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Christianity, combined with hatred of pa- from all personal and worldly ambition, palism and Jesuitry, his belief that should be turned to the regulation of con. Churches might err and yet be catholic, duct within the limits of the Church of and his courageous defence of the liber- Rome. Ignatius invented nothing but the ties of national Churches, bring him near organization. The Jesuits have no peculto the English babit of thought. “God iar doctrines or principles. They have has not given me the spirit of Luther," he introduced no novelties in religion, but said to one who asked him why he con. have always upheld what was already conformed to the Roman Church.' He had stituted; securiorem et magis approbatam indeed more of the spirit of compromise doctrinam. Before Ignatius the three than of the spirit either of combat or of primary vows were binding on all religious obedience; and therefore there was no congregations. Those of poverty and place for him in the regeneration of Italy. obedience were carried to extravagance in earlier days the Church would have by St. Francis, to whom indeed their very sought him and made use of him; but the perinde ac cadaver belonged; for the Jesuits hated and feared him as the man words Mortuos non vivos ego meos volo who above all others understood their foreshadowed those of Ignatius, as they arts and was resolved to oppose them. echo St. Paul and the Gospels. AugusBut though he failed to realize his ideal of tine, Anschar, Boniface, as well as Frana free Church and a free State, his exam- cis Xavier, preached to the heathen ; St. ple remains for our instruction, and he is Dominic converted heretics; the Franthe precursor of those who in our days, ciscans devoted themselves to the care of " talking with the many but thinking with lepers and outcasts. They and the Dothe few," leaven the thought of the world, minicans invaded and stormed the schools and uphold the doctrine of comprehension and universities of Christendom. The of creeds, and aid the gradual destruction great Benedictine houses were homes of of phantasms; and in whose hands is the learning. The Cistercians sent from their guidance of free thought – who incur, it lecture-rooms the greatest teachers of the may be, in their lifetime the imputation of Middle Ages. What is original in the double-dealing, but whose example is of institution of the Jesuits is, that the sopractical utility to posterity.

ciety undertook and carried out the whole Mr. Symonds places at the head of the of the vast task of regulating human life. causes of the decadence which marks the The Company of Jesus, as its members sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in like to say, is "the crack regiment of the Italy, the predominance of Spain in Italy, Church."' Every soldier in its ranks is a leading as it did to its close alliance with skilled warrior. To this end the careful the papacy and the introduction from selection, the noviciate, the sixteen years' Spain of the Inquisition and the Society probation, the continual pressure of the of Jesus. Spain, under Charles V.and the director's will, guiding and controlling the “ leaden foot” of Philip 11., was a slow. obedient soul, the entire abnegation of moving but practical force. The policy of personal wishes and feelings, the detachSpain, fatal as it was to itself and hurtful ment from pleasure and ambition, in a to the world, had the advantage of being word, the mortification of the will, are consistent; it ranked as a method for admirably adapted. If such an organiza. more than fifty years; and during those tion as this could march with the progress years the Dominicans of the Inquisition of events, it might well be eternal. But and the Jesuits were its most powerful devoted as the society is to the mainteinstruments of discipline.

nance of the Roman system with all its Undoubtedly the establishment of the faults and to the uncompromising defence Society of Jesus is one of the capital facts of those faults, it is doomed to decay; and in the history of the world. No human it has been for three centuries the mainsociety has lived through more obloquy stay of bigotry and sectarian uncharity. and persecution; none has more faithfully Whatever are the sins of Rome against libcarried out the design of its founder. The erty in religion, they have been committed aim of Ignatius Loyola was to create an chiefly by the means and at the suggestion organized model of the Roman Church ; of Jesuitism. The Jesuits have been more to establish as it were a home of counsels Roman than the Romans. Popes have of perfection, in which every maxim and discountenanced and disbanded ihem, but doctrine of the Church should be found in the society has bided its time; true to the complete action ; a society whose aims principle of obedience, it bas bowed for should be exclusively practical, in which the time and waited till a new pope has asceticism, devotion, learning, detached restored its former ascendancy.

