Hadj Abdallah had left the Reef in con- Colonel Buceta endeavored to dissuade sequence of a blood feud. He was the me from this purpose, reminding me that chief of the boar-hunters at Tangier, and Sir Charles Napier had failed in obtaining was looked up to with respect, not only any beneficial result from his parley with by the rural population in the neighbor. the Reefians who had an interview with hood of that town, who are chiefly of him in Melilla. Reef extraction, but also by the local au- Perceiving from the governor's lanthorities, who frequently employed him in guage that he entertained those feelings the settlement of disputes with the refrac. Of jealousy which prevail with Spaniards tory tribes in the mountainous districts of regarding the intervention of any foreign the Tangier province.

government in the affairs of Morocco, I We steamed along the rocky coast of let him understand that, should no benefiReef and touched at the Spanish garrisons cial result be obtained by my visit in putof Peñon and Alhucema. The former is ting a stop to the outrages committed on a curious little rock, separated from the merchant vessels approaching the Reef mainland by a very narrow channel. A coast, it would become a serious matter colonel and a few soldiers garrisoned the for the consideration of our government fortress, which is apparently of no possi- whether steps should not be taken to in. ble use, though the authorities at that time fict a chastisement on the Reefians, by might have aided in checking piracy by landing a force, and in conjunction with stopping the passage of the Reef galleys. the sultan's troops which might be deThe rock is so small, that there was not a spatched, at our instigation, for that purwalk fifty yards long on any part of it. pose, by destroying the hamlets and boats

On the island of Alhucema, so called on the coast. The question might also from the wild lavender that grows there, arise, perhaps, of erecting a fortress in we also landed. The Spanish authorities some sheltered spot where a gunboat were civil, but held out no hopes of being could be placed to guard the coast against able to take steps to put a stop to piracy. pirates, which I observed the authorities

This island is also an insignificant posat Spanish fortresses had hitherto been session, about half a mile distant from the unable to effect. mainland. The inhabitants had occa. This language sufficed to decide Colonel sional communication with the Reefians, Buceta to accede to my wishes; but he hoisting a flag of truce whenever a boat informed me that, in consequence of late was despatched to the shore; but Span- acts of aggression on the part of the naiards were not at that time allowed to tives, all communication with the garrison make excursions on the mainland, nor had been cut off, and that no Reefians were they permitted to obtain provisions were allowed to enter; it was therefore except a few fowls, eggs, and honey. out of the question that he could admit

On our arrival at Melilla, the governor, any chieftains into Spanish territory. Colonel Buceta,* received us courteously. Neither did he think the latter would be I made known to him that the British disposed to venture into the gates of the government had directed me to proceed to fortress. the coast of Reef, to endeavor to come to I then proposed to be allowed to dean understanding with the chiefs with the spatch my Reefian friend Hadj Abdallah view of putting a stop to piracy on that Lamarty with an invitation to some of the coast, the sultan of Morocco having de neighboring chiefs, both on the sea-board clared he had no power of control over his and inland, to meet me on the neutral lawless subjects, who had shown an utter ground. disregard of the peremptory orders which Colonel Buceta assented, but he rehad been issued to restoré British prop- peated that he could not admit any Reeferty captured by their piratical galleys; ians into the garrison, nor send an escort that in order to carry out this object I was to accompany me, should I pass the gates, anxious to have an interview with some to go into the Reef country, adding that of the chiefs, not only of the villages on he thought I should be incurring a serious the coast where the owners of the piratical risk of being carried off a prisoner by the galleys dwelt, but more especially with the Reefians, if in the parley I should happen chiefs of the neighboring inland villages, to express myself in language such as I as the latter derived no immediate benefit had used to him regarding the outrages from the plunder of shipping.

committed by these lawless people.

His predecessor, he informed me, in Afterwards General Buceta, a very distinguished consequence of the frequent hostilities


which had taken place between the natives


on the

and the garrison, had proposed to have a and was prepared to run all risks, having meeting with some chieftains within the been accustomed for many years to deal garrison. This they declined, fearing, as with Reefians at Tangier. they alleged, some act of treachery; but Buceta then consented that I should be it was finally agreed that they should meet allowed to pass the gates of the garrison, the governor on the neutral ground; that and invite the chiefs of the neighboring he could bring an escort of twenty-five Reef villages to a parley on the neutral armed men, and that the chiefs would also ground. be accompanied by an equal number of Colonel Buceta, a distinguished officer followers; that the governor and one chief, well known for his great courage and de both unarmed, were to advance to a cen- cision, was, I believe, on the whole pleased tral spot that was selected about one hun- that I held to my purpose, though he dred and fifty yards distant from where warned me again and again that I was their followers assembled, and that the incurring a great risk, and that in no manSpanish governor could also bring with ner could be intervene if I and the English him an interpreter.

