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in careful detail, saying to me: “I want and in five minutes the twelve uncles and you to understand this, that you may the boy were dead — shot by his orders.* know the cause of my son's death was a Now, Gessi, the pasha said, was a poor servant's treachery."
man, and he did not know the honor of Upon receiving the news of the defeat kings. It is not thus that great men act, of Idris, Gordon was angry, and Gessi was nor that such a government as the English sent to reduce Suleiman to submission. would wish to act. Think of those wars At the same time Gordon wrote to Zebehr, with which you may be acquainted. calling upon him to fulfil his promise of When the French and the Prussians helping him with his influence, and Ze fought together, the Prussians gave back behr telegraphed to his son: “I do not their prisoners with honor. After the wish you to fight; submit to Gessi.” This Russo-Turkish war the Russians gave telegram could of course be sent only to back their prisoners. When the French Khartoum for Gordon to forward. Gor- fought in Africa they kept their word to don received it and sent it on, but fighting Abd-el-Kader. I myself, when I took had already began. Suleiman held the Moto, though he had killed my cousin, did place against Gessi altogether for five not use him thus. Nor do I believe that months. “He was only sixteen," his fa- Gordon ordered my son's death by treachther said, with a sort of pathetic pride, ery. Afterwards Gessi gathered riches, "and he kept all those troops with a Eu- and went to Suez. But there he died, and ropean leader at bay.” When Zebehr's God now is his judge. telegram arrived, as Zebehr afterwards Gordon heard that I was angry because heard, the boy's uncles strongly advised of my son's death, and on his way up to him to submit, but his blood was up; he Khartoum the third time we saw each was proud, child-like, of his first victo- other in the presence of Sir Evelyn Bar. ries, and he said, “ No, if we submit now ing, Nubar Pasha, and the interpreters. we shall be all killed." "He determined, Gordon said, “You wrote to your son to however, to send messengers to Gordon, fight.” I said, “ No; it is not true. IfI who was at Shekka, * begging him once had, then it had been I who killed my son. more to send some one else to take pos- But I did not.” Gordon said, “I hear session of the place, and offering in that you are very angry." Then everything case immediate submission. Nine men was explained between us, and all was went to Gordon and begged him to ap- made clear. Those who were present can point a governor. Gessi, hearing of it, tell you of it as well as I. The interposisent a message himself to Gordon, that tion of bad men, Idris Abtar's wild stories these men were only spies. Gordon natu- about me, the reports of my double deal. rally believed his own lieutenant, and the ing, everything was explained. Gordon men were taken and executed as spies. said, “I am very sorry for your son's News of this came to Suleiman. His death.” I said, “ I gave you my son, and uncles again urged him to lay down his when I gave him to you I gave you rights
He would not, but he sent a second of life and death ; but I do not hold you embassy to Gordon. The second embassy personally responsible for his death. I met with the fate of the first. Gessi in know that it was English policy and Gessi, the mean time had obtained several victo- not you, who killed my son.” We sbook ries. The uncles perpetually urged Sulei- hands and were friends. On my side, I man to lay down his arms. Suleiman was freed Gordon of the guilt of my son's finally beaten and surprised at Dara. death, and on his side Gordon acknowl. Then he yielded. Gessi was sent for. He edged that I had not acted treacherously. promised that Suleiman and his relations I referred him to the great people of should go free. Suleiman's soldiers were Khartoum, who knew me and my family, given up, and peace was sworn. The and afterwards when he went up he found prisoners lived with Gessi on friendly what I had said to be true. All was wiped terms for five days, eating at the same out between us. Though he was against table. On the fifth day they were to sepa. me, I know Gordon to be a great and rate. Suleiman and his uncles were called together under a tree. Gessi spoke with * I am, of course, acquainted with the official acthem very kindly, saying, “Now consult count of this transaction. I give Zebehr's account as together, and let me know what things you him by report, and is as likely to be inaccurate as ours.
