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From The Saturday Review. with one, so to say, “ in her eye,” about QUEER RELATIONSHIPS.

half the poultry-yard will take off after her ALTHOUGH for cool repudiation of pa- with outstretched wings. Jealousy, cov. rental obligations the cuckoo stands etousness, and suspicion, alas ! are comalone, yet to live by other's labor is a rule mon to birds and men. News of a find, with many birds through life. The habit as in the gold-diggings, travels apace, and is especially well marked among the gulls. it is hard for one bird to slip away on Often the poor guillemot rises to the sur business without a considerable following face with his hard-won prize only to find it of watchful and jealous rivals. And so a wrested from him by one of those strong. second element comes into play, tending beaked bullies which had been content to to keep birds together. But more eyes play the scavenger till the guillemot's means greater watchfulness, and numbers diving told of a shoal of fish. For piracy therefore give a sense of confidence. Be. pure and simple few birds can touch the gun from motives of expediency, custom white-headed eagle of the Atlantic sea- became crystallized into habit, and so the board. If ever there seemed a bird espe- social instinct has come about. Food, no cially well able to get an honest living it doubt, is the great controller of the move. is he ; none the less summer after summer ments of birds; we can trace its operahe rears his hungry brood on fish, entirely tion most directly in the case of the solithe fruit of his illicit trade. High up tary sparrowhawk, the independent wren, upon his beetling rock, motionless save and the gregarious wood-pigeon. Let us, for the twinkle of his clear, keen eye, he however, leave the confused regions of watches every movement of a pair of os- cause and effect, and take the habit as we preys which are quartering the tidal stream find it. below as pointers quarter a moor:

See ! Sociability, let us say, is in the nature an osprey stoops at a passing shoal, break of these birds. Why, then, do not they ing the water for one instant into splash flock in summer ?" Circumstances are and spray, and the next rising into the against them, or very possibly they would. air, the fish_glistening silvery white in Rooks associate all the year round, for its talons. Then, with a warning scream, custom, partly on sentimental and partly down comes the eagle like a falling star. on practical grounds, allows them to nest The poor osprey feels the game is up, in peace. It is quite otherwise with the and, fearful of his own safety, lets his carrion crow. The strongly marked prodinner go. Fast as falls the glittering pensity to nest in society which this bird fish the eagle is faster still, and, deftly constantly exhibits finds little favor at any catching it ere it reaches the water, bears hand; wild must be the district and steep it away to his eyrie in the woods.

the cliffs where he and the hoodie may The congregation in winter of various clan together. Starlings, again, birds of species of birds — inter se has long the strongest social instincts, boon combeen a subject of much interest to observ. panions, too, of the peewits and the rooks, ers of nature. The question is often separate to a great extent in spring, so asked, “How is it that in winter, when essential is it to find some deep, dark hole food is scarce, birds flock together, while where the pale blue egg may escape the in summer when it is plentiful and easy to robber boy. None the less, the rose-colfind they forage in twos and threes?” 'Let ored starling (Pastor roseus) of Palestine us hazard a theory which, right or wrong, and south Europe nests together in such seems to us at least much nearer the immense numbers that every chink and mark than others which have been at dif- cranny are soon inhabited, and the remain. ferent times put forward.

der are compelled to lay their eggs on the And, first, would not this very fact of open ground. Perfect freedom from mofood being scarce - the fact, that is, of lestation in the case of such a very strikthe food area being restricted by the ing bird cannot be looked for, and the ploughing of stubbles and clearing of Pastors show their sense of uneasiness by wastes — tend on the whole to concentra. seldom returning to the same spot to nest. tion of the feeders, who will thus be This is, however, a digression. To return brought into approximate relationship? to our subject. “ Yes; but there is no reason why it Advantage doubtless, like necessity, should go any further.” But have you makes strange bedfellows; but often the never noticed how when a pullet in the advantage seems to be strangely one. yard has found a worm all the rest will sided, and not seldom missing altogether. dance attendance ? and should she even Among the favorites in the Zoological be seen running, wormless indeed, but | Gardens the prairie marmots, or prairie