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The problem set before the Church of the history of Europe during twenty years ; the sixteenth century was to restore faith in it are reflected all the movements of a and morals attacked by Protestants and period during which great interests were unbelievers. Comprehension was possi- traversed by little intrigues in a manner ble, and the best society of Christendoin which makes a clear view of causes and desired comprehension. But the Church results almost impossible. The motives would not or could not revise her doc- of the principal actors, as well as the natrines; and the means to carry out her tional and religious currents moving in will were not wanting.

the various nations of the Continent, are The Jesuits decided the form which the obscure; small alterations of territory, Council of. Trent took. If we are to esti- small matters of family aggrandizement, mate the most important factor in the appear for the moment as important as the sum of causes which made the Church of great question, whether France or Spain Rome what it is, we should name the shall rule the world, whether Germany Council of Trent; for at Trent were laid shall be Protestant or Catholic. One pope down the principles and rules which puri. is inclined to favor Spain, another is a fied as well as narrowed the Church, which declared enemy to everything Spanish. made the Church the antagonist of nation- At one moment the emperor is playing a ality, and submitted doctrine and disci- game to amuse the Protestants by prepline to Rome more immediately than tended conciliation, at another he has before. In a word, the Council of Trent them under his heel; and then in a mofounded Ultramontanism. Fra Paolo (evis ment he loses all, and has to submit to a cerator concilii Tridentini, as Wotton treaty which undoes all his work. The called him) was not slow to observe this. changing fortunes of France and England Though he was perhaps too ready to see are represented here; the course of events the Jesuit in everything, and though his is affected by the personal character as hatred of Jesuitisin made him do scant well as the political position of Charles justice to the piety, and learning of the V., Ferdinand I., Philip 11., the popes, Tridentine fathers, he was more capable the fathers of the council themselves — it than any man of his time of seeing whither is like a crowded chess-board, where every the drift of events was tending. He saw piece plays for itself, and yet the rival that the management of the council had colors of black and white rule the game ; passed from the hands of princes and re- for out of it comes at last a Church of formers into those of popes and papalini. combat, not of compromise, reformed in The result of the council surprised all, practice but hardened in dogma, made friends as well as enemies. Projeci illud more Italian but less Catholic, less worldly in ignem, progressusque est hic vitulus but also less able to deal with the world, miglit have been said of the idol of papal more obedient but less inventive, more autocracy which came out of the furnace strictly organized, no longer the enemy at Trent.

but the ally of oppressors. This Council [says Fra Paolo] devised and

The first important step towards a counformed by godly men to reunite the Church, sil was made at the Diet held at Ratisbon which began to be divided, hath so esta hed in 1541 in the emperor's presence. The the schism, and made the parties so obstinate desire of Charles V. was to press both that the discords are become irreconcilable: parties into a compromise, to which end and being managed by princes for reformation he was inclined to favor the German idea of ecclesiastical discipline, hath caused the of a national council; if the compromise greatest deformation that ever was since Chris- failed, he would then make terms with tianity did begin: and hoped for by the Bish- Rome. His position was different from ops to regain the Episcopal authority, usurped that of Henry VIII., but he agreed with for the most part by the Pope, hath made them lose it altogether, bringing them into him in desiring no essential change in greater servitude:

on the contrary, feared and doctrine. Paul ill. sent to the confer. avoided by the See of Rome, as a potent ence Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, one of means to moderate their exorbitant power, the band of pious and high-minded Cath. mounted from small beginnings by devious olics who wished to see the morals and degrees into an unlimited excess, it hath so discipline of the Church reformed with as established and confirmed the same over that little injury as possible to the established part which remaineth subject unto it, that it creed and the papal power, and the friend was never so great nor so soundly rooted;

of Ghiberti, Sadolet, Caraffa, and of Fra and he justly terms the history of the Paolo bimself. He was afterwards accouncil “ the Iliad of our age.'

cused of being too much of a Lutheran. The history of the Council of Trent is | At the Diet he appeared both in his own