he gave it. It is to be remembered that it reached require for your journey;" His soldiers But it represents what he and doubtless many other nawere all round the tree. He walked
tives believe. He gave me the story twice, with a considerable interval between. I made notes on each
occasion at the time. When I compared them after• In Gordon's letter this embassy is mentioned. wards, I found them almost identical.
good man. I respected his character, say, 'I have done this thing, or I have and if he had lived I should count him not'? If they had such a letter, signed among my valued friends.*
by me with my own name, they had proof And now would you like to know some of my treachery – all that was needed to thing? Would you like to know who condemn me to death. No such letter killed Gordon? I will tell you. At the ever existed. It was only a fabrication of begioning of the English war in Egypt, my enemies - either a false letter made Sir Evelyn Baring came to me with three on purpose, or no letter." On hearing generals. Sir Evelyn Wood was one of Gessi's account of the desolate condition the three generals.' I told them that to in which he found the White Nile prov. go to war was a great mistake, that all inces, the pasha replied that it was not so they could achieve would be to destroy in his time. He could not answer for the cities and to terrify the people, who would effects of Idris Abtar's rule.* rise and very likely massacre Gordon be. When he left Darfour, towards the end fore he could be reached. “If you be- of 1875, he went down to Egypt without lieve me," I said, “let me manage this returning to Mandugba. He took with matter for you without bloodshed. My him one thousand men-at-arms and sevfamily and children are here. Keep them enty-five kings' sons, these latter in order as hostages, and let me go up. I do not that they might be introduced to the khewant any money, I will go at my own ex. dive, and have the opportunity to study pense ; I will go alone. There shall be the life of a civilized city. He took also no blood between you and the Soudan, rich presents for the khedive, amongst and I will undertake to bring Gordon them one hundred horses, four lions, two safely back. If I prove in any particular leoparr's, and four parrots. On the way unfaithful, do what you will with my fam- he was received with every demonstration ily." I made this offer five times. I of respect. The towns were decorated for urged it upon them in every way, for I his passage, the governors came out to knew that to march with armies into the meet him. “ There was,” he added, with Soudan was useless. But they did not a smile and a wave of the hand, believe me. They thought my desire was sense- great nonsense of all kinds; it is to work mischief, and they went their way. not for that that I care.". At that time I could have done all I prom. Ismail received him himself at Cairo ised. Gordon at · Khartoum wanted to with equal honor, gave him a palace and have me sent up. I wanted to go up. If allowed £750 a month for his entertainI had gone Gordon would have come home ment, but Zebehr liad not gone down for safe. Then who killed Gordon ? Not the the purpose of being fêted and entertained. Soudanese. It was the English, who re. He wished to lay before the khedive an fused to let him have the friend he asked exposition of the true state of things in for. The English killed him, and why? Darfour, and to obtain a promise of sup. Because they were like children, ignorant, port from the Egyptian government in frightened, and believing in evil.f the right administration of that province,
The pasha put down to Idris Abtar's | It was in vain that he endeavored to apinvention the greater number of the sto- proach this object. The khedive used to ries known to all who have read the com- ineet him in society and talk pleasantly monly accredited English versions of his upon general subjects; to requests for
When they were laid before him business interviews he replied always, he usually dismissed them with a shake of “ To-morrow.” At last, after five months the head. “Another of Idris Abtar's. of waiting, the khedive granted the interThey are without end.” But occasionally view that he desired, and then instead of he entered into more detail of contradic- listening to Zebehr's report he said quite tion. When I told him of the letter en plainly: “It is of no use for us to talk couraging his son Suleiman to revolt, gen- together. I know you are a man of ability, erally reported to have been found among I believe you would govern Darfour well
, Suleiman's papers, he denied it absolutely, but frankly, I am afraid of you. You have “ The letter was never written by me. it existed, why was it not brought and
Some injustice seems certainly to be done to Zen shown to me face to face, that I might behr when he is held responsible for the state of Dar
four as Gordon found it under Ismail Yacoub, and for
the state of the Bahr-el-Ghazal as Gessi found it under • The official account of this interview may be found Idris Abtar. It should be remembered that both these in blue-book “ Egypt," No. 12 (1884), p. 38.