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dogs, have always held a foremost place ; | distinct genera of crabs in the Mauritius here, though, from long confinement, they which have a habit of firmly grasping a have lost their greatest charm — that naïve sea-anemone in either claw, and carrying mixture of shyness and curiosity which them about. The professor does not atmakes them so attractive to those who see tempt to explain the habit, but it seems to them in their home. That home is the us that it may very likely be a ruse, under broad, flat lands about the Missouri and cover of which to approach their prey, other American rivers, where their bur. just as wild-fowlers endeavor to steal up to rowed colonies stud all the plain. Now duck or swans in the watches,” or pieces the burrowing owl of these same prairies of open water in the middle of frozen has a habit of saving himself much trouble floods, by carrying a laurel or pine bough by taking up his quarters in one of these in their hands. holes; and owl and marmot rear their One animal will make use of another young side by side. It is best to be cheer- simply as a means of locomotion. A good ful when you cannot turn your enemy out, example of this is the sucker-fish of the but our poor friend must feel it a depress- Mexican Gulf, which adheres by means of ing arrangement, for, while he is a strict a sucker situate on the back of its head to vegetarian, if there is one dish the bur- the belly of a shark. Professor Moseley rowing owl loves more than another it is writes (Notes by a Naturalist on the baby burrowing marmot. Sometimes, to Challenger): “ The sharks were often seen add to his troubles, the rattlesnake also attended by one or more pilot-fishes, as takes up a lodging for a day or two, and well as bearing the suckers attached to one can picture the wicked leer of wily them. I often watched with astonishment Crotalus as he comes gliding in to make a from the deck this curious association of third at this grim game of " beggar-my- three so widely different fish as it glided neighbor.” So much for these crafty round the ship like a single compound plunderers. We will leave them to their organism.” wicked devices, just glancing as we pass No parasite is the little fish called fierat the converse of the picture, nearer asfer, though he shelters himself literally home.

inside the body cavity of a holothurian, or It has been the writer's wont for many sea-cucumber; he leads, indeed, an active years to pay frequent visits of inspection roving life, and only when danger threatin the summer time to the fox-earths in ens betakes himself to his strange retreat. his neighborhood; and he has observed The following facts have only a chance more than once the tracks of rabbits lead. connection with the proper subject of this ing right into the very same burrow where article, but their quaintness seems to jus. he has known for a fact a litter of cubs to tify their insertion here. A few weeks be established. But here, alas, it must be ago a lady was sitting at work with her said as in Reynard's answer long ago : needle in one of the rooms of the house in

which we write. Her table was near an

vestigia ... Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retror: open window, and upon it lay sundry

large reels of cotton, such as are in use

with sewing-machines. She was about to If one watches the pools as the tide supply her needle from one of these reels goes down, one may often see the shell when she noticed a green caterpillar stickwhich holds a hermit crab decorated with ing just inside the central hole of the reel. a sea-anemone. The anemone, one night Taking it to the window, she shook it out, suppose, had taken up its position there and went on with her work. Being a short of its own accord when the shel was at time after in want of more thread, she was rest. Mr. Gosse, however, assures us that surprised to find a caterpillar again in the it is not so. He says that in every in- same position. A little astonished, but stance when he detached the anemone thinking that she must have been mistaken from the shell, the hermit crab picked it in supposing that she had removed it be. up, and held it in its claws against the fore, she again shook the reel outside the shell “for the space of ten minutes at a window, the caterpillar fell out, and the time, until fairly attached by a good strong reel was empty. There was no doubt base." Is such a strange proceeding about it this time, and she became again simply dictated by a love of finery? A absorbed in her work. Imagine her asstill more curious case mentioned by Pro- tonishment when, a few moments after, fessor Möhns (Beiträge zur Murerfauna she discovered in the same reel not one, der Insel Mauritius) inclines one to a but two green caterpillars, exactly resemdifferent conclusion. He tells us of two I bling the former in size, color, and shape.

