the cave-man, etching age. Terra cotta and ivory have much to with his fint arrow-point upon bones, with recommend them, and the latter admits of Giotto, as he was found by Cimabue draw. color to any extent. The feeling for color ing sheep upon · stones. It is from the is stronger among southern nations than associations of life that archæology draws among northerns, so that pure white marits most interesting lessons. Some good ble would have struck a Greek eye as a remarks on “mannerism ” follow. This is blot; not that they attempted realistic coloften the true expression of individual oring, but they aided the effect of archicharacter, and not merely an accident of tecture by the employment of color for style. Finally, “it is in art that, through- the background of groups, for hair, arout the ages of the past, we feel the spirit, mor, and drapery. From the splendid and we mingle with the hearts of men.” palaces of Assyria to the temples on the

The fifth essay is divided into two parts, Nile, all was colored. The arts travelled treating of the ministry of color to sculp- westward, and were brought to perfection ture and architecture. It begins with by the genius of Pheidias. The sculpsome general speculations as to the power tured wall pictures of Nineveh and Egypt, and effect of color, about which, in the the golden gates of Shalmanezer's palace, authors' opinion, some mystery hangs with their processions of countless figures which has never yet been solved. He in relief, and incidents of history and claims for color the same right to aim at warfare, were's the first suggestion of an the ideal which is generally conceded to art perfected at last in the friezes of Athform. He asks, “ Why is the idea of pu- ens and Phigalia.” The enquiry into the rity associated with white?” Few will be use of colors by the Greek artists at the satisfied with the answer, " Because of its best period of their arts is not easily satexquisite union of all colors ; ” for few isfied, because so many of the traces of comparatively have ever seen the experi- color have disappeared. “The deep rement by which this is proved, and these cesses of sculptured forms, the sheltered must confess that the so-called white ob- corners of walls and hollowed mouldings, tained by the blending of three primary alone retain the evidences of the color that colors is very dingy. Most people, how- once covered them.” However, there is ever, will acknowledge the difficulty which enough evidence “to convince unprejuart has to meet in consequence of the diced judgment that color was an impordifferences in individual natures, or what tant element of sculpturesque and archiwe call variety of tastes.

tectural effect in the greatest works of On the question of color applied to classic art.” On this point it may be suffisculpture it appears (for it is not too cient to quote one passage, which gives clearly expressed) that Mr. Gambier some details of evidence gathered from Parry claims for sculpture that it is not well-known sites :merely imitative but suggestive, “ appeal

Wherever we look among the sites of aning to the moral and intellectual sense.”

cient celebrity, as at Ægina and Athens, in Socrates's dictum about the province of the Morea or in Asia Minor, at Olympia and sculpture is good as far as it goes, but Halicarnassus and the islands of the Ægean, insufficient, "to represent the emotions I at Pæstum, Girgenti, or Selinunte, and among

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the countless remains scattered far and wide, J and Pompeii, which afforded a proof that but of which all trace or name is lost, unques- it was possible for the arts to work har. tionable evidences from travellers whose very moniously. When painting is used in purpose as scholars and artists was to search decorative architecture, the painter must out and verify the history and arts of classic work under certain restrictions, which, antiquity, all' combine to one and the same when fairly appreciated, are no hindrance. result. In many places the coloring remained bright; in others, where the gold or encaustic Certain minor effects may, it is true, be had perished from the sculpture, the stain re- lost, but “the greater elements of form, mained. Where the color had faded from the proportion, and equilibrium ” may be searchitecture, the etched outlines showed where cured. This is very well expressed by the architect had designed upon his own the author, who has a good right to speak mouldings the ornament for the painter; holes of the effect upon the artist's mind of the in the marble plainly indicated where metal restrictions which architecture imposes. decorations had been fastened on the frieze, As instances of free work, he mentions where the gilt bronze harness had been fast: the paintings of Michel Angelo in the ened to the horses, and where helmets and weapons had been attached to the figures of Sistine Chapel, and those of Raphael in gods and men.

the Stanze. It is by no means necessary,

he proceeds to say, that all wall-paintings Altogether this part of the essay is very should be treated architecturally; for in. instructive, as showing the general use of stance, the paintings of Pinturicchio in color, and the objects sought by its appli- the Libreria at Siena would greatly lose in cation to sculpture. The difference be interest if they were deprived of their histween the climate of Greece and our torical backgrounds; and to come nearer northern climate has to be taken into ac. home, the frescoes of Herbert and Maccount before we can enter into the feel lise in the Houses of Parliament would ings which led the great architects and suffer from a rigid architectural treatment. sculptors of the classic period to employ The contrast between architectural wall. color. To what extent it was employed is painting and free picture-painting, and the difficult to say, because five centuries had province of each, is well expressed by Mr. elapsed before Pausanias, Pliny, Strabo, Gambier Parry : "Let picture-painting be and Lucian described the state of the as free as the air it imitates, but architecmasterpieces of antiquity. But consider-tural wall-painting is bound by the respect able light has been thrown on the subject which one art owes to another. In the by Professor Cockerell, Dodwell, Sir former, the effect of it should be the an. Charles Newton, and Dr. Schliemann, nihilation of surface, in the latter its who all testify to the existence of color in emphasis." recently discovered sculptures, and to the After enumerating some of the great fugitive nature of the tints. The procwall-paintings of the age of Pericles, and esses to which the statues were exposed showing how " the feeble Byzantines, the are feelingly described by Mr. Gambier Christian mosaicists, and the Gothic wallParry:

painters only followed on the lines which They were at first well cleaned upon their had reached them through dark and evil discovery; then on arrival at their destina- times from the finest art schools of an. tions well soaped for taking plaster casts, tiquity,” the author points out that “there then chemically washed to get rid of the soap were two distinct systems of painting by (as the Elgin marbles and others in the British the Greeks - one on panels, the other Museum were treated), and at last presented on walls. Wall-painting was essentially to us bare marble; and people think that they the art of the great building age; grand, were ever bare, from which the old encaus. tic painter's work has thus been ruthlessly heroic, monumental.” We can only form stripped, and not a blush of it remains.

a faint notion of what the Greek wall.

paintings were from descriptions, and The contemplation of such barbarism from designs on ancient vases; but we seems to have been too much for the au- gather that they were characterized by thor, as the concluding sentence of the sculpturesque self-restraint. Some of the essay defies anaiysis and, like some others existing Lekythi (of which a fine speciin the book, needs recasting.

men is in the British Museum,“ on which The subject of the second part of the is painted the group of Orestes, Electra, fifth essay is architectural wall-painting and Iphigenia at the tomb of AgamemThe author, after stating that the revival non ") are remarkable for the perfection of of ideas of coloring Christian buildings the drawing and the intensity of the color. was comparatively recent, shows how this From this, and from the Cameirus vase, was stimulated by discoveries in Greece | also in the British Museum, representing

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the surprise of Thetis by Peleus, we may |tion were used. Both Mr. Hope and Mr. form a conception of the character of the Ruskin give many instances of mosaic wall paintings of the classic age, and of decoration, chiefly in the hieratic style. the essentially architectonic character of Mr. Gambier Parry brings his antiquarian the paintings of Polygnotus and his con- knowledge and love of research to bear temporaries.

upon the origin and early history of the An interesting and just deduction is art. Like Dr. Schliemann, whom he drawn from the superiority in many of the quotes, * he derives mosaic from pebbles existing vases of the composition and put before a door and arranged in a pattreatment to the design. Where this is tern. As regards the name, he think3 found to be the case, we may infer that mosaic is connected with povolov, f the the composition reflects the work of a ordinary Greek term ynowois not being better period of art, whilst the faults of adequate to express the high finish of design are attributable to the inferiority such work, nor the term for a pavement, of the workmen in succeeding centuries. 2.06otputov & Sapos. The essay concludes with an eloquent Pliny (xxxvi. 61) quotes a line of Luassertion of the claims of architecture to cilius, which speaks of pavement being be regarded as the centre of all the arts - adorned

Arte, pavimento atque emblemate vermiculato. towards which they are all attracted by mutual The word musivus is used for mosaic by regard and interest, and round which, as in natural relationship, they group their various a writer towards the close of the third attributes; with all their skill and all their century A. D., and also by Augustine. I poetry, making architecture itself completely This is the nearest approach to mosaic beautiful, at once the home and the glory of in Latin. It was used somewhat promisthem all.

cuously" from the grand pavement of the

battle of Issus to the picture of the MaWe have quoted largely from the au. donna made of inlaid fowers by Italians thor's own words, because it would be at a village festa.” difficult to improve upon them, and be- After this enquiry into the origin of cause his practical knowledge of painting the name, Mr. Gambier Parry raises the united to architecture, and working in due question whether the most ancient nations subordination to it, entitles him to speak --the Chinese and the Egyptians — pracwith an authority which few living men tised mosaic. He answers the question can claim. It is a pity that the classical in the negative. The Chinese appear to names were not subjected to scholarly have used colored marbles laid chequerrevision. The eye would not then be wise, and colored tiles laid like a chess. offended by such blots as “Olympion” for board; but true “ mosaic, architectural or

Olympieion,” “Lechithoi” for “ Leky- pictorial, appears to be conspicuous by its thi " (Gr. arkvool), “ Zanthus” for “Xan-absence among the arts of the Celestial thus," " Pheigalia " for "Phigalia," and Empire." Nor did the Egyptians prac“ Agatharcus” for “ Agatharchus.” The tise true mosaic, though sometimes they publications of the Hellenic Society have nearly approached it. “ The true mosaics familiarized the students of art with a in Egypt were first Greek, then Roman, more correct orthography, and it is not in design and workmanship, and lastly too much to expect that a writer who Byzantine and Arabic." shows so much knowledge, so much obser- Whence did the Greeks get their ideas vation, and so firm a grasp of principles of mosaic? They had the elements in use should conform to the received standard.

