fort, though humble, reigned throughout, rules of which certain Jewish gentlemen and we were able to pay Mahmed some are associated together for the object of genuine compliments on his abode. The gratuitously attending to the funerals of Dünmeh houses are, on the Turkish prin- their brethren. The head of this society ciple, divided into haremlik and selam- is called the parnass, and when a death is lik, and whilst Mahmed and I remained reported he takes with him at the least in the large open room which formed the five of his associates, and if the death be men's quarter, my wife was admitted into a fashionable one sometimes as many as the harem, a small room on the right di- fifty, to wash the body of the deceased vided off by a curtain, where were seated internally and externally, and in accordon the floor, crosslegged on cushions, ance with the social position of the defunct Alià, the wife of Mahmed, and her two his corpse gets more or less buckets of 'friends, Smaïr and Fatmèh, three as unin. water poured over it. The parnass then teresting women as it had ever fallen to dresses the body in a white shroud, puts my wife's lot to meet. They were en- it on the bier, and has it conducted to the gaged in crochet and gossip, and appar- vast Jewish cemetery outside the walls; ently were, like all Turkish women, with the friends and relatives, therefore, have out a particle of education. They never nothing whatsoever to do with the funeral leave their houses without the yashmak, beyond attending to wail whilst the rabbis and their windows are as scrupulously lat. sing songs of distress suitable to the occa. ticed as those of any Turkish harem. sion. On the return to the house of

Whilst my wife was paying her visit to mourning the nearer relatives get a rabbi the ladies, Mahmed showed me his bed to cut off a portion of their skirts; this is room, which was without a window except a Jewish sign of grief, and as he does this into the outer room, and offered nothing he says, “God be blessed, who judges remarkable except the large text from the according to truth.”. Then follows the Koran in a frame and a battle-axe of mag- funeral repast, with its seven courses of nificent proportions, the exact use of which different kinds of food, dried fruits, eggs, my host did not seem inclined to com- etc., and as each course is put upon the municate.

table the officiating rabbi gives it a special After we had discussed various topics benediction. For seven days after a burial with Mahmed whilst drinking coffee and a Jewish family remains in the house of smoking cigarettes, and after many fail- mourning; the men do not go to their ures to draw him out on the subject of his shops in the bazaar, the women do not sit sect, in desperation I determined to put at their doors and gossip; a Jewish family to him a leading question, so I said in as at Salonika when in mourning prefers to off-hand a manner as I could muster, sit on the floor and utter wails pitiable to “What is your other name, Mahmed ?" listen to. At first he affected to misunderstand my Such customs as these, I have every question, but as the truth became evident reason to believe, the Dünmehs have to him a very evil expression spread over abandoned for the more sober Turkish his face and he was silent. I was thus funeral, which admits of po heartrending warned to proceed no further, but at the scenes, and is conducted with more of same time the truth of the fact as we have our Western simplicity. Anent the births seen_stated in their rules was evident; of Dünmehs, my wife found the ladies the Dünmehs have two names, the one, inclined to be very communicative on this like Mahmed, Turkish and publicly in use, topic. I fancy ladies always are, and the the other a secret Jewish name known three females in Mahmed's harem told only to their own community.

some very curious facts concerning the As far as the ceremonies attending mar. entrance into this world of the followers riages and death are concerned they out of Sabbatai Sevi; but as they do not throw wardly conform to those in usage amongst any special light on the subject of our the Turks, and whether they have any people, except as making them appear a private functions in connection with these trifle more peculiar, I will not enter into occasions I was never able to ascertain. further details. From the very scornful way one of them During our stay at Salonika we saw laughed when I spoke of a Jewish funeral, many ünmehs, but took a great dislike I suspect they do not go to the same ex. to them. Perhaps it was owing to our cesses as their brethren of Salonika; nor knowledge of the life of duplicity which could I learn that they have a corporate they lead; perhaps it was owing to their body like the Jews which corresponds to stolid determination to tell us as little as the Misericordia at Florence, and by the possible concerning themselves; and we