meu were his opponents and rivals, one was his open On this subject the reader may be referred to enemy. Thieir views were the exact opposite of bis; despatches contained in pp. 71, 72, 122, 135, 136, 137, and by the action of the Egyptian government in de. Egypt,” No. 12 (1884).
taining him at Cairo they were enabled to triumph.
made yourself too powerful, and I fear held me but my name; but I had done no that if I gave you the authority you desire wrong, and if I had Aed, the name of Ze. you would set up an empire in Darfour behr would have been dishonored. I have which would rival and perhaps even sub- kept it clear so far. I want to keep it jugate Egypt. Egypt is not strong enough clear to the end, and to have it said of me to tolerate neighbors so strong. There afterwards, 'Zebehr was a gentleman till fore resign yourself to live with me here he died.'” in Cairo. I will treat you well, you
shall It was, I think, on the same occasion be practically free, only you are to go that he accompanied me, when I took back no more to the Soudan.”
leave, as far as the gate. · We stook talkZebehr submitted, and this was the ending while the sentry unfastened it, and, as of his work in those wild countries. It the man bungled, a heavy iron bar clanged may well have been that the ease of ex- on the asphalte. I shivered a little neristence, the more genial companionship, vously at the sudden noise. The pasba, the stimulus of exercising influence at the observing me, said gently, “ Do not think heart rather than at the extremities of his I am sorry, I am quite content." country's political life, combined to recon- We spoke often about the English, of cile him to his detention at Cairo. He whom the pasha had, in two years of close told me much that was of interest with intercourse, acquired some knowledge. regard to his life there, but the story He liked and admired them, and especially which I have proposed to myself to tell valued the integrity of English officials. ends with his arrival in the capital. He professed himself glad that the En
He has never revisited the scene of his glish people should know something of former labors, but his prophecies with re- his history, and I can hardly perhaps end gard to the results of the Turkish system this part of it better than by quoting an have come true — Egypt has lost the estimate of them to which the news of his Soudan. “ If you were free now to go release, announced after these reminisand govern it," I asked him once, “what cences had been thrown into shape, has would you do?” “Do not ask me to since given a pleasant significance. “So speak idly," he answered. “Twelve or far as my knowledge of them goes,” he thirteen years ago I could have told you. said one day," I esteem the English to be Now I have lost touch with the country. an excessively ignorant people, but one I do not know what my own family is do- which has so strong a natural bent towards ing in the neighborhood of Khartoum, justice that when they do know the facts much less what is being done in the coun- they may be almost certainly trusted to tries further south and west. If I went act rightly."
FLORA L. SHAW. into those countries it would be to go first quietly to my family, where I might consider affairs; then to travel as a merchant or pilgrim, talking with the people and inquiring on all sides. In that
From The Spectator. I could way
A STRANGE PLACE. judge of things generally and of my own power. After that I might come back and ABOUT the worst way to see a town, tell you, perhaps, what could be done. more particularly a manufacturing one, is But if France or England were to offer me from the railway. You look out on shabby now some millions to go up, and settle houses and smoking chimneys, and you those countries I could not take it. If I think that a more unattractive place could were to accept such an offer I should be hardly be found, even in England. Droitacting dishonestly, for I do not now know wich, seen from the station, is no excepanything. I only hope. If I went back I tion to the rule.
