According to Garat he was mobbed in mania, but the Revolution upheaval turned the street as one of Pitt's spies, and nar- merchants into fanatics and rationalists rowly escaped immediate trial and execu- into mystics. tion; but even if his apprehension really Stone's acquittal ought to have rendered took place in this way the danger could Vaughan's return to England perfectly not have been so imminent as Garat rep- safe, and his brother-in-law William Manresents.

ning, M.P. for Plympton and a staunch Vaughan repaired to Geneva, and had Tory, was assured by Pitt that as a harmno sooner arrived than he despatched a less enthusiast he might resume his Parlong letter to Robespierre, written in a liamentary duties; but Vaughan suspected tone bespeaking intimacy, and an intention a trap. This was of course absurd, but it of keeping up a correspondence. He ad- shows the atmosphere of distrust which vised Robespierre to contract France to then prevailed. He consequently never her former limits, and to convert her con- again trod English soil; but after living quests into a fringe of free and allied some time with Skipwith, the American States. By the irony of fate this letter, consul in Paris, he rejoined his family at written as if to an autocrat, reached Paris Hallowell, Maine. We do not hear that on the night of the 9th Thermidor, when he took any part in American politics, but Robespierre, arrested but released, was he doctored his neighbors gratuitously, making his last throw for life and power was honored and respected, and died in at the Hôtel de Ville. It was opened by 1835, bequeathing part of a fine library to the Committee of Public Safety, perhaps Bowdoin College. Of all the English exat the very moment when the fallen tribune iles in Paris he seems to have had the was writhing in agony.

peacefullest old age. In 1796, probably before his return to George Grieve, who hunted Madame Paris, Vaughan published at Strasburg a du Barry to death, is in every way a conpamphlet entitled “ De l'état politique et trast to him. Grieve's grandfather, Ralph, économique de la France sous sa Consti- was a scrivener at Alnwick, who, on the tution de l'an 3.". It professed to be a election of an incumbent in 1694, headed translation from the German, made by a the minority and was expelled from the foreigner who craved excuse for inaccu. Common Council. His father, Richard, a racies of idiom. It is an unqualified pan- few weeks before George's birth in 1748, egyric of the Directory, a system of was the leader of an election mob which government to be envied, according to stormed the town hall, thus frustrating the Vaughan, even by America, much more attempt of his fellow-councillors to proby England, Switzerland, and Holland. cure an unfair return. With such a linThere is an incidental reference to the eage George Grieve could scarcely fail to Reign of Terror as a political inquisition be an ardent politician; yet his elder whose rigor equalled that of the Spanish brother, Davidson Richard, was a quiet tribunal, and there is a very just remark country gentleman, high sheriff of Northattributing the atrocities of the Revolu- umberland in 1788. George, in 1774, tion in part to the despotism and supersti- headed the opposition to the Duke of tion under which its leaders had been Northumberland's attempt to fill up both trained. Vaughan likewise observes that seats, in lieu of being content with one, the mob generally respected private prop- and the opposition secured a narrow maerty, frequently yielded to the voice of rea- jority of sixteen, Alnwick itself pronouncson, and were rarely intoxicated, “which " ing for the duke. Four years later Grieve -an evident fling at the London and Bir: led a mob which levelled the fences of mingham rioters cannot be said of part of the moor wrongfully presented by mobs everywhere." It is surprising, how the corporation to the duke's agent. He ever, to find him not merely extolling was of course a fervent admirer of Wilkes, the cumbrous and corrupt system of the and a zealous advocate of Parliamentary Directory, but confidently predicting its reform. His affairs, however, became in. durability and an era of peace and pros. volved, and like Pigott, he fancied England perity. He was manifestly wanting in to be on the brink of ruin. Accordingly political sagacity. He was also smitten about 1780 he sold his patrimony, crossed with the craze of the Revolution being a the Atlantic, made acquaintance with fulfilment of the book of Daniel, and wrote Washington and Paine, and is said to a treatise on the subject, but had the good have partly supported himself by his pen. sense to suppress it, the printer saving He appears to have been sent on a mission one copy for Grégoire. A Unitarian should to Holland, and then, about 1783, settled have escaped the prophecy-interpretation in Paris.

