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No. 2266. — December 3, 1887.
St. James's Gazette,
Saturday Review, XI. OLD AGE IN ANIMALS,
St. James's Gazette,
543 551 557
570 572 574
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TO A NUT-BROWN MAID.
Say, dost thou love me, dear? Those eyes
of thine Hangs thy head for shame:
Look at me through the shadows gray, that Can thine olive brow
Into this silent room, and stir the deep
Of my sad heart with longing, but to mine
They give no answer. Evermore they shine
Quietly grave as when in dreams of sleep
I see thee face to face. Does thy heart leap
Ever with joy to greet me? Would no sign
Intent on other things when I am there?
Wouldst thou not hasten forth to clasp my
hand, Couldst thou but divine,
If but thou heardst my foot upon the stair ?
I have no place in thy thoughts' shadowland;
I am not worthy, love, that thou shouldst care i
I am not worthy! Yet the sunbeams bright
At dawn fall on the drooping wayside flower,
And straight it lifts its head to drink the Why thy cheek is dark,
Of perfect blessing in. Forgot is night,
With all its cold and darkness, in the light
That thrills it through with life's strong, won-
And thus, O my belovedl if thou shouldst
dower Still dost more desire ?
With love my life, that, erst so wan and white Nay, thou couldst not fairer be, Beside the world's wide way, should learn to Wert thou white as ivory.
With colors vivid as the flaming west 'Tis thy sun-kissed face
Wore ere the twilight fell. The past could Lends a double light
No shadow o'er a present that had rest
'Neath love-light from thine eyes. So should Innocently wild,
Not worthy of thee, dear, but ah, how blest!
TRANSLATION FROM UHLAND.
My love and I sat under
The group of lime-trees yonder,
Together, hand in hand.
Not e'en a leaf stirred lightly-
The sun was shining brightly
O'er all the silent land.
We sat in joy unbroken,
No useless word was spoken,
Our hearts scarce beating more.
We spoke not, for why should we? Ah, what winning grace
Nor questioned, for how could we?
We knew enough before.
We had no wish, no sorrow,
No yearning for the morrow,
No loved one far away: Gleaming in thine eyes,
'Twixt loving eyes a greeting, Sunshine after rain.
'Twixt loving lips a meeting, Nut-brown maiden, never more
Was all that passed that day. Shalt thou sunny cheeks deplore.
MARGARET GALLETTI DI CADILHAC. Murray's Magazine.
R. H. M. E.
From The Quarterly Review. what causes have been at work to produce THE CATHOLIC REVIVAL OF THE SIX- the result. TEENTH CENTURY.
The causes are of different sorts. The MR. Symonds has completed the task invention of printing, for instance, created which he began ten years ago, and the public opinion and introduced a new and sixth and seventh volumes of his “Renais. incalculable factor into politics and relisance in Italy" bring us down to the gion. The Copernican system invaded period of decay, when the vigor of the theology, and altered the relations of fifteenth and sixteenth centuries had ex- heaven and earth. The discovery of the hausted itself, and there was no longer uses of steam mechanically changed the strength to bring forth new ideas. It is powers and with them the wants and hab. a period of blight, dulness, and tyranny,
its of the human race.
These and many enlightened only by the genius of a few other such causes make old methods of poets, artists, and men of science. The thought impossible, by disturbing or despirit of Erasmus was gone to rest, but stroying the old conditions of thought. the spirit of Charles V. still lived and Their action may be quickened or reworked. The taint of Jesuitism had in. tarded by rulers and institutions, but canfected faith and letters, the leaden mantle not be created or destroyed by them. of Spanish rule bowed Italy to the ground.