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character, and as legate. For himself, the cils had deposed popes - that of Conreformation of the Church in morals and stance had declared the pope's authority discipline appeared to him more impor- inferior to that of a council. The growth tant than questions of dogma, in which he of the Reformation made some conspicu. was too indifferent to be a complete rep- ous action necessary; for the Roman resentative of Rome; as legate he had to Church was losing its hold on the nations. represent to the emperor and the Diet, Paul III. doubted of the experiment, as that he was not vested with the absolute any pope would ; it seemed worth authority to conclude which might seem while to try it. If a general council did to suit his position, for that that authority not unite Christendom, it might fortify

was and is so annexed to the very bones Catholicism; and it seemed not unlikely of the papacy that it cannot be granted that, if it were delayed, the emperor might to any other.”. Contarini was ordered to exert his questionable power of summonreserve certain principin, such as the ing a council, and so cause a schism and a supremacy of the Holy See, the sacra- scandal. Moreover, the emperor was for ments of the Church, and alia quædam the present relieved from the burden of a about which, if the Protestants would not French war, and at leisure to pursue his agree, no good could come of the confer- designs, never very definite but always ence. This reservation was fatal to the hostile, against the Protestants. It was hope of a reconciliation. The Protestants natural for him to look to Rome as his took alarm. Luther had wisely, if not ally in the last resort. magnanimously, held aloof from the whole The Council of Trent met in 1545; and affair. Contarini's moderation prevailed at once the influence of the extreme party so far, that an approach to the Lutheran was felt. Protestants were excluded by doctrine of justification by faith was for the pope's refusal to declare the para. mulated and agreed to. But, as Ranke mount authority of Holy Scripture. The remarks, the consent of the pope on the Ratisbon doctrine of justification was one hand and of Luther on the other must scouted; Church tradition was declared be obtained. Luther declared compro- to be of equal authority with the Bible, mise to be the work of the devil. Paul and the Vulgate of equal authority with III. would neither agree nor disagree the original texts; and the doctrine of the without further definition. The emperor's seven sacraments was laid down as de desire to unite the empire by means of fide. a national synod, and thereby establish Yet the victory of Ultramontanism was more firmly the Spanish supremacy in not secure. The representatives of all Germany, roused the jealousy not only of nations outside Italy upheld the doctrine, the papal party, but of all his enemies that the decisions of a general council both at home and abroad. Francis I. in. were superior in authority to the decrees trigued with the pope ; the German estates of a pope; and doctrines dangerous to great and small, Catholic, Protestant, and papal autocracy were afloat among the ecclesiastical, caballed against the proj. fathers themselves, such as those of episect; and with a vague appeal to a general copal independence and the lawfulness of council the Diet broke up, having effected compromise with Protestants. The dannothing.

ger from this quarter was adroitly turned Between the end of the Diet of Ratis. by a decision of the legates, acting on bon and the first meeting of the Council the pope's instructions, that the fathers of Trent, the Society of Jesus was sanc- should vote by single voices, not by nationed by Paul III., and by the same pope tions (for the Italian prelates far outnumthe Inquisition was established in Rome bered the others), and when to this was on the Spanish model, and the Index Ex added some years later the clause propopurgatorius was set on foot. The conduct nentibus legatis, reserving the initiative to of the Church was resigned into the hands the pope's legates alone, the triumph of of the Jesuits and Dominicans, and the the papal, that is the Jesuit, party was far-reaching aims of the one body and the assured. gloomy history of the other indicated, The war of the League of Schmalkalde plainly enough, what was likely to be the upset the balance of parties; the pope course which a council would take if one shrank back from his dangerous ally, and were assembled. The traditions of the transferred the sessions of the council papacy were unfavorable to general coun- from Trent to Bologna: “We have passed cils. An opinion prevailed that a council from Egypt to the promised land,” said was superior to a pope, and might be the pious fathers. Almost at the same called without the pope's command; coun-moment the battle of Mühlberg struck