[ocr errors]

That such a man would throw himself | again petitioned for her liberation, but into the Revolutionary movement is evi- this time in vain. Grieve superintended dent; but although he knew Mirabeau the search for jewels concealed in dungthere is no trace of Grieve's activity till heaps, and got up the case against her. 1792, when he took up his quarters at an His manuscripts, still preserved at the inn at Louveciennes, the hamlet inhabited national archives, are in irreproachable by Madame du Barry: Here he formed a French. Not merely did he collect evi. club, which, the lady being in England in dence, but he was himself a wit ss, and quest of her stolen jewels, audaciously had it not been for his relentless persecu. met in her drawing-room. Her Hindoo tion it seems likely that she would have servant Zamore, whom she had brought been left unmolested. up, had stood sponsor to, and had named Grieve was to have dined with Marat after one of Voltaire's tragedies, proved the very day of his assassination, and he unfaithful. She had loaded him with kind- unwarrantably denounced the Jacobin exness, and as a boy he used, dressed like priest Roux as Charlotte Corday's accomCupid, to hold a parasol over her as she plice, on the ground of having met him at went to meet Louis XV. in the garden ; Marat's house and seen him "look furibut Grieve wormed all her secrets out of ous;” but this denunciation had no effect. him, got an order for seals to be placed on He is said, however, to have boasted that her property, and placed her name at the he had brought seventeen persons to the head of a list of persons to be arrested. guillotine. If the vaunt was true, it can The power of the municipality to make only be hoped that his reason was tempo arrests was, however, questioned, and for rarily impaired. Five months after Robesseven months Madame du Barry remained pierre's fall he was arrested at Amiens free, though in perpetual anxiety. On July and taken to Versailles, where twenty-two 1, 1793, Grieve escorted the municipality depositions were given against him, but to the bar of the Convention, vehemently on unknown grounds the prosecution was denounced her, and obtained authority to stopped. In 1796 he was back in Amerapprehend her, but a petition from the ica, where he published a translation of villagers, who had profited by her resi- the Marquis de Châtellux's “ Travels," dence, procured her release. Thereupon unaware perhaps that John Kent, likewise Grieve issued a pamphlet describing her an eyewitness of and pamphleteer on the luxurious life, and holding her up to Revolution, had brought out a translation odium as a conspirator. He signed him. in London nine years earlier. He eventuself “ Man of letters, officious” (this is ally settled in Brussels, and died there in surely a case for translating officieux offi- 1809. His tool and confederate Zamore, cious), “defender of the brave sans-culottes also arrested after Robespierre's fall, but of Louveciennes, friend of Franklin and said to have been released on Grieve's Marat,* factious (factieux) and anarchist representations, lived, morose, miserable, of the first water, and disorganizer of and a vilifier of his benefactress, till 1820. despotism for twenty years in both hemi. We now come to Thomas Paine — the spheres." Madame du Barry, who had original spelling seems to have been Pain, already dismissed one treacherous servant, and the French orthography was Payne now dismissed Zamore also. In Septem- who had twice visited Paris prior to ber Grieve secured a fresh warrant against the Revolution, but whose previous career her, and singularly enough rode part of need not be related. He paid a third visit the way to Paris in the hackney carriage in 1790, and a fourth in 1791, when four with her. What passed between them is Frenchmen joined him in constituting a mystery. Was he enamored of her, and themselves a Republican Society. On the repelled with horror, or did he offer life king's flight to Varennes, Paine drew up and liberty if she disgorged ? In any case a republican manifesto, which Duchait is strange that Madame du Barry, whose telet translated, signed, and placarded on last lover but one had been an English- the doors of the Assembly. Still clinging

Henry Seymour, nephew of the to royalty, that body was much scandal. Duke of Somerset, the Sunday-evening ized, and threatened a prosecution. Paine dancing in whose park at Prunay was re- likewise challenged Sieyès to a written membered by old women still living in controversy on republicanism. He re1870 — should have been hunted to death turned to London in company with Lord by another Englishman. The inhabitants Daer, son of the Earl of Selkirk, a young

Scotchman enraptured with the Revolu• Marat perhaps made his acquaintance at New- tion, destined to die of consumption at castle, or while teaching French at Edinburgh in 1772. Madeira, and with Etienne Dumont, Mi.


[ocr errors]



rabeau's secretary. The latter was thor- | a French translation of which was read by oughly disgusted by Paine's claiming the Bancal while he stood mute at the tribune, chief credit for American independence, evinced humanity and sagacity. He conand by bis avowed desire to burn every trasted the success of the English 1688 book in existence and start society afresh with the failure of 1649, excused Louis as with his “Rights of Man.”

the victim of bad training, and warned Almost the last act of the Constituent France of the impolicy of losing her sole Assembly was to confer French citizen- ally, America, where universal grief would ship on eighteen foreigners, that they be caused by the death of a king regarded might help to “settle the destinies of as its best friend. In a sentence which France, and perhaps of mankind." Paine goes far to redeem Paine's errors he was elected by Girondin influence in four said :departments, one of them styling him “ Penne," and as Priestley wisely declined been heated and irritated by the dangers to