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There was something not quite canny in writer asserted that “no class of men the whole proceeding; it was as though seemed so likely to receive strange and some brownie was at work, and she re- unexpected answers as school inspectors.” solved to watch. It was not long before This, perhaps, is not quite correct. The her vigilance was rewarded, for Hying in inspector only occasionally appears on the at the open window, bearing in his jaws a scene at school, whilst the teacher is part fine green caterpillar, there came a mason and parcel of the scene, and always there. wasp. Circling round once or twice he The fact is that the comical element settled on the reel, deposited his burden amongst youngsters is not nearly so frein the hole, and straightway left to hunt quently made note of by teachers as it the rose-trees below for further prey: might be, and many Twain-like sayings Meantime his partner entered, deposited and laughable answers are thus lost, givan egg on each of those caterpillars and ing only a temporary diversion and hilarity went her way, bearing in mud in many amid the tedium and monotony of school succeeding journeys until eggs and cater- work. pillars were quite sealed up. There are Examinations are the times at which in this house at the present moment sev- our juvenile shooting-stars pop off their eral keyholes of doors and cupboards unwitting jokes with most frequency. At sealed with mud, and containing their liv- times, too, the squibs hit the teacher, ing helpless prisoners. For the mason but only to tickle him, although thoughts wasps do not kill their prey outright, they may cross his mind that his instrucparalyze it only, so that it cannot move tions in geography, Scripture history, or away, but stays to furnish good fresh other pedagogy must have been defective, meat for the young, wasps when newly and somehow not lucid to the "young hatched. Truly a hideous nightmare! idea.” To lie under a spell in some dark hole The vicar of a certain parish in Sussex side by side with a developing ogre, who, was in the habit of giving religious in. when time is ripe, shall feast on your destruction at the grammar school of the voted person !

town. At the close of his series of les. Mutual good offices are by no means sons, he was wont to receive written reconfined to the animal world alone. The plies on the subject matter. On being lichens, for example, are inhabited by re- asked what a "laver was, one answer ciprocal parasites in the shape of fungus was indited : “A laborer is a washingand algæ, the algæ supplying the fungus vessel or bason;" the writer thoughtfully with carbohydrates, while they are them- concluding, for the credit of his calig. selves preserved from desiccation by the raphy,“ George Juniper, forth class, wrote investing fungus,

with a sprain thumb.” Let us say, in conclusion, that though A teacher having told his class that for the sake of variety we have gone fur-“ divers” meant “various” in the verse ther affeld — the natural history of our beginning, “ But when divers were hardisland will furnish many another such a ened,” added that to make the sense comstory as those that we have told. “Sym- plete another word (people) was necessary; biosis” and “commensalism are forbid- whereupon a pupil instantly rose and read ding terms, but the facts that they express out the petrifying paraphrase, with conare very far from being so. The majority siderable emphasis on the article, “But of them must be sought far down in the when the divers were hardened.” Asked animal kingdom, and can only be followed to place an adjective before the noun with the help of the microscope and by tree,” an unconscious but grammatical hours of patient care. But there are one wrote, “wooden — wooden tree.” others, and they are many (and this is what It is to be supposed that our next youth this article has sought to show), that only had heard that the eagle could gaze at the ask a love of nature and a watchful eye. sun without winking. He wrote, however,

in a rather redundant way: “The Romans never had flags but a eagle on their sticks, it is a noble bird, it looked up at

the sun with its eyes open.” Historians From Chambers' Journal. make a mistake in calling Christopber FUNNY SAYINGS AND ANSWERS BY Columbus a Genoese - he was an EnJUVENILES.

glishman, for, with the spirit of patriotism In an article which appeared some time burning in him, a boy says : " The first ago in Chambers' Journal, and which Englishman who sailed round the wourld was entitled “Unexpected Answers,” the I was by name cristoper Comlumbus."