officer who might accompany me were This arrangement was carried out, and taken prisoners. a Reefian chief, a man of gigantic stature My messenger returned and informed and herculean frame, advanced to meet me that the neighboring chiefs, both of the Spanish governor.

the inland and of the piratical villages of The parley commenced in a friendly Beniboogaffer, would meet me manner; propositions were made by each neutral ground as had been proposed to party regarding the conditions upon which them. peaceful relations were to be re-estab- Accompanied by Captain Hall, who lished; but without bringing about any commanded H.M.'s frigate Miranda, my result.

friend Hadj Abdallah, and a gavass of The Spanish governor, finding the de. the Legation, we proceeded to the ren. mands put forward by the chieftain to be dezvous. of an unacceptable character, expressed Five or six chiefs awaited our advent, himself strongly on the subject. A warın attended by some hundred followers, staldispute ensued, and on the governor using wart fellows, many of them more than six some offensive expression, the Reefian feet high. seized in his brawny arms the governor, The chiefs wore brown-hooded dresses, who was a little man, and chucking him not unlike the costume of a Franciscan over his shoulders like a sack of grain, friar; but part of the shirt-sleeves and called out to the Spanish detachment of front were embroidered with colored silks. soldiers to blaze away, and at the same Handsome leather belts girded their loins. time to his own men to fire if the Spanish A few of the elders wore white woollen soldiers fired or attempted to advance, haiks, like unto the Roman toga or mantle whilst the chieftain ran off with the gov- without seam, such as our Saviour is said ernor, who was like a shield on his back, to have worn. to his followers.

Some of the wild fellows had doffed The officer in command of the Spanish their outer garments, carrying them on detachment, fearing that the governor their shoulders as they are wont to do might be killed, did not venture to let his when going to battle. Their inner cos. men fire or advance, and the governor was tume was a white cotton tunic, coming carried off prisoner to a village about down to the knees, with long, wide sleeves, three miles off on the hills, and notice was fastened behind the back by a cord. then sent to the fortress that be would not Around their loins they wore a leathern be released until a ransom of three thou- girdle embroidered in colored silk, from sand dollars was sent.

which hung a small pouch for bullets and The Reefians kept the governor pris. a dagger; on the other side was suspended oner until a reference was made to Madrid, a larger leathern pouch or bag, prettily and orders were sent for the ransom to be embroidered with a deep fringe of leather, paid. “Now,” said Colonel Buceta,“ your in which powder is carried; containing fate if you trust yourself to these treacher. also a pocket to carry the palmetto fibre, ous people will probably be the same, and curiously enough called leaf, used instead I shall be quite unable to obtain your of wads over powder and ball. Their release.”

heads were closely shaved, except that on I thanked the governor for the advice, the right side hung a long lock of braided but declared that I must fulfil my mission hair, carefully combed and oiled. Several



of them were fair men with brown or red conduct of certain Reefians, - not all, I beards, descendants perhaps of those am happy to add, but those Reefians who Goths who crossed over into Africa. dwell on the coast and possess karebs, for

The wild fellows reclined in groups on the alleged purpose of trade with Tangier a bank, immediately behind where the and Tetuan and for fishing. chiefs were standing to receive us. After “ The inhabitants of these coast villages, mutual greetings I addressed them in especially of the neighboring village of Arabic, which though not the common Beniboogaffer, when they espy a peaceful language, for Berber is spoken in the inerchant vessel becalmed off their coast, Reef, yet is understood by the better launch a kareb with forty cr fifty armed classes, who learn to read the Koran and men, and set out in pursuit. to write in the jamas, or mosque schools. “ The crews of these merchant vessels The Berber is not a written language. are unarmed, and generally consist of not

O men! I come amongst you as a more than eight or nine men. When they friend ; an old friend of the Mussulmans. observe a kareb approaching with a hosI have been warned that Reefians are not tile appearance, they escape in their little to be trusted, and that I and those who boats to the open sea, trusting to Proviaccompany me are in danger of treachery; dence to be picked up by some passing but I take no heed of such warnings, for vessel before bad weather sets in, which Reefians are renowned for bravery, and might cause their small craft to founder. brave men never act in a dastardly man- The merchant vessel is then towed to the ner. My best friends at Tangier are beach, where she is stranded, pillaged of Reefians, or those whose sires came from cargo and rigging, and burnt. the Reef, such as my friend here, Hadj “I now appeal to all true Moslems Abdallah Lamarty.

whether such iniquitous acts are not They are my hunters, and I pass days against the laws of God and of the and nights with them out hunting, and am Prophet. treated by them and look upon them as my “These pirates are not waging war brethren; so here I have come to meet against enemies or infidels, they are mere you, with the captain of the frigate, un- sea robbers, who set aside the law of the armed, as you see, and without even an Prophet to pillage_ the peaceful ships of escort of my countrymen from the ship their friends the English, to whom they of-war lying there, or from the Spanish are indebted for conveying their brethren garrison, for I felt sure I should never in safety to worship at the Holy Kooba of require protection in the Reef against any their Prophet.