I know that the public mind in France has to sit, he and Clootz were the only for which the country has been exposed; but if eigners in the Convention. Madame Ro. we look beyond, to the time when these danland, repelled doubtless by his vulgarity, gers and the irritation produced by them shall regretted that her friends had not nomi- have been forgotten, we shall see that what pated David Williams in his stead. To now appears to us an act of justice will then avoid being mobbed, Paine had to make appear only an act of vengeance. a detour by Sandwich and Deal to Dover, Marat twice interrupted, first alleging that where the custom-house is said to have Paine was a Quaker, and as an objector rummaged all his effects, and even opened to capital punishment disentitled to vote, his letters; but at Calais he was greeted and then pretending that his speech had with military, honors, cheered by the been mistranslated. crowd, and harangued by the mayor. On the fall of the Girondins, Paine Paine, unable even to the last to open his discontinued attending the Convention, mouth in French, could reply only by put- quietly awaited the impending arrest, and ting his hand to his heart. His portrait amused himself in the garden and poultryfound its way even into village inns, and yard of his house with marbles, battledore, an English lady archly wrote home: and hopscotch.

On Christmas day, 1793, At the very moment you are sentencing him

he was expelled from the Convention as a to instalment in the pillory we may be award- foreigner, and on New Year's eve was aring him a triumph. Perhaps we are both rested simultaneously with Clootz. An right. He deserves the pillory from you for American deputation vainly pleaded for having endeavored to destroy a good constitu- his release, and on his asking for the good tion; and the French may with equal reason offices of the Cordeliers Club, its only grant him a triumph, as their constitution is reply was to send him a copy of his speech likely to be so bad that even Mr. Thomas against the king's execution. Gouverneur Paine's writings may make it better.*

Morris, the American ambassador, advised Major Monro, with more seriousness him as the safest course to remain quiet, and severity, exclaimed in a despatch to and Paine appears to have acted on the the English Foreign Office, “What must advice. Morris, however, was mistaken a nation come to that has so little discern- in thinking that he would then have nothment in the election of their representa ing to fear. Not that there is any truth in tives as to elect such a fellow ?" Safe Carlyle's story of Paine's cell door flying out of reach, Paine sent a defiant letter to open, of the turnkey making the fatal the English government, thanking them chalk-mark on the inside, of the door for extending the popularity of his book swinging back with the mark inside, and by prosecuting it, and sneering at “Mr. of another turnkey omitting Paine in the Guelph and his debauchee sons as “in- batch of victims; even at the height of capable of governing a nation.” When the Terror men were not executed without this letter was read at the trial, Erskine, trial, nor without an indictment having reprobating its tone, could only suggest been drawn up by Fouquier Tinville and that it might be a forgery, and urge that served upon them at least over-night. Not in any case it was irrelevant.

one of these preliminaries had been ac. When the king's trial came on, Paine complished in Paine's case. Carlyle, con voted for his detention during the war, to trary to his practice, cites no authority for be followed by banishment. His reasons, the story, but a variation of it appeared in

the newspapers in 1823, in a biography of • Residence in France, 1792-5. Edited by John Sampson Perry, likewise a prisoner at the Gifford.

Luxembourg, who may have been accus.

[ocr errors]

tomed to tell this traveller's tale. Num- is easy to be wise after the event. The bers of survivors of the Terror pretended Revolution was like a day in early spring. indeed to have been ordered for execution It commences with brilliant sunshine, and saved by Robespierre's fall; whereas light showers then pass over, black clouds the tribunal took a holiday on décadi, the next begin to collect, but there are still Jacobin Sabbath, and of the fifteen cases occasional gleams of sunshine ; presently prepared for trial on the 11th Thermidor the hail pelts, the wind howls, there is a there was not one of any note. Paine's rumbling of distant thunder, but there death-warrant was really signed, but it seems still a chance that the sky will consisted in this memorandum, found in clear, till at last the clouds lower, the hori. Robespierre's note-book :“ Demander que zon narrows, the thunder peals, the lightThomas Payne soit décrété d'accusation, ning flashes, the rain falls in sheets, and pour les intérêts de l'Amérique autant que the day ends in blackness and darkness de la France."

and tempest. The capture of the Bastille This animosity can be explained. When was the brilliant dawn, arousing an enthuMarat was prosecuted in April, 1793, Paine siasm in which even the English ambassagave information to the Jacobin Club that, dor, the Duke of Dorset, shared. Before addressing him once in English in the the first anniversary arrived, clouds had lobby of the Convention, Marat expressed chequered the sky, but till the September his desire for a dictatorship, and though massacres hope predominated; even after the letter was prudently suppressed Robes Louis XVI.'s execution it appeared still pierre was probably cognizant of it. In probable that the Revolution would be May, 1793, moreover, Paine wrote a letter appeased by the blood of its foes; and to Danton (found among Danton's papers there were alternations of hope and fear and still preserved), advocating the re- till the Terror commenced :moval of the Convention from Paris, in order that provincial deputies might be France has shown a light to all men, preached free from mob insults.