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The following geographical definitions “Something we feel, sir.” “Yes, that is may be of use to our Fellows of the Royal very good, encouraged the questioner; Geographical Society: “A cape is a piece " but I want the name for it.' of land joining the sea;” and “A volcano sir, I know," came an answer from anis a burning mounting wich spits fire and other part of the class : “my mother lather.” That the earth is round is proved catched one up our Tom's sleeve this by the fact that the earth goes round the morning!" sun. A little well-brought-up boy wrote: In examining the boys in the composi

Geography tells us about the earth and tion of sentences, a master began: “If I the sea, countries and rivers and lakes ask you,” said he, “. What have I in my and” – with a devout and extraordinary hand ?? you must not say simply. Chalk,' apostrophe pens the invocation above but make a full sentence of it, and say, grace give us knowledge."

• You have chalk in your hand.' Now I The under-mentioned lad held up his will proceed. What have I on iny feet?" hand triumphantly whilst several compan. The answer came immediately: Boots.” ions gave the correct answer. His twink. “Wrong; you haven't been observing ling eyes showed he knew, if they didn't. my directions,” he rebukingly replied. “How many feet were there in a field" Stockings,” another heedlessly ventured where stood a shepherd, his boy, and five to answer. Wrong again

worse than sheep?" “Four," was his eager reply; ever," wrathfully exclaimed the magister. because the rest, he said, “ weren't feet “Well?” he continued interrogatively to they were only trotters.

a lad near him. “Please, sir," then he A quiet and watery-eyed pupil tran- paused — perhaps he thought it might scribing, “ These poor savages cannot be sound funny, but he felt it must be right, called the ancestors of the British people,

," and so he recklessly gasped it out: was slightly in error when he wrote, “ Corns!” “ These poor sausages,” etc. Being asked “What are you talking about there?" for examples of animals having coarse demanded a teacher, addressing himself hair, one boy thought a Shetland pony. to the loquacious son of a railway porter. After a pause, another remarked that a But the teacher obtained no response, and pig, too, had coarse hair. But this was was obliged to ask another lad who sat completely beaten by another boy, who next the delinquent. “What was George rose to wind up the subject by stating that talking about?” “Please, sir, he was

hedgehogs and porcupines,” he consid-saying as his father's trousers is sent down ered, " had the coarsest and stiffest hair to Brighton when they gets old, and they's of all.”

made into sugar there, and that's how 'tis A master having propounded the Dar- sugar's gone down ! winian theory that such birds as herons, Another Cuvier has arisen, He is

very storks, and the like owe their length of young yet; but the time will come when leg to the habit, extending over ages, of he will take his proper place as the leadseeking their food in the water and con- ing light among animal physiologists. In stantly dragging their feet out of the mud, his essay on the horse he wrote only a bit, met a poser from a juvenile anti-Darwinian but that bit was good - it was concise, who requested to know, “How long will and to the point. The examiners showed the legs of herons be in a few more the paper upon which the dissertation was

A boy in the same division was written to one another and smiled approvheard shortly afterwards to give a mali. ingly at the little author. Young Cuvier cious recommendation to another rejoic- had simply touched upon the subject in a ing in the sobriquet of "Stumpy on geometrico-physico manner: account of his remarkably short under- Essay on the Horse. - The horse is a standings. He recommended Stumpy to useful creacher. It eats corn it is a sort wear heavy boots."

of square animal with a leg at each corner In the course of a reading lesson, the and has a head at one end and tale at word sensation cropped up, and the the other.” teacher asked what it meant. Receiving The examiners forgave the little chap. no satisfactory response, he attempted to He looked innocent. They thought his elicit the answer by saying: "Come, boys, mind had been perhaps wandering that I'm sure you must know; it's something, he had been thinking about his hobby. for instance, which passes up your arms horse. when you touch a galvanic battery. What The following is a sample of a young is it?' Well, my lad, I see you know.” historian's acumen : “In 1839 the English

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had to stop the advance of Russia in In

From The Saturday Review. dia, and Suraja Dowla was made governor.

“LONG" SIR THOMAS ROBINSON. In 1846 confusion again broke out, but the BOSWELL describes how one day in July, English government went out and stopped 1763, he found “tall Sir Thomas Robin. it. This led to the appointment of a sec- son sitting with Johnson."