upon hope I should find still inany men of good dense clouds of smoke and steam, the sense in the country, and I should en streets and the station are poor, and it is deavor to bring it to order by ineans of with some slight effort that the visitor the good sense which is in it. But to take accepts the assurance that near at hand money now on a definite pledge would be there are los lanes and fields, and that impossible. I am not a selfish nor an am- the town itself is not so bad after all, bitious man. All that I want is to keep certainly not worse than most small mantruth and to do good work. And I care ufacturing places. for my name. Many times when I was
Droitwich is a place of great antiquity. in Cairo, friends desired me to fly to the To the Romans it was known as Salinze, desert. I was not kept there by bars and and the remains of a villa and fragments sentries. I was free to travel, and nothing of tesselated pavements have been found
near at hand. In the time of the Saxons | Had, however, the subsidence been uniit was called Wich, and that very appro. form over a large area, the appearance of priate name still clings to it in legal the town would not have been so much documents. It is only six miles from affected. Unfortunately, the sinking is Worcester, fourteen from Malvern, and very irregular, and some portions of the twenty from Birmingham, and is fairly town have sunk considerably, while others well supplied with a service of trains. seem little changed. A house standing in Two circumstances, however, make it fa- grounds of eight acres, called the Heriots, mous, - its inexhaustible brine-springs, is said not to be affected at all, while an and the curious subsidence of the land orchard a couple of hundred yards off is going on somewhat irregularly over a large sinking. Again, in the Worcester Road
It claims — and perhaps correctly the sinking has been marked, and the - to have the best and purest brine- walls enclosing the gardens there have in springs in Europe, and the proportion of places sunk until only the top rises above salt in the water exceeds, it is asserted, the surface of the ground. Near Queen that in any other salt-springs in the world. Street there are houses the roofs of which At any rate, while in ten thousand grains alone remain above ground, and in the of sea-water the solid constituents range High Street the sinking has been decided, from 410 grains in the Mediterranean, 380 especially in one part. We have already in the English Channel, 325 in the Ger- said that the subsidences are irregular; in man Ocean, to 168_in the Baltic, they other words, there are certain lines parallel reach 2,460 in the Dead Sea, and from to which the sinking is less and less rapid four thousand to four thousand two hun. the greater the distance from those lines, dred in the Droitwich brine. The salt- and consequently the houses lean towards springs, or wyches, rise from a depth of the lines of greatest subsidence; this in two hundred feet, through beds of new red time leads to wholesale destruction of sandstone and gypsum; the annual yield houses, and only the most careful supportof salt is over one hundred and fifteen ing keeps them from falling bodily. It is thousand tons, of which half is exported curious, however, that, so gradual is the to foreign countries. The preparation of sinking, cracks in the ground do not form the salt is simple, and not particularly and houses do not fall bodily, only one interesting. The brine is pumped up into cottage having given way for years, alreservoirs or tanks; from these it flows though houses and shops have sometimes into evaporating basins exposed to very to be taken down to keep them from fallgreat heat, and it is from the surface ing; in other words, the sudden sinkings of these pans that the clouds of steam that take place in some mining districts, rise which in part give the town the ap- and which cannot be guarded against, and pearance of being enveloped in smoke. which, when they do occur, mean the inThe wet salt is shovelled up from the stantaneous collapse of half a street, never bottom of the pans, and is put into long occur at Droitwich. It is said that in moulds, and then these moulds are placed twenty years the land has sunk nineteen in a warm, dry room, where the moisture feet in Queen Street. As it is necessary they contain is soon removed; the huge to keep the roads, streets, and yards level, brićks of salt are then turned out of the the rates are heavy, and street-repairing moulds, and are ready for use and expor. and raising are constantly going on; and tation. Trade has of late been dull, and thus it comes about that by levelling up the demand for salt limited, although the streets, the adjoining walls get at last Droitwich has fared no worse than many covered in with earth, for it must be no. other places; and there are signs thai, ticed that the houses and walls are not near the station more especially, the de- actually sinking into the ground, but they mand for new houses has been considerare sinking, pari passu, with the ground, able of late.