“ To these English whom they rob, and “You are welcome,” exclaimed the also murder if they attempt to resist, they chiefs. “The English have always been are indebted for much of the clothing they our friends,” and a murmur of approval wear, for the iron and steel of which their ran through the groups of armed men arms are made, and for other commodi. seated on the bank.

ties. I now appeal to those Reefians who “ Yes; "I continued,“ the English have dwell in inland villages, and who take no always been the friends of the sultan, the part and have no profit from these lawless Kaliph Allah, and of his people.

acts, and I ask whether they will continue “You are all Moslems, and as follow-to tolerate such infractions of Allah's ers of the Prophet every year a number of laws. Can these men of Beniboogaffer your brethren who have the means, go to who have been guilty of frequent acts of the shrine of the Prophet at Mecca, as piracy, can they be Moslems? No, they required by your religion. How do they must be Caffers (rebels against God). go? In English vessels from Tangier, as As I said this, I heard froin the mound you know, and they are therefore, when behind me, where the Beniboogaffer peoon board, under the English flag and pro- ple were seated, the sound of the cocking tection. They are well treated and their of guns, and a murmur, “ He calls us Caflives and property are safe. They return fers.” Looking round I perceived guns to Tangier in the same manner, and many levelled at my back. of them have come to me to express their One of the elder chiefs rose and cried gratitude for the recommendations I have out, “ Let the English chief speak! What given them to English officers in the East, he says is true! Those who rob and and the kindness they have received at murder on the seas innocent people are their hands.

not Moslems, for they do not obey the “These facts, I think, are known to law of God." you ; but let us now consider what is the I continued: “Hear what your wise

97 man.


chief says. I fancied I heard a sound to possess a single boat for trade, or even like the click of a gun being cocked. for fishing. Some foolish boys must be sitting amongst "I now ask, Will you inland inhabit. the assembly, for no brave Reefians, and ants tolerate the continuance of piracy Beniboogaffers included, would ever com. on the part of your brethren on the coast? mit a cowardly murder on an unarmed Will you brave inbabitants of the coast man who has come amongst you trusting continue to set Allah's laws at defiance, to the honor and friendship between the and thus expose your lives and property, Reefians and English from ancient times. and those of your inland brethren, to de

“ You have, I think, heard that the struction ?” English government has frequently com- The old chief again spoke, and others plained to the sultan Mulai Abderahman, stood up and joined him, saying:

" He is the Kaliph Allah and Emir El Moome right. We shall not allow these robberies neen (Prince of Believers), of the commis- to be committed on our friends the Ension of these outrages, and has put for- glish ; such outrages must cease, and if ward a demand for reparation and com- continued, we shall be prepared to chas. pensation for damages.

tise the guilty." “ The sultan, who is the friend of the The Beniboogaffer chiefs said, “We powerful queen of England, my sover-approve.”. eign, der whose sway there are fifty “ I know," I continued, "you Reefians millions of Moslems whom she governs do not sign treaties or like documents; with justice and kindness, had issued his but the words of brave men are more Sheriffian commands to you Reefians to worthy of trust than treaties, which are cease from these outrages; but you paid too often broken. Give me your hands." no attention to the orders of the kaliph of I held out mine. As the pledge of good the Prophet.

faith I shook the hand of the chiefs, in“The queen then sent a squadron to cluding the Beniboogaffer. chastise the pirates and obtain redress; "Remember,” I said, “it is not English but the admiral took pity on the villages, vessels, but all vessels without exception where innocent women and children dwelt, must be respected on approaching your and did not fire a gun or burn a kareb, as shores." he might have done. He had a parley “We agree,” they cried. with the Beniboogaffer people and other Upon which I exclaimed, “ I have faith inhabitants of villages where boats are in your words. May God's mercy and kept.

blessing be on you all and grant you pros, They made false promises, and pre- perity and happiness! The Reefians and tended they would cease to commit out- English shall remain true friends forever. rages, but, as was to be expected, they I bid you farewell." have broken faith, and since that parley “Stop," said the chief of a neighboring have been guilty of further acts of piracy. village, come with us and be our guest. So now I have come to see you and hear We shall kill an ox to feast you and our whether the Reefians in the inland villages brethren here, and bid you welcome. You will continue to suffer these outrages to are a hunter; we shall show you sport, be committed by those who dwell on the and become better acquainted with each coast, which may expose all the honest other. Upon our heads shall be your life and innocent inhabitants of the Reef to and those of your friends." the horrors of war.