Long Sir retary of state. It consisted of fifteen Thomas ” he should have written, for it persons." Mathematicians will be sur- was by the epithet long that he was disprised to learn that “a circle is a figure tinguished from his namesake, the dipio. contained by a straight line.” Students matist, who subsequently became the first of geography may not know that “the Baron Grantham, and is the ancestor of Nile is the only remarkable river in the the present Marquess of Ripon. One or world. It was discovered by Dr. Living two anecdotes about this Yorkshire bar. stone, and it rises in Mungo Park.” Home onet that we came across many years ago influences appeared in the answer of a made us wish to learn more of him. He child, whose father was a strong teeto- seemed to be one of those absurd charactaler, to the query, "Do you know the ters round whom many good stories should meaning of syntax ? " “ Yes,"

was the linger. Though in a somewhat wide read. ready reply; “syntax is the dooty uponing of the memoirs and letters of the last spirits.”

century we have always kept an outlook A lady asked one of the children in her for him, yet our caré has scarcely been Sunday-school class, “What was the sin repaid with the success that it deserved. of the Pharisees?" Eating camels, The accumulations of ten or twelve years ma'am,” was the reply. The little girl had will only furnish enough materials for a read that the Pharisees “strained at gnats very brief sketch. and swallowed camels." “ In what condi. He is perhaps best known by the epi. tion was the patriarch Job at the end of gram made on him by the Earl of Cheshis life?” questioned a teacher of the terfield : stolid-looking boy at the foot of the class. “ Dead," was the quiet response.

" What

Unlike my subject will I make my song, is the outward and visible sign in bap

It shall be witty and it shan't be long. tism?" asked a lady of her Sunday-school Another witticism on him by the same class. There was silence for some sec- nobleman is differently reported. Mit. onds, and then a girl broke in triumphantly ford, in a note on one of Horace Walpole's with, “ The baby, please, ma'am.” “Do letters, says that "some one told Lord you know, mamma, I don't believe Solo- Chesterfield that Long Sir Thomas Robmon was so rich after all,” observed a inson was very ill. 'I am sorry to hear sharp boy to his mother, who prided her. it.', He is dying by inches.' Then it self on her orthodoxy. “My child !” she will be some time before he dies,' was the exclaimed in pious horror, “what does answer.” Croker's version of the story is the Bible say?" “ That's just it," he neater and more probable, as Chesterfield answered. “It says that “Solomon slept died four years before his tall friend. with his fathers.' Now, surely, if he had “ Lord Chesterfield in his last illness said been rich he'd have had a bed to himself.” to Robinson, Ah, Sir Thomas, it will be A teacher, in trying to explain to her sooner over with me than it would be with scholars the meaning of repentance, used you, for I am dying by, inches.' Lord this illustration: “ Suppose a bad boy Chesterfield was very short." Chesterwere to steal an orange, and his good field in his last illness had always one mother should catch him with it, and take bon-mot, and only one, ready for his physihim by the hand gently and tell him how cian at his daily visit. We may wonder wicked it is, and how very, very grieved whether he managed to supply one also she was; don't you think, now, that the for each of his friends, and whether the little boy ought to feel sorry?”. One of one we have just quoted was Long Sir the scholars eagerly replied, “ Yes, mum.” | Thomas's allowance. Horace Walpole, “And why, Marmaduke ?” “'Cause.” mentioning the last joke that Chesterfield “ Because why, Marmaduke ?” “ Because ever made, says that he gave away all he hadn't et the orange befo' his ma cotch his wit to the last farthing.” If he laughed him and tuck it away from him!”

at Robinson, he yet corresponded with of you ever see an elephant's him, and found his letters amusing, as is skin ?” asked the master of an infant shown by the following curious receipt school. “I have,” shouted a six-year-old that he sent him: at the foot of the class. “Where?”

Bath, Jan. 15, 1757 “On the elephant, sir.”

Received of Sir Thomas Robinson, baronet,

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