and getting covered with soil in conse. We have already pointed out that Droit- quence of the large quantities of the latter wich is not an attractive place seen from brought from a distance to keep up the the station, and a closer inspection of the old level. town accounts for the comparatively hum. Some parts of the old town show small ble character of the shops and houses. signs of any change, and houses are The fact is, that the town is slowly sink. pointed out that have stood a couple of ing; the removal of vast quantities of centuries or more, and seem little the brine, continuing as that has done for worse. One of the churches near the new Dearly two thousand years, sufficiently post-office, however, is unused, being conaccounts for the subsidence of the land. Isidered dangerous, and another, just out of the town, is very decidedly out of the cases, is most beneficial, and that remarkperpendicular. Any permanent improve-able cures have been effected. It is somement of the town is out of the question as what unfortunate, though, that sufferers long as the brine-springs are being worked, from the many forms of gout are too fond and as the trade and prosperity of the of confining their attention to medical district depend upon them, we cannot wish treatment and change of air, forgetting that they should soon be exhausted. that, however valuable these may be, still
It is rather curious to find large baths more can be hoped for from careful diet and handsome hotels in the midst of such and simple and natural habits of life; surroundings; for be it said with all re- otherwise the benefit of a visit to Droit. spect for the undoubted beauty and fertil- wich soon passes away, and the sufferer ity of the neighborhood, Droitwich cannot is little better than he was before he viscompare, even in the estimation of its in- ited the town. habitants, with Malvern, Leamington, or Droitwich could be used as a very good Cheltenham. The explanation is, that centre for excursions, and the railway the Droitwich brine has long had a great communication places it within a short and deserved reputation in cases of rheu- run of Malvern, Bewdley Forest, Hereford, matism and gout; and of late, larger num- Gloucester, and Tewkesbury, where the bers than ever of visitors, some of them visitor finds much to interest him. Birpersons of high rank, have flocked into ham and Wolverhampton, with their the town. The water is decidedly cold, vast factories and ceaseless hum of busiand requires heating; but if all one'is told ness, are also so near that an hour will be true, its efficacy is perfectly marvellous. take the traveller into the heart of both. One of the resident physicians assured us After all, the sick of the richer classes that after sufferers from rheumatic gout must go to the places where they can get had had a bath, the water they had used the greatest relief; and as Droitwich is had been found on analysis to contain ap- not so unattractive as it at first sight preciable quantities of urate of soda, the appears, and as gout is not likely soon to materies inorbi of gout. This statement cease to claim a large army of victims in startled us a good deal, or rather the ex- England, there is no doubt that the brineplanation offered, that the solvent prop-baths of Droitwich will become better erties of the brine removed the urate of known, and attract larger and still larger soda from the tissues ; it may be so, al numbers of visitors every year. By the though the more probable explanation is, way, after using the baths a few times, the that it was washed off the skin. There skin becomes soft like velvet, and this is can, however, be no doubt that a course a certain proof that the action of the water of treatment at Droitwich, in suitable l is very decided.
THE LARGEST FARM IN THE WORLD. — In | land I found to be best adapted to rice, sugar, the extreme south-west corner of Louisiana corn, and cotton. All our cultivating, ditchlies the largest-producing farm in the world. ing, etc., is done by steam-power, We take a It runs one hundred miles north and south tract, say half a mile wide, for instance, and and twenty-five miles east and west, and is place an engine on each side. These engines owned and operated by a syndicate of Northern are portable, and operate a cable attached to capitalists. Their general manager, J. B. four ploughs, and under this arrangement we Watkins, gives an interesting account of this are able to plough thirty acres a day with only gigantic plantation, which throws the great the labor of three men. Our harrowing, Dalrymple farm in Dakota into the shade planting, and other cultivation is done in a completely. “The million and a half acres like manner. In fact, there is not a single of our tract," Mr. Watkins said, “were pur- draught-horse on the entire place. We have, chased in 1883 from the State of Louisiana of course, horses for the herders of cattle, of and from the United States Government. At which we now have sixteen thousand head. that time it was a vast grazing land for the The Southern Pacific Railroad runs for thirty. cattle of the few dealers of the neighborhood. six miles through our farm. We have three When I took possession I found over thirty steamboats operating on the waters of our thousand head of half-wild horses and cattle. own estate, upon which there are three hunMy work was to divide the immense tract into dred miles of navigable waters. We have an convenient pastures, establishing stations or ice-house, a bank, a shipyard, and a rice ranches every six miles. The fencing alone mill." cost in the neighborhood of $50,000. The