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From The Quarterly Review. nor would reporters be excluded from a COUNT BEUST.
dinner in which he vanquished all the comMANY and various are the distinctions pany in quoting Shakespeare. The innerof statesmen. The greatest are those to most details of Mr. Gladstone's life are whom genius and opportunity come in known to the world. He cuts his trees, as equal and harmonious measure. One in he reads the lessons, in public; he is phoa short career of thirteen years adds a new tographed with his grandchild on his nation to Europe, and dies in middle age. knee, and his private table has few secrets Another is the last combatant in a strug- for the curiosity of society. The whole gle of three centuries. Long after his life of the man is seen in its highest and work is completed he remains the arbiter in its most familiar aspects. Fierce inof Europe. One, in a time of reaction, deed is the light which beats upon the supplies the world-wise caution and the daily doings of an English or American hand-to-mouth expedients for keeping political leader. But it is different with Europe quiet and repressing agitation. a minister for foreign affairs, especially He succeeds in staving off the coming in foreign countries. The imagination revolution, but leaves a name which is a cannot so easily penetrate into the circle byword to men of progress. Another is of his daily difficulties. He lives, or is the champion of little causes, and fights supposed to live, in an atmosphere of hopelessly on the losing side. He sup- treaties, alliances, European concerts, and ports particularism when the party of Asiatic intrigues. He speaks in teleunity is certain to triumph, and defends phones, writes in telegrams; his nod is a the weaker of two rivals against the inev- command, and his commands are transitable preponderance of the stronger. He lated into all the languages of the earth. may enjoy one moment of good fortune. When the Olympian comes forth from his A political arrangement framed as a com- armory, how is he to demean himself ? He promise, but more enduring than the cir- cannot make speeches without telling secumstances which brought it to birth, calls crets, and in secrecy lies his power. He for some one to conclude it. The service- must be guarded at once against the able hand is ready. Without embarrass- hungry stock-jobber and the scheming ing traditions, or hampering enmities, the dowager. He has only two resources — adroit contriver brings just the proper frankness or frivolity. He may blurt out amount of wisdom, of pliancy, and of man- the deepest mysteries of state over his agement to his task. The champion of supper, dinner, or his pipe and porter, and expiring forces finds himself evoking one no one will believe him. Cavour is so aswhich by an accident endures. Beust was tute, they say, and Bismarck is so subtle not a Cavour, nor a Bismarck, nor a Met- that they are actors even in their shirtternich, but he will live as the creator of sleeves. Or if our chancellor cannot the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
compass this grand style, the art which It must always be a disputed question, conceals the art, he may pose as the spoilt how far a statesman's mien and bearing darling of society. He may
fall back upon should correspond with his official char- his little feet, his taste in cookery, his acter. For domestic politicians this ques- velleity for scandal, his capacity for small tion is nowadays settled by the circum- talk; he may be the only man on a sofa stances of their lives. No Chatham of the full of grandes dames and not whisper a present time secludes himself in the pri- secret; he may write foolish epigrams in vacy of a sick-room, any more than he a foreign language which make it difficult makes a speech in velvet and ruffles. to attach much importance to his dePitt would not be now ashamed of letting spatches. There remains a third course romping children black his face in public, of taciturnity and solemnity which is un.
worthy of a great artist, and is more safely • Memoirs of Friedrich Ferdinand, Count von left to under secretaries and chargés d'af. Beust, written by himself. With an Introduction by Baron Henry de Worms, M.P. Two volumes. Lon- faires. The world admires the versatility don, 1887.
of the great man. No ordinary mind can
change at once from the combinations of said to have been present at the battle of high policy to the persiflage of a salon. Leipzig. The courtyard of his father's The brilliancy which sparkles before our farm was full of armed men, who were eyes must illuminate the wisdom of seri- leading off the cows, and he saw the Bashous hours. When the memoirs are pub- kirs of the Russian army shooting with lished, the veil is lifted. The narrative of arrows at the windows. His grandmother public work is hopelessly dull; the wit told him stories of the roughness of Nawhich coruscated round it is stale and flat. poleon's manners; how when a guest at The jaded reader feels that, after all, only the palace of Dresden, sitting next to the a small modicum of wisdom is needed to queen, he ordered the chamberlain in the conduct the affairs of the world. It is the middle of dinner to serve the ices. Beust taciturn observer who becomes the amus- was at least educated for a statesinan ing and brilliant writer. Our interest in training which has become very rare in the chief actor is only kept alive by the our day. At the age of seventeen he went intrinsic importance of the affairs in which to the University of Göttingen, which he was engaged.