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Charles's enemies to the ground. The shrewdness enough to see that Philip, emperor was supreme in southern Ger- without the distractions of Germany, could many, and the northern States lay at his interfere in Italian affairs from the side feet. The complete subjection of Italy of Naples with more effect than his father seemed imminent. Paul 111. sought for from over the Alps; and after the failure help in every quarter of Europe, France, of Guise's expedition, he gave up the Venice, and even Turkey. 'The emperor attempt to “dislodge the Spaniard." hinted at a transference of the council to Though the council did not sit during the Rome,“ in which case,

,” he said signifi- pontificate of Paul IV., the austere char. cantly, “ I shall accompany them myself." acter of that pope had its influence upon At length he cut the knot, as far as his the course of the council when it met. German dominions were concerned, by The desire for reformation of morals and publishing in 1548 the Interim of Augs. discipline urged by Charles V. now be. burg, in which, as in the Six Articles of came part of the papal programme. Henry VIII., the main points of the Ro- There was an end henceforward of nepoman faith were laid down.

tism, libertinism, and those intrigues in Meanwhile the Council of Bologna, at the small politics of Italy, which had fortended only by a few Italian prelates, did merly disgraced the papal court. aot prosper. The Imperial prelates still Tó Paul IV. succeeded in 1559 Pius held session at Trent, and no_foreign IV. This pontiff, a genial, politic man pf bishops obeyed the summons to Bologna. the world, hot-tempered but placable, a The death of the “fox-brained” Pope Paul parvenu as compared with the noble birth III. seemed to open the way for an of his predecessors, had the qualities agreement. Julius III. reassembled the which belong to the position of a par. fathers at Trent in 1551. Then came venu. Moderate, conciliating, tenacious, the surprising turn of fortune by which he guided the council like a skilful man Charles V.'s plans for Germany were of business, and while appearing to confinally upset. The elector Maurice of ciliate, kept the decision of every question Saxony, in conjunction with Henry II. of in his own hands, "sending the Holy France and several Protestant princes, Ghost " (as was profanely said) “in a made war upon the emperor, took him by cloak-bag from Rome to Trent." Mr. Sysurprise, and nearly succeeded in seizing monds credits Pius IV. with initiating his person. Then followed the treaties the policy of alliance between the papacy of Passau and Augsburg, by which, in- and the Catholic sovereigns, and looks stead of being united by toleration, the upon him as “the real founder of the States of Germany were divided into modern as distinguished from the mediCatholic and Protestant by the maxim aval papacy.” The transition was comcujus regio ejus religio. The separation pleted in his reign. of north and south Germany was begun,

Before his death the salvation of Catholiand the seeds of the Thirty Years' War cism, the integrity of the Catholic Church, the planted. The fathers were again scared solidity of the Roman hierarchy, and the posfrom Trent, and the council only resumed sibility of a vigorous Counter-Reformation its sittings in 1555 (December).

were placed beyond all doubt. The outward events of the fifteen years

It is noticeable that these substantial suc. which had elapsed since the Diet of Ra- cesses were achieved, not by a religious fanatic, tisbon, had brought about the completion but by a jurist; not by a saint, but by a genial of the German schism. Henceforward man of the world; not by force of intellect there was no talk of comprehension or and will, but by adroitness; not by masterful conciliation. To the Dominicans, who authority, but by pliant diplomacy; not by had hitherto framed decrees in the coun. Since Gregory VII., no Pope had done so

forcing but by following the current of events. cil, the Jesuits succeeded. Whatever op much as Pius iv. for bracing the ancient position to the wishes of the papal party fabric of the Church and confirming the Papal showed itself, was on the side of Spain prerogative. But what a difference there is and France. But the formula proponenti- between a Hildebrand and a Giovanni Angelo bus legatis stifled opposition; and Philip Medici! How Europe had changed, when a II. was a more obedient son of the Church man of the latter's stamp was the right inthan bis father had been. It is true that, strument of destiny for starting the weatherin the period immediately following his beaten ship of the Church upon a new and accession, there was a sharp passage of prosperous voyage ! arms between Philip and the violent and we have quoted these lines, because they morose Paul IV., the Neapolitan ci-devant indicate the reason why the history of the Cardinal Caraffa ; but Paul IV. bad | papacy, from that day to the present, has