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quite agreed with Rabbi Nehemiah that the seven girls — frocks !- gowns for the they are a loathsome people ; but far from elder children, who grew apace. Through banishing them from our minds, our inter- her window she saw them pass, tall, beauest in them increased in proportion to the tiful maidens with fair hair, like corn, as difficulty of obtaining the information we yellow and as shining, and eyes blue, and required.

cheeks like wild roses. Among the darkAs for other renegades in Salonika – haired, dark-eyed, and sallow-skinned nafor the town is full of them - I think we tives, they were looked at with surprise respected them much more than the Dün- and a little envy. They kept themselves mehs, though I must admit to being rather aloof from the village children — not that afraid of them ever since I inadvertently they were proud, not that they shared their approached a harem of Pomaks, or rene- father's prejudices, but that they had gade Bulgarians. These creatures are enough of companions among themselves. refugees from the lately emancipated They were an attached family; they had mountain provinces, and dwell in construc- been nurtured in love, and the love their tions of canvas and old bits of tin which father had poured into their infant hearts they have erected in the corridor of a had filled them and overflowed towards lovely mosque which was once a Byzan- each other. They had, indeed, their little tine church, a perfect gem of architecture, quarrels, but they passed like April gusts, and which was engrossing my attention so leaving the sunshine brighter after the much that I did not perceive the trap Icloud, and the landscape fresher for the was falling into until I heard the screams shower. of “Harem !" uttered by many women, Then, at times, Josephine's work fell coupled with unpleasant missiles directed from her fingers. and she sat with the at ny head, which caused a hasty and un- needle in her hand, poised and motionless, dignified retreat on my part. The Pomaks looking before her. It was not the hisand Karajovili, renegade Wallachians, toric muse who then visited her and raised who inhabit a village near Salonika, are a mirage picture of castles and knights

, amongst the wildest and most ungovern- jousting, and gay ladies looking on in the able races on the Balkan peninsula. The most picturesque of costume; or of taplatter have a very bad reputation in the estried chambers, in which walked Van neighborhood for brigandage ; but the Dyck figures with long hair and Steen. chief point, as far as I could gather, was kirks, and rapiers clinking and spurs jin. that they still preserve in their mosquegling, and lapdogs of King Charles's breed the very Bible on which some centuries snapping - it was a muse who is name. ago they swore to renounce Christianity less, a Cinderella muse, thrust aside by and become Moslems.

her sisters, and clean forgotten, the muse Of characteristics and curious racial of unfulfilled aspirations, clothed in white developments Macedonia is a perfect mu- with a · hawthorn crown, and eyes filled seum, and Salonika is the capital thereof, with tears, and bare feet dripping blood. and the only place where the study can What were the visions raised before the be carried on with any degree of safety ; brooding mind of Josephine, sitting at and one almost fears — though perhaps ease in the enchanted palace, sent to sleep one ought to say hopes that when an- and made motionless in the midst of work? other government enters Macedonia these The picture brought up by the magic wand quaint traits of an era which is not ours of the muse was a humble one -of a will have passed away.

little cradle, in which lay a sleeping babe, J. THEODORE BENT. with one small hand out, and a coral resto

ing on the quilt; of a baby snuggling into her bosom at night, and sobbing, and be.

ing patted, patted, patted by the hour, and From Chambers' Journal.

talked to half pitifully, half wearily, to coax RICHARD CABLE,

it to sleep; of a child growing up, standing at her knee and learning to thread beads,

and whilst threading, repeating, “Once MBHALAH' JOHN HERRING," upon a time, when Jenny Wren was

young;." of a young maiden – like Mary

in growth and beauty and sweetness and (continued.)

innocence, looked up to and loved by all

the village, and adored by her moiher, MANY days passed, and Josephine sat in who only lived and thought for her. Her her little parlor working at the frocks for 1 day-dream went no further. Oh, if she