shares with Strasburg the distinction of These reflections naturally occur to us having possessed at various periods a real after reading the memoirs of Count Beust school of politics. He attended Hugo's and Count Vitzthum, which appeared at lectures on Roman law, those of Eichhorn about the same time, and cover much the on German law, those of Hereen on hissame ground. As statesmen, the two tory, of Bouterwek on logic, of Sartorius men stand in very different categories. and Saalfeld on politics, and of BlumenThousands know the name of one who bach on natural history. He attended six never heard of the other. Yet while Vitz- lectures a day – three times too much for thuin's memoirs, even in an English dress, our more languid English students — and sparkle with interest, and abound with took copious notes. After a year, he rewisdom and observation, those of Beust moved to Saxony, where society and beer are almost unreadable in our tongue, and drinking occupied more of his attention. could not have been lively in their original | The good seed, however, which had been language. Still, they cover, with knowl. sown at Göttingen was not wasted. Saal. edge and insight, an important but very feld's lectures on politics determined him obscure chapter of recent history, and to the diplomatic career. that history we will endeavor to make in- Beust entered the Saxon Foreign Office telligible to our readers, even if we fail to in 1831, when Europe was quivering from make it attractive.
the shock of the July Revolution. The Frederick Ferdinand, Baron Beust, was system of Metternich was rudely shaken, born at Dresden on January 3, 1809. His although it was able to hold out for sevenfamily came from the mark of Branden- teen years longer. It is difficult to realize burg, where their ancestral seat, Büste, lies the terror with which the overthrow of not very far from Schönhausen, the an- the Bourbons was received throughout cient home of the Bismarcks. On the day Europe. Calm-minded Germans, like Nieof his birth, he tells us, he was drunk. buhr, saw in it the return of 1789, and His father, in delight at his arrival, sent prophesied another Reign of Terror, and the nurse a dozen of hock more than a another Napoleon. During his first ten hundred years old. The nurse, a Wend years of duty Beust served in Berlin and who understood no German, thought the Paris; the first, the stronghold of legitiwine was for a bath, and used it for that macy, more conservative than Vienna it. purpose. The baby slept for twenty-four self; the second, the centre of fashion hours, and could eat no solid food for and culture, where the salon had not yet
Nevertheless it attained, become extinct, and the best female influafter a life of hard work, to a good old ence reigned supreme. He dined, before age, seventy-seven years. His first years his departure, with the king at St. Cloud, were spent in the decline of the first Na- where Louis Philippe kept up his reputapoleon, and as a child of four, he may be I tion as a bourgeois monarch by carving at
his own table, and carving badly. Leav. considerable effect in the affairs of his ing Paris in 1841, he went to Munich, time. where he witnessed some of the last years The great revolutionary storm of 1848 of King Ludwig, a man of eccentric gen- called Beust from London to Dresden. ius, more at home in the back kitchen of The war of the Sonderbund in Switzerthe Botticella in the Trastevere at Rome, land, in which the four forest cantons, than in the council chamber of his resi- together with Zug, Freiburg, and the denz. Beust describes his fall in 1847 Valais, were ranged against the others, brought about by his disastrous liaison and were secretly supported by France, with Lola Montes, and immortalized in Austria, and Prussia, was the first cause the epigram of a provost of King's: of the outbreak. When General Dufour
had in less than a month crushed the seThus spake Bavaria's scholar king, Prepared to cut and run,
ceding provinces, the courier sent to them “I've lost my throne, lost everything,
by Guizot with advice and encouragement "Nawła, I'm undone.”