a gospel, all men's good; Paine was released in November, 1794,

Celtic Demos rose a demon, shrieked, and

slaked the light with blood. and Gouverneur Morris gave him hospitality for some months, though his dirty We see all along what the end was to be, and drunken habits necessitated his ex- but these English enthusiasts were liter. clusion from the family table. On De- ally ignorant of the morrow, and did not cember 8, the Convention rescinded his easily renounce their illusions. Not till expulsion, and ordered payment of the they were fairly in the toils did they recogarrears of Parliamentary stipend; but he nize the gravity of their position. Flight, did not resume his seat till the following moreover, became increasingly difficult. July, when he pleaded a malignant fever Passports were refused or granted grudg. contracted in prison as his excuse. On ingly; to depart without them was peril. his journalistic and pamphleteering activ- ous in the extreme, and even with them ity, his refusal of one of the proposed re- there was constant liability to detention wards to literary men, his subscription of as French aristocrats in disguise. After five hundred francs towards the invasion the occupation of Toulon by the English, of England, which Bonaparte intended all British subjects were actual prisoners him to accompany, and his return to of war; and althoug! about February, America in 1802, it is needless to dwell. 1795, there was a general liberation, Lord

We have not spoken of the dozen En- Malmesbury in 1796 found countrymen in glishmen consigned to the guillotine, for Paris anxious, but still unable, to return though some, like General Arthur Dillon, home. It is easy to say they should never were born in this country, they had be. have gone to Paris during the Revolution come to all intents and purposes French ; or should have left before the Terror comnor need we speak of the members of the menced, but how natural was it that those British Club at Paris in 1792, which was whose sympathy had drawn them thither, soon broken up by internal dissensions. like numbers who watched the Revolution Beyond temporarily misleading the Con- from this side the Channel, should hope vention as to public feeling across the and believe that every atrocity was the Channel, they were merely eyewitnesses last, and that these excesses were the of the Revolution, not actors in it. It inevitable transition to the triumpb of may seem strange that so many British liberty! The wonder indeed is not that subjects, or at least those in no danger of they remained till it was too late to flee, molestation at home, should have re- but that they suffered nothing beyond immained in France during the Terror, but it | prisonment, coupled, however, with con.



stant apprehension of another fearful gaol Another morning Jacqueline and I went delivery like that of September, 1792. It to the Hague, which looked especially must be presumed that many of them al- bright and cheery that sunny day.' In the tered their opinion of their own country's afternoon we took an open carriage and stability and institutions, and learned' to drove down to Scheveningen, through the prefer even an unreformed Parliament to wood, by the charming road that is always the French Convention. They cannot at a flicker of light and shade. On the beach any rate have failed to contrast the Revo the wide sands were terribly windy; the lutionary tribunal with a British jury, and great hotels closing for the winter; the the guillotine with the heaviest English many summer visitors fled. Still, we liked penalties for sedition.

seeing the fishwives with their great flapping hats, the sea strangely streaked green and grey; and one picturesque little sight

I remembered of a red wagon piled heavFrom The English Illustrated Magazine.

ily with brown nets, and drawn by three A VISIT IN A DUTCH COUNTRY HOUSE. long-tailed brisk horses abreast, clattering

and straining sideways over the sloping

paved causeway laid down on the shifting One morning the Baron and Baroness sands. This was a most pleasurable day. P- came up from the Hague, to spend And on others equally delightful, we went the day at Lindenroede. Hugo took us to Amsterdam. Once with Hugo and the for a long drive after déjeuner through Princess, when we saw everything I rethe thick woods and bright villas round membered of old, and more the wide Bloemendaal village ; and by handsome, canals full of craft, and the still broader finely wooded demesnes with long grassy and more busy Amstel; the dark-red drives cut through the trees, stretching houses painted almost chocolate, with straight from the highroad to the house - white corniced wreaths round the windows fronts, seen in narrowing perspective. giving them a comical funereal air, in We passed our cousin W. C's large spite of the noise and bustle generally place, with its deer.park and noble old below them; the Jews' quarter, where beech avenues than which I know few quick eyes will see the bit of hollow wood finer. And lastly, we visited the famous nailed to every doorpost containing the old ruined castle belonging to the Counts law written on a tiny scrap of parchof Brederode, and so often besieged. It ment; the delightful Kalverstraat where is of mellowed red brick, as stone could we bought old silver and stared at far only be had imported in this low country, more, regardless of a tremendous shower. and is still surrounded by a broad moat. Then the Treppenhuis pictures; VanAfter seeing Chepstow lately, Brederode dyck's burghers, more kingly than kings; was small to my eyes, but on climbing to and the Weenixes, when I could hardly the tower's flat roof, its especial charm believe that I cared to stand and gaze, was manifest. How one could recall the and then again come back and stare at past! Beyond the dark moat washing the dead hares — but I did! And beyond all, old