But what is true generally may not hold The men who raised their voices against in a particular instance or at a particular dulness became the prey of the Inquisi- time. A country or a generation, whilst tion. Sarpi only escaped, as did Erasmus, slowly obeying the great tides of thought, by his wits and the protection of the great;
is blown transverse by many cross winds. Giordano Bruno perished at the stake;
The change of institutions educates or Tasso sang at the bidding of the Church. diseducates men to think. And governIt is a time of decadence. But the title ments have power to change institutions. of these volumes suggests, that side by They can proscribe books, can send peoside with decadence there was a revival; ple to church or to prison, can tune puland it is this revival which will be the pits, schools, and universities, and compel principal subject of the following pages.
the young to learn by a certain rule. They It is easy to talk of “ tendencies and may succeed as Philip II. succeeded in “ movements,” but such abstractions must Spain, or fail as he failed in the Nether. rest on facts. A generation belongs to a lands; but, in either case, the course of renaissance or a decadence because of thought is diverted from its natural chan. the influence of certain facts. If men in Dels for a time. It was not for nothing general, or the members of some particu- that, when the ancient house of thought lar community, think that Latin or Greek had been ruined by the pagan revival of is to be studied, that military glory is the the fifteenth century, the workers set to greatest aim of a nation, that heresy is build it up again were not saints and pestilent, or that the Old Testament is the sages, but hard-headed popes, worldly, groundwork of morality, we shall find a wise Jesuits, and bigoted princes. It is tendency to found schools and universi. as “the people love to have it.” The ties, to make wars of conquest, to set up
Italians were weary of a revival which inquisitions, or to drag national antipa- made neither this life nor the next more thies into matters of religion. That men secure. They had learned no new rule of do think thus or thus is the result of the life from the humanists. No Luther or thoughts of previous generations; and it Knox had given them the Bible, and reliis the object of the historian to investigate gion was to them synonymous with Cathol
icism. They turned for guidance to the * 1. Renaissance in Italy. The Catholic Reaction. practical men of their time, and found In two parts. By John Addington Symonds. Lon- them, as usual, opposed to innovation. It don, 1886. 2. La Contre-révolution religieuse au XVIe siècle.
was “ easier and safer and more pleasant Par Martin Philippson, Professeur à l'Université de to live in obedience than to be at their own Bruxelles. Paris and Brussels, 1884.
disposing." So said the voice of the
saints; and the sinners were not disin- | type. Learning was confined within the clined to agree, in an age when Philip II. narrow bounds of trivium and quadrivand his like were ready to enforce obedi- ium; theology was taught according to ence by the rack and the stake. So the the rule of Aristotle and Aquinas. In first age of the Renaissance came to an England Gothic churches and colleges end and the reaction began. The Italians were being built to enshrine the piety and of 1550 and onwards had come to the learning of ancient tradition. St. Alban's, conclusion that salvation was more easily St. Edmund's, and Glastonbury, still sent attainable under the teaching of the Cath- their mitred abbots to sit in Parliament at olic Church than by the methods of phil- Westminster. The barons had not begun osophers; they had not had enough expe- to destroy their own power by the Wars rience of freedom to be willing to risk of the Roses. Chivalry was still alive, much for it; they lapsed into obedience, and crusades were dreamed of. In Italy if not contentment; and the result is what the dome of Brunelleschi had risen by the is termed a decadence.
side of Giotto's tower, as a beacon of The period is one of special interest, coming change; but Lionardo, Michael for it is the first centu of modern his- Angelo, Raphael, Leo X., Bembo, were tory. We have been warned lately not to unborn, and Fra Angelico was painting fix arbitrary dates for “ancient," “medi- his divine frescoes in the full spirit of æval," and "modern” history. The warn- the Middle Ages. ing is not without reason. Historians are A century later, all was changed. The apt to docket periods as if a new genera- Turkish Empire had supplanted the Bytion of men spontaneously came into exist zantine Empire. Europe was divided ence, and were not the children of their amongst five or six great kingdoms, subfathers. But there have been facts in the ject to despotic monarchs. The religion, history of the world which have so marked the science, the learning, the politics, the an epoch, that everything which has fol- jurisprudence, the architecture, the paintlowed is different from what went before ; ing, the music, of the mediæval age had and the facts which combined to bring ceased to exist. Latin was transformed about the complex phenomenon which is and Greek reborn. Schoolmen had given called the Renaissance, were such that place to humanists. More than half the there is a greater interval between the nations had revolted from Rome. The age which followed and that which pre- monasteries were turned into barns or ceded than is to be found elsewhere, fallen into ruin. Monks and friars “with except at similar stopping-places which all their trumpery” had been cast out. occur here and there on the highroad of The Church of Rome itself had been history.