found the revolution at an end, and had
to recross the Alps with his despatches It is more difficult to agree with him unopened, the laughing-stock of Europe. that Ludwig would have been elected Ger- The disgust thus aroused against Guizot, man emperor in 1848. His fame as a who, on the occupation of Cracow in Dedilettante and a Lothario would have ob-cember, 1846, had declared the treaties of scured his reputation for patriotism and Vienna to be at an end, and who now used wisdom. At Munich Beust married a these same treaties as a pretext for supCatholic wife, and came almost immedi-porting the Jesuits, gave a death-blow to ately afterwards to England as resident the kingdom of July. Beust expresses a minister. He tells us that the greatest belief that, if Louis Philippe had shown part of his diplomatic career was spent in his former energy of mind, and if the Duc this country, and that he looks upon it as d'Aumale and the Prince de Joinville had his second home. His heart always re- been in Paris, the revolution of February joiced at the sight of Dover, although he might have been averted, and Thiers have was fully conscious of the dreary monot- taken quietly the place of Guizot. It is ony of English life, and the lack of amuse- seldom that such far-reaching phenomena ment. Beust was well known in English can be hindered or modified by such slight society, and these pages may fall under causes. The flame spread rapidly over the eyes of many who were personally Italy, Germany, Poland, and Ireland. It acquainted with him. He was present at seemed at first as if timely concessions in Sir Robert's Peel's victory on the Repeal Germany could avert further mischief. of the Corn Laws, and at his defeat on the The demands made, in ihe first instance, Irish Coercion Bill. He found a strong upon the Baden Estates for freedom of party opposed to those views of the devel- the press, trial by jury, and a national opment of Germany, with which his name army, were met by the appointment of a was to be closely identified. Prince Al- Liberal minister. The example was folbert, who was then taking that place in lowed in Würtemberg and Saxony, and the politics of England and Europe which Beust was asked by the king to lend the was to become more and more predomi- weight of his experience to the conduct nant up to the time of his early death, was of foreign affairs when the other departin favor of a united Germany under the ments of government were swayed by men supremacy of Prussia, in which Austria who possessed more enthusiasm than should play only a secondary part. The knowledge. This compromise did not same views were held by Bunsen, the last long. The battle of the barricades, Prussian minister, and Prince Leiningen, which, beginning on March 18th, raged the queen's half-brother. They were for fourteen hours in the streets of Berlin, strengthened in the background by the ended in the entire defeat of King Fred. opinion of Baron Stockmar, who, from an erick William IV. He was forced to obscure position, contrived to produce a stand with bare head, his queen fainting at his side, in the courtyard of the palace, | life of Beust is inseparable from the hiswhile the bodies of the insurgents who tory of his native country; for the last had fallen at the barricades were carried thirteen of them he swayed its destinies by in procession.
as prime minister. A new outbreak was The victory of the Liberals demanded at hand. The National Assembly at new sacrifices, and Beust made way for the Frankfort had great difficulty in deterRadical Pfordten, and returned to Lon- mining the crucial questions of the condon. He expresses a belief with charac- stitution, what should be the limits of the teristic optimism that, had he continued new empire, and who should be the head in office, he could have averted the storm. of the State. It was at last settled that To the embassy at London was soon there should be an upper and a lower house added that of Berlin, so that Beust, astride elected by popular suffrage, and that the across the North Sea and the flats of En- head of the State should bear the title of gland and Germany, obtained from Lord emperor of the Germans, which should be Palmerston the nickname of “the Colos- hereditary in his family. It was agreed sus of Rhodes.” As Beust passed through that this post should be offered to the Frankfort, on his way to Dresden and king of Prussia. It was obvious that this Berlin, the National Assembly which had step would exclude Austria from the new been elected to draw up a constitution for empire. Indeed, no sooner was the deGermany was sitting in the Church of St. cision of the Assembly announced, than Paul. He attended a meeting, at which the Austrian Diet which had been sitting he expected a discussion as to whether at the archbishop's palace at Kremsier in the Germany of the future should be a Galicia was dissolved, and a public declarepublic or a monarchy. No member ration was made that, in any future ar. was allowed to speak more than ten min. rangements, the Austrian Empire would utes, and if Beust had not decorated his remain one and indivisible. The Frankhat with the national cockade of black, fort constitution was accepted by Baden red, and gold, his diplomatic character and twenty-seven other governments, but would not have saved him from insult. He was regarded with suspicion by Sax. found Berlin, which even in our own days ony, in company with Bavaria, Hanover, looks as if the soldiers had just captured and Würtemberg. These south-German it, in the hands of the civic guard without States were not ready to acquiesce in the a uniform. Here he heard of the victories exclusion of Austria, nor in the supremacy of Radetsky, the Austrian field-marshal, at of Prussia. The Saxon Chambers were Custozza and Goito, and of the occupation ready to accept the constitution; but, by of Milan. On October 30th, 1848, Vi. Beust's advice, the king deferred his conenna was stormed by Windischgrätz, and sent. The immediate result of this was a week later Robert Blum, the child and the insurrection of May, 1849. Beust, darling of the people, the leader of the however, thinks that acceptance of the Left in the Frankfort Assembly, the im- constitution would not have prevented the passioned speaker in the Aula of Vienna, outbreak; and he instances the case of and the fearless combatant in the free Baden, which had to undergo for several corps, was shot as a rebel. Beust hap-weeks what Dresden suffered only for six pened to be in company with Bismarck days. The Saxon Parliament was disfor the first time, when the news of Blum's solved on April 30. On May 3 the popuexecution arrived. He characterized it lace attacked the arsenal, to furnish them. as a blunder, a verdict which experience selves with arms, but were driven back by has justified; but Bismarck said, either the soldiers. The citizens arrived ; bai, with passing cynicism or in sober earnest : ricades were erected in all the streets.