VOL. LX, 3112

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could have had a child to love and labor everywhere kill costume - but we have for, to cherish and talk to, to kiss and social habits, and the habits of our lowerlaugh to and weep over! – her solitude middle class, of the yeoman and the tenwould not have been so depressing, ber ant farmer, are those of our great-grandpain not so unrelieved. Bessie Cable had fathers; they crack the same free jokes, endured years of suffering, yet what was and their wives laugh at them, as our hers to that of Josephine, for Bessie had great-grandmothers laughed; and they her child to love? She looked for the time drink till they are merry, and upset their when the fair faces of Richard's daughters light carts coming home from market, and passed her window, and her ear was alert fall into the ditch, just as our great-grandto catch every tone and inflection of their fathers tumbled under their tables. The sweet voices, whenever they came into the wives are thrifty, and great at cordials and shop to buy the groceries needed for their supplies of linen; and they as girls had home.

worked samplers, which they retain in When they came to be fitted on, her married life framed on their walls, to be slim white fingers trembled, and she could tokens of their skill with the needle ; just not well see what were the defects to be as did these ancient ladies in our dining. remedied, because her eyes were clouded. room who look down on us out of their Finally, the seven dresses were finished tarnished frames and through cracked varand sent to the cottage, and then each nish. had a little packet of sweet things neatly In the eastern counties, the old race of wrapped up in the pocket; for that the small farmers and yeomen have well-nigh children caine and thanked Miss Penrud disappeared, or rather they bid fair to dis. dock, for they supposed the kind shop-appear, before the gentleman farmer with keeper had put them there.

his thousand acres; but the agricultural With such dear children about him, depression which has cut down these big Richard had a home complete in joys, and men has spared the little, and they are he needed not another inmate. He could reappearing again. In the west of En. dispense with his wife, who was not the gland there are very few mammoths, only mother of these lambs; surely, he did small men, and the small men make the not imagine the solitude of the girl, who money and stand the stress of hard times. was without an associate of any kind. The class among which Josephine went

After Josephine had done the frocks, was quite different from that in the serother work came in. The servant maids vants' hall at Bewdley. That class was at the parsonage wanted this and that; one of the spoiled tools of luxury, young and then some of the farmers' wives sent men and girls transplanted from cottages for her to come to work at their houses. where they had lacked everything but She found that thus only could she obtain the barely necessary, to a house where continuous work. At the farms she was they lacked nothing, but rioted and surwell treated, given plenty of food, some- feited on abundance. In their homes what coarse, but wholesome, served in a they had been subjected to the rough rough way, and partaken with the laboring moral control of village opinion; in the men from the land. There was also plenty hall, they were a law unto themselves. of conversation going on, but it was wholly They had been brought up in freedom and confined to local gossip, — the misdoings frankness; and they found themselves in of this young woman, the shameful con a region where they must practise dis. duct of the parson in preaching at So simulation as part of their qualification. and-so, and the favoritism of the school. They resembled wild flowers brought into master among the children. The maladies a forcing-house, treated with strong maof the family, of the cattle, of the ducks nures and much bottom heat. But where and hens, were discussed with intolerable Josephine now went, it was among wild prolixity, and with a breadth of language flowers in their natural element; they unsuitable to the narrowness of the sub- were fresh, strong, rough-stemmed; not ject. The costume of the Continental brilliant or choice, but natural. In the peasant is a century behind the fashion of servants' hall, an atmosphere of absurd af. the present. The Black Forester wears fectation had prevailed; Mr. Polkinghorn the knee-breeches and long coat and waist talked of his ancestors; and the maids coat that were the dress of gentlemen in languished, minced their words, and imithe time of our great-grandfathers; and tated the easy inotions of the ladies they the Tyrolean peasantess wears the short saw. In the farmhouse, the fresh air bodice of our great-grandmothers. We blew, all was natural and hearty, but the have no costume in England - slopshops | fresh air was somewhat charged with the