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been a history more and more identified | streets of Trent, with cries of “Spain," with losing causes and dying despotisms; “ Italy,” “ France."* but also more and more concerned in Disputes continued; the transference of maintaining purity of faith and morals, the council into Germany, the granting of than in the earlier and stormier days of the cup to the laity, the clause proponenthe modern age.

tibus legatis, the thorough discussion of In the later sittings of the council the points of discipline, were all hindrances Jesuits, favored by Pius IV., showed all to concord. Ferdinand I. was completely that skill in the conduct of affairs for hoodwinked by the Jesuit Canisius, and which they are justly celebrated. They the now docile Cardinal Morone. The supported the claims of the bishops to in- pope's instructions were “ to find an exdependent authority; they combated the pedient which might seem to give some pational pretensions put forward by non- satisfaction to the emperor,” whilst pressItalian prelates; they excluded from the ing the dependence of the council on the sessions of the council bishops whose will of the pope. Ferdinand's instructions learning or whose boldness made their to his orators at Trent might, we are aspresence inconvenient; they exalted the sured, have been dictated by Morone him. supremacy of the pope in discipline as self. “A breach,” says M. Philippson, well as in faith, scouting the dangerous “ had been made through which the Roprimus inter pares doctrine; they opposed man court could easily pass to plant her Philip II., and the kings of France and triumphant banner on the ruins of ecclePortugal, in their attempt to set aside the siastical liberty,”-in short, l'empereur formula proponentibus legatis; they dis- était homme de peu de courage." The couraged the use of the national tongues remaining dissidents - France and Spain in Church offices in preaching and cate- were sufficiently opposed to each other chizing; they even denied the right of an- by politics, by national antipathy, by ques. swering the papal legates in debate ; and tions of precedence, to make it easy for they pressed on the conclusion of the the Roman court to divide and rule. Like council

, being well aware that delay is arts to those which had won Ferdinand I. always more serviceable to the opposition were now employed to gain the adhesion than to the party in power, and at this of the cardinal of Lorraine, not the least moment especially valuable, as the em- adroit of the famous Guise brothers. The peror Ferdinand was showing himself French prelates, led by him, came over to jealous of papal power, and the French the papal side. The emperor was easily prelates were pressing the consideration persuaded that the reforms which he deof the libelle de réforme put out by Charles manded would be granted after the close IX. in January, 1563; and a meeting of of the council. Catherine de Médicis, princes was held at Innsbruck in Feb- never a decided politician, and conscious ruary of the same year, in which it was of having gone far in concessions to Protproposed to bring to Trent a sufficient estantism at home, was glad of an oppornumber of German, French, and Spanish tunity of conciliating the Roman court. prelates to outvote the close phalanx of The Spanish prelates alone, acting under Italians. The papal party knew well that the orders of Philip II., remained obstithere was no compromise between sub- nate, and the council could not be closed mission and separation, and that the em- without their signature. In vain the carpire, having broken with the Lutheran and dinal of Lorraine exceeded his instrucCalvinist bodies, must come to terms in tions, and waived points of reform considthe end. France, as a more compact and ered important by the French court. homogeneous power, might raise greater Nothing could overcome the opposition of difficulties. Spain was engaged against the Spaniards to the conclusion of the heresy more entirely than the empire, and council before all points of reformation with management the issue was certain. had been thoroughly discussed, and in But for the present a quarrel seemed immi- particular those articles which touched on nent. The emperor hinted at transferring the independence of princes and their the council to Saxony; the Roman court legal rights over ecclesiastical subjects, looked again to Bologna; the pope or until a false but alarming rumor of the dered the Castle of St. Angelo to be forti- pope's dangerous illness brought about a fied, to show that he was not to be coerced. universal desire to bring the sittings of But the seeming concord of the Catholic the council to an end. The remaining powers soon came to an end; they ceased articles of discussion were hastily deto work for the same objects, and the very servants of the prelates fought in the

• Philippson, p. 537.

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