I pointed to the frigate, and said: “I have begged that no steps should "That vessel has to return immediately, be taken by my countrymen, lest the inno- and I have to report what has been done cent should suffer, until I make this final to stop all preparations for seeking through attempt to come to an understanding with other means to obtain the satisfaction you you; but I have to warn you, as a true have so readily offered. I should have friend, if another outrage'is committed, been delighted to have gone with you, my great and powerful sovereign, in con- and I should have felt as safe as if I'was junction with the sultan, will send large amongst my own countrymen. You are a forces by sea and by land to carry fire brave race, incapable of doing a wrong to and sword into your villages, and bring a true friend. I shall never forget the the whole population under subjection. manner in which you have received me. H.S.M. may then think fit to compel the “I bid you all farewell. I believe in Reef tribes dwelling on the coast to mi- your promises, even those made by the grate to the interior of his realms, or, at Beniboogaffer. Send messengers at once any rate, they will no longer be allowed to the villages on the coast and let them every week.

know the promises you have made, which , and yet real enough. The reviews made they also must be required to carry out merry some years ago over a man who strictly."

published a didactic poem and described Thé chiefs and their followers tried all himself as waiting for “some result in they could to persuade me to accompany people's altered manners.” It is prethem, but finally, consented that I should sumed that he is still waiting. Similarly, depart on promising that I would some the critics are on the lookout for a result day revisit them.

equally visible from the two millions of Ġeneral Buceta was surprised to learn sermons. They forget that, if these serthe result of my visit, but said the Reefians mons do nothing else, they may at least would never keep faith, and that we should serve as ballast. The irreverent might soon bear of fresh acts of piracy. “In say that they are exactly fitted to dissuch case," I replied, “ we shall have to charge a function for which heaviness is land a force and burn every hamlet and the first requisite. But they would be boat on the coast; but I have every hope equally well-fitted if described as weighty, the Reefians will keep faith.”

and the word is not obnoxious. Let us They have kept faith, and since that picture to ourselves for a moment society parley near Melilla no vessels, either without its sermons; the ship without its British or of other nationality, have been ballast, heeling over to every dangerous captured or molested by the Reefians. blast, letting in the water of an acrid

immorality and scepticism on all sides. Surely, that we are even as good as we are may, after all, be largely due to the

ucfailing supply of weighty pulpit ballast From Macmillan's Magazine. A DISCOURSE UPON SERMONS.

So, again, to use another illustration, do Much has been written about sermons, we ever feel the weight of the atmosphere? but the subject can never grow stale. And yet how happily and healthily it reHowever else sermons may be regarded, strains our movements; fifteen pounds they at least loom large as a fact in our weight on every square inch of bodily sur, social economy. So long as two millions, face. What light, Highty beings we should more or less, continue to be preached necessarily become were this restraint every year, they will assert their claim to removed even for an instant! And so we attention. It may be that the supply is cannot be too thankful that there is no just a little in excess of the demand; that break in the long succession of discourses here, as in so many other quarters, we are from the pulpit. Where should we be if suffering slightly from over-production. this wholesome influence were removed Still, on the whole, sermons are firm (to for a single week - this steady pneumatic borrow a phrase from the City), and, if pressure in the region of morals and the moderately taxed, would yield a pretty ology? England can never surely become steady revenue. As it is, the tax is now incurably light-headed so long as there is too often levied on the patience of the this salutary burden of two millions of bearer as a kind of ecclesiastical excise on sermons pretty evenly distributed over articles which, as delivered, are certainly the surface of society. sometimes "above proof.”

One is reminded in this connection of a It is the fashion to lament what is as- schoolmaster of the olden type, well known sumed to be the slight effect produced by years ago in a western county, who used the annual discharge of these two millions to maintain that you could never be doing of sermons. The popular imagination wrong in flogging a boy:. Either the boy seems disposed to regard them as a kind had already done something to deserve it

, of artillery which should at once strew or he would very speedily do something. society with the wrecks and ruins of an. It was not less fair for justice to be an. cient errors. And even the philosophers, ticipatory than for it to be retrospective. with that fondness for quantitative analy. So of sermons — they may be regarded as sis which has distinguished them ever an anticipatory means of discipline. Who since the chemical balance was perfected, knows how much oftener we should all go are always on the lookout for what may wrong without them? Let us then accept be termed ponderable results. Both them gratefully, whilst we maintain unimclasses of critics are equally at fault. It paired our traditional right to criticise is a fallacy to assume that a result cannot them — the true Magna Charta of the be great unless it be conspicuous. It inay English Churchman. be negative as well as positive; invisible, But even the keenest critics must allow

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