reek of stable and cowhouse. From the and these were laid as had been the farmer down to the servant, all were bunches of blossom. blunt, dull, noisy, ignorant, free in their Christmas morning came, and Josetalk, but with a healthy downright sense phine started from her bed as the day of the just and moral, and with great kind began to break. She had made seven of liness of heart and readiness to assist one the prettiest little posies of white chrysanother. Josephine was obliged to carry anthemums, which had flowered on unher sewing-machine when she went to the touched by frost, and they were surrounded farmhouses, scattered at considerable dis- by the green fronds of the crane's-bill. tances from the church town where was What was that? Her heart stood still, the post-office where she lived. As the as, undressed, in her night attire, with a winter drew on, the nights were dark and white bunch in each hand, and her dark the weather stormy. She was often wet hair down her back, she stood listening. through and tired, and the burden of the What was that? A sound she knew well, sewing-machine was almost more than she but had not heard for long. Again! What could bear. She did not like to ask to be was it? In the room or outside? Then assisted with it; the sturdy country girls a cry of joy. “My Puffles ! my Puffles ! thought nothing of such a weight, and did You dear one! Who has brought you not mind a wet through and a trudge in here?" the mud, so that she was not volunteered Her bullfinch, in the cage that she had assistance,

sorrowfully parted with at Bewdley, was When she reached her lodgings, she was in her window. Who had brought it her? sometimes so exhausted that she flung Who had thought of her sorrowing to be herself on her bed, too fagged to take off without her bird? Who but he who had her wet things ; and thus she would have let it go and caught it again! lain and fallen asleep, had not the kindly That Christmas day, clear and sweet postmistress looked after her, and insisted rang out the voice of Josephine in the on her getting up and putting on dry song of the angels, and her heart beat with clothes. Every Sunday morning early, hope. she went to the cob cottage in the lane that led to Rosscarrock, with a little basket in her hand, and laid on the window

RED WINDOWS AGAIN. ledge of the children's room seven little bunches of flowers, rosemary and migno- The house progressed. By Christmas, nette, a inonthly rose and inarigold, such the roof was on; then the plasterers and simple flowers as she could beg of the the carpenters went to work, not fast, but farmers' wives where she worked on the leisurely. They kept holiday on ChristSaturday. And every Sunday the seven mas day, and on old Christmas, and at girls went to church with these flower po- New Year; and they knocked off work sies in their bosoms - "the pixy present," early on Saturdays, and came to work late they called them, and always wondered on Mondays. They had much information whence they came; and little thought that to impart to each other, and all were called

; ; they came from the strange young woman together to consult on every detail. When with the wonderful voice, that the vicar's it was wet weather, they came and looked wife had lately taken into the choir. Did at the work and went away; and charged Richard guess? He asked no questions ; half a day's work for looking on the work but his mother said to him, when he hap- and deciding to do nothing. When the pened to be home on Sundays : " Do you masons were ready to build, the stones see these pretty posies ? The little maids were not ready for them to build with, or found them again this morning on their the mortar was not mixed; so they waited window.sill. Smell them, Richard ; how and talked, and charged for having been sweet they are - - they scent the room.” on the spot with nothing to do. When it

“We shall have grand flowers when we came to plastering, they were short of come to Red Windows,” he said. “No; laths or short of nails, or short of sand or I will not smell them; they give me a short of lime – short of everything except headache; take them away."

reasons for doing nothing. So with the The winter frost killed most flowers ; carpenters. They went to work to do the but the feathery seed-heads of the travel thing the wrong way; and when it was ler's joy, with bramble leaves of carmine done, and they were convinced it was and orange and gamboge and sap-green, wrong, they went to work and pulled it to with a rose-hip or two, made nosegays as pieces again; and recommenced doing it beautiful and rich as any made of Aowers, lin another way. When the rain fell or