You are quite wrong; if I have an enemy On May 4 the king retired to the fortress in my power, I must destroy him.” Beust of Königstein. A provisional government was not likely to forget this in after years. was formed, with a Liberal, Tzchirner, at A few days later General Wrangel en- its head. The movement rapidly changed tered Berlin without a struggle, the Par- its character, and the red flag was substiliament was dissolved, and the old condi- tuted for the German tricolor. Beust tion of things was re-established. A passes over this episode lightly, but tells reaction followed throughout the German us that he went to Berlin for assistance to States, and, carried back by the wave, suppress the rising. The Prussian troops Beust was again appointed minister for made their appearance on May 6, but took foreign affairs.
three days in conquering the barricades. From February, 1849, to August 19, The old Opera House, and part of the 1866 — seventeen years and a half - the | Zwinger Palace, were burnt down. Hap
pily, the "San Sisto" of Raphael did not pflug, nothing daunted, pronounced Hesse fall a victim to the flames. On the even- to be in a state of siege. The officials ing of May 9 the great barricade at the and the people maintained a passive reentrance of the old market was carried, sistance. The electoral court removed the insurrection was at an end, and the from Cassel to Wilhelmsbad. When a insurgents had to provide for their per- military dictatorship, established under sonal safety. Among the fugitives was General von Haynau, attempted severe Richard Wagner, who had been conductor measures, nearly the whole of the officers at the Dresden Opera House. He took in the Hessian army resigned their comrefuge in Switzerland and France, and missions. The three monarchs who met Beust was able, some years later, to allow at Bregenz in October, 1850, the emperor him to return to Dresden.
of Austria, and the kings of Bavaria and Immediately after the insurrection Beust Würtemberg, determined to put down this went to Berlin, to prepare that amended disturbance. An imperial execution was form of the Frankfort constitution, which ordered, and an army of Austrians and was known as the League of the Three Bavarians entered Hesse. Prussia, pro. Kings. It was mainly the work of Gen- testing against this outrage, occupied eral von Radowitz, who represented Prus- Cassel, and the armies of the two great sia. The three kings were the monarchs German powers were ranged opposite to of Prussia, Saxony, and Hanover; Austria each other at Fulda. The thunder-cloud and Bavaria would have nothing to do was dissipated just as it was about to with it. The principal alterations were burst. The Hessian officials were comthat the new federal State was to be con- pelled to give in, by billeting soldiers on fined to those countries which accepted them. A conference was held at Olmütz. the constitution, and that the emperor of in November, which determined that the Germans was changed into the presi- Austria and Prussia should act together, dent of a Board of Princes, each having a both in Hesse and in Schleswig-Holstein, vote. In other respects the constitution for the restoration of peace. Strangely received a more conservative character enough, the compromise was regarded as than before. It was understood that the a humiliation of both parties. Prussia presidency was to be in the hands of Prus. was forced to carry out the measures of a sia. The antagonism between the two government opposed to her in principles leading States of Germany nearly led to and politics, and Austria lost the opporwar. The conflict, which eventually broke tunity of dealing a fatal blow to Prussia, out in 1866, was nearly ripe for explosion and placing herself, once for all, at the sixteen years earlier. The Chambers, head of Germany. called into existence by the League of the Beust received the news with a counThree Kings, met at Erfurt in March, tenance which made his doctor think that 1850. Austria, as an answer to the chal- he had got the jaundice. He felt like a lenge, summoned a plenary assembly of man who loses a game of whist by his the German Diet to meet at Frankfort in partner's bad play. According to the auSeptember. Thus two governing bodies, thority of Prince Bismarck and the present each claiming to be supreme in Germany, emperor of Germany, Prussia was quité were ranged in opposition; the Board of unprepared, and the Austrians might have Princes, under Prussia, Saxony, and Han- occupied Berlin. In Beust's opinion, the over, and the Diet, under Austria, Bavaria, war of 1850 would have been shorter than and Würtemberg. Two burning questions that of 1866, and Prussia would have been awaited the solution of both assemblies; defeated, and would not have lost a single the war between Denmark and the duch village. One of the reasons for hesitation ies in Schleswig-Holstein, and the consti- was undoubtedly the youth of the emperor tutional struggles in electoral Hesse. of Austria, who had just come to the
Hassenpflug, the prime minister of this throne with a policy of peace and progress. little province, was posing as a Strafford The conferences of Olmütz were conin miniature. The Chambers refused sup- tinued at Dresden by Schwarzenberg and ply until the budget was laid before them. Manteuffel, under the eye of Beust, They were dissolved, and new Chambers Their object was to find some means of elected, which pursued the same course. reconciling the views of Austria and The collection of imposts was ordered by Prussia, as to the organization of German edict. The officers of the customs refused unity. They led to no result: Beust to recognize a command which violated himself was in favor of what was called the constitution, and the law courts ceased the Cursus, that is, the alternate presito enforce the use of stamps. Hassen- Idency of the two great powers.. Count