in the fifth century B. C., but these may The subject of ancient mosaic, of have been imported from Phænicia. The which Mr. Gambier Parry treats in the use of colored marbles was very ancient. first part of his sixth essay, has been the tomb of Atreus at Mycenæ, of the already handled by Mr. Hope in his work twelfth century B.C., is described by Dr. on Byzantine architecture. He points out H. Schliemann (“ Tiryns”) and in Dodthat mosaic pavements, called by Pliny well's “ Classical Tour as having origi. (xxxvi. 25), genus pavimenti Græcanici, nally presented a rich effect of color as were introduced into Italy in churches well as of ornamental carving.” This was of cities connected with the Eastern Em-produced by the employment of inlaid pire, Ravenna, Venice, etc. He also shows variously colored marbles. that a similar work was applied to surfaces of walls — only in the case of the

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* Troja, 1884, pp. 53, 54

+ Cf. 'Horace, Ep. ii. 2. 92: “Cælatumque novem floors pietre dure were employed ; on the Musis opus.”' walls incrustations of enamel and composi. Civ. Dei, 16. 8.


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The author supposes that the tessel- is that which, on Pliny's authority, was made lated work of the Chaldæans was known for Sulla, and placed in the Temple of For. to the Greeks, whose artistic eyes saw in tune at Palestrina. it capabilities of improvement. The pave- Mosaic was applied with good effect to ments at Tiryns, itself of Phrygian origin, portraiture, which gained in durability are “suggestive of colored mosaic floors " what it lost in finish. Instances are given - an inference drawn from Dr. Schlie- of Caracalla's gladiators and the friends of mann's “Tiryns (1886), from which a the emperor Commodus, whose portraits quotation is given.

were erected in a portico of his garden. From these early instances "there is Early in the first century B.C. mosaic had a long interval before we come to the become a necessary part of official furni. earliest known pictorial mosaics. They ture, and Mr. Parry quotes Suetonius, who were in Greece, at Delphi and Olympia." tells us how Cæsar carried mosaic about The existence of a mosaic at Delphi, in his campaigns that his official “

“paverepresenting the meeting of two eagles at ment” might be always ready. The com. a place called the navel of the earth, is mon adoption of mosaic suggested the use gathered from the scholiast on Lucian of native materials. Where marbles could "De Saltatione." A still more ancient not be obtained, stones of various colors, mosaic is that which was discovered by and clay, baked red or black, were em. the French expedition, 1831, at Olympia ployed. Frequently, as has been remarked in the pronaos of the temple of Jupiter. before, the composition is so superior to "It is still in situ, and probably the ear. the execution that it is impossible not to liest extant specimen of Greek mosaic." believe that the originals were the work It has been described by Sir Charles of able artists. And thus an additional Newton and M. A. Blouet, and derives interest is imparted to mosaics as preserv. additional interest from its having been ing some record of the composition of an. executed at the same time as the building cient pictures and wall-paintings. of the temple (about 450 B.C.), and from its Interesting as mosaics are which reprehaving been part of the ornament of the sent mythological subjects, those are even temple where the great statue of Pheidias more interesting which illustrate contemwas placed.

porary life.

“One of the best examples The next instance of mosaic by Greek of the kind is the great mosaic of Italica, artists which Mr. Gambier Parry men- near Seville." This represents the intetions is the work of Sosus (about 220 rior of a Roman circus, and bears testiB.C.), described by Pliny, under the name mony to the importance of a city of which of an “unswept room (olkos koúpwtos), in little remains, though it was founded by the centre of which were the famous Scipio Africanus, and was the birthplace doves, drinking water and preening their of the emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Thefeathers.* “ The mosaic of Pliny's doves odosius. A still finer specimen of mosaic, in the Capitol is composed of marbles, representing the entire scene of the circus, jewels, and a few glass imitations of is at Lyons. This is fully described, and them." Pliny gives the names of several is an excellent illustration of the lively Greek artists in mosaic - Parnesos of interest taken by the Romans in the Elis and Sosus of Pergamus. “One of games of the circus. Another favorite the finest of the Pompeian mosaics, con. subject was taken from the kingdom of structed of tessera of vitreous enamel," Neptune. There is a good instance of bears the name of the artist, Dioscorides this on the coast of Spain, on the floor of of Samos. The absence of notices by the church of St. Michael at Barcelona, Pausanias of Greek mosaics is noted and where the whole glory of the ocean king. accounted for by the author on the ground dom is portrayed in mosaic, with fishes, that Pausanias was more of a scholar than nereids, and tritons sporting among the an artist. Some of the mosaics at Pom- waves, and indicating the spot once occupeii were wall pictures, but the finest of pied by a temple of Neptune.” These all was a pavement.

subjects were very popular towards the The subject is the battle of Issus, in which tributable to the extension of Roman com

close of the first century A.D., a fact at. the prominent figure appears to be Alexander the Great, in the thick of the fight, having merce by sea. Of all such designs the just speared his foe, whose horse has fallen palm is given by Mr. Gambier Parry to in the attempt to fly. The earliest mosaic in the mosaic found at Constantine, described Italy of which an account has been preserved in glowing language, which should be

studied, as it contains, among other mem• H. N. xxxvi. 61.

orable expressions, a fine euphemism for

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