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there was frost, masons, plasterers, car- " I'm priming, your worship," answered penters, plumbers, and painters wanted to the painter,"as you were primed afore work outside, and saw clear reasons why you drew on your clothes and insignia.” it was impossible to do anything inside ; Now, it is reasonable enough that fig. and as the rain hindered or the frost preures representing human beings should be vented, they went away with their hands colored pink first, and painted with clothin their pockets and sat under a shed, ing to taste, afterwards; but why winlooking at the front of the house and the dows ? why doors ? why skirting-boards ? rain or the frost; and charged for their A recent writer on natural law and the desire to work when it was not possible to moral order holds up to scorn the hermit work. When the sun shone and the air lobster, which does not build its own shell, was warm, they wanted to work indoors, but seeks a ready-built house into which and there were unanswerable reasons why to slip. The writer of that book never the work out of doors could not be got on had to do with the erection of a manse for with. However, in spite of all these diffi- himself, I presume, or he would have culties, the house progressed, but pro- taken off his hat and bowed to the hermit gressed so slowly as to astonish even the lobster, and pointed him out as an exammasons and carpenters, and plumbers and ple of instinct so acute that it reached plasterers and painters themselves, and to wisdom. comfort them greatly. They were not Richard Cable had accepted the buildgoing to kill the goose off-hand that laid er's rough estimate of cost and of the time the golden egg, but pick him to pieces the house would take in building, and had feather by feather.

left a margin ; but soon found that the The plumbers laid the lead, and the ma- margin should have been as wide as that nons walked over it with hobnailed shoes, in an édition de luxe book or of a modern making holes in it which required a re- funeral card. A builder can always disvision and a patching with solder of the cover reasons for spinning out the time, lead which was quite new; and when the and especially the expense. Cable found, glass was put into the windows, the car. before the house was done, that he had penters drove planks through the panes, spent all the money put by for it, and was necessitating new glazing. And the iron- obliged to borrow for its completion and monger brought grates that would not fit for the furnishing; and this did not im. the chimneypieces, and invoked the ma- prove his humor. He had not allowed sons to pull out the mantelpieces again the house to be built by contract, because and put them in afresh. Then he made he knew very well that what is built by holes in the plaster for the bell-wires so contract is badly built; and that if he ragged and so big that the plasterers must were to pay an overlooker to see to his needs come and mend them up again. interests, the masons and the carpenters, Lastly, the glacier put his hand into putty and the plunbers and glaziers, and slaters or white paint and smeared a circle in the and painters, would give the man an acmidst of every pane, to give work to a knowledgment to overlook their bad work. woman to clean the windows.

So he had his house built by day-work, Th painter performed wonders; he and then it was to the interest of the men colored all the woodwork of the house to do their work in the most substantial flesh-color, and called that priming. Why and thorough manner, because that is also it should be primed flesh-color, he did the most slow and costly manner. not say. I remember how there stood When Cable was on his way back from over the market hall in Launceston - and each journey, he thought within himself: it stands there still - a clock on which are “ Now I shall see a great advance in the two figures with hammers, that strike the work; I have been away three weeks.” hours and the quarters. Many years ago, But on his arrival he required good-nature the civic authorities ordered the repaint- and faith to see that a proper amount of ing of these automata. Then a painter work had been done; and good-nature and went up on a scaffold and primed them, faith fail when disappointed repeatedly. after the manner of painters, flesh-color. However, the house was finished at length The mayor issuing from the guild-hall and furnished furnished quietly and saw this, and was frightened or shocked, scantily, because the money ran short. and with mayoral mantle and gold chain Richard was not alarmed. He knew he of office about his shoulders, ran up the would earn the necessary sum, but he was ladder and said: "What are you about? sore at having to borrow. The consciousWe don't want to have Adam and Eve ness of being in debt was new to bim, and here."

fretted his already sore spirit. It took

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