purged and chastened. The oceans had If we compare the state of the world in revealed the continents and islands of the 1450 and in 1550, we shall see that a cen- New World, and brave explorers were sail. tury separates two states of society far ing “from pole to pole traversing each more widely different from each other colure” in search of gold and empire. than those which precede or which follow. The arts of war and peace were changed ; In a word we may say, that in 1450 the the old lines of trade, the old roads to world was mediæval, and in 1550 modern. Rome, were no more. Gothic gloom and In 1450 the Palæologi reigned at Con- glory had passed away forever, and the stantinople, the English in France, the world was full of the new splendors of Moors in Granada. Knights in armor | Renaissance art. But the greatest change rode down rabbles of half-armed peasants, of all was in the thoughts of men. Where and cannon had not superseded archery. men had assented they questioned, where Europe was full of castles held by petty they had obeyed they rebelled. Liberty sovereigns. The king of France was little of thought had been born, the mother of more than the most powerful of a dozen political and personal liberty, the forerunindependent princes. The cities of Italy ner of equality and downfall of privilege. were held by despots of the mediæval! The old age of the world had gone by,
and the pres
may be de.
the new age in which we still live was single exception of Tasso) writers of elefounded.
gant verse and members of academies. We will lay down no arbitrary or fan- All was now deliberate, conscious, and tastical dates; but assuredly, if there is artificial; principles of composition ruled any meaning in the words mediæval and every work of art, and criticism had taken modern, the present and the future had the place of invention. Except in the retheir birth at no other period than this, gions of music and science, Italy had nothand Italy was their birthplace.
ing new to give the world. She had beBut the soil of Italy was exhausted; a come the school of taste, and had ceased time of languor succeeded to a time of to be the home of invention. productive energy, and the historian of A period of decadence the Renaissance finishes his task by re-ent age needs the warning cording a period of decadence a painful fined as one in which taste is made the task, but not without its compensations; standard rather than originality, and the for though Italy now ceases to be the rules of taste are ascertained and stated. guiding light of Europe, her work has | The decadence of Greece expressed itself been done among the nations, and in their in gems and the anthology; that of Rome, turn France, England, and Germany hand in rhetoric; that of the Middle Ages in on the torch, and the warmth and radiance quibbles and niceties of philosophy; what survive still, and are reflected in the Italy seems important is form, rather than subof our own days.
stance. On the other hand, such epochs At that time, as must indeed always be are periods of repose, during which rethe case, the human intellect was more sults are summarized and rules laid down. fully awake in some countries than in oth- We cannot say that the formulation of
In our own island, as is usually the Catholic dogma in the thirteenth century case, the change from the former state of was a waste of time, nor that of Protestant society had come late. Scotland was but dogma in England and Germany in the now emerging from feudal darkness into sixteenth, nor that of the rules of archithe sudden and wonderful change of which tecture, painting, and poetry, at the same the Reformation was one of the principal time. To establish rules is to save the factors -a change which stamped her time of later explorers; a codification of national character at once and perma- results must always be of some value to nently with the impress of progress. The those who follow. It will instruct more Elizabethan literature and the growth of than it hampers the original geniuses; on Puritanism, and the spirit of enterprise the other hand, by putting technical corand national pride which mark that great rectness within the reach of the industriepoch, were in their full vigor at a time ous it gives an advantage to second and when France was weakened by civil war third-rate artists which nature has not and religious discord, and was becoming granted them. A hundred Trissotins are fit to undergo the severe discipline of born to one Molière, and it may someRichelieu ; when Spain was showing all times even happen that the bird of Jove is the signs of that impotence from which turned into a tame eagle. Pope, great as she has never revived ; when Germany he was, would have been a greater poet if was distracted by religious and local dis- he had lived a century earlier, or two gen. putes, the gloomy prelude of the Thirty erations later. But Dryden could break Years' War. Italy was changed from her through the trammels of rule, and Cowley condition during the fifteenth century. and Gray were helped, not hindered, by She had tried the greatest experiments obeying academic form. A great age of which the world had seen in art and liter. art is always revolutionary at the outset. ature, and the age of grand creations had Phidias and Æschylus were sinners againt passed. She was no more to astonish the convention as much as Cimabue and world with new marvels. To scholars had Dante, as Turner and Byron. Yet consucceeded stylists, to original painters vention is not the same thing as pedantry; men of the schools, to poets (with the a school of art or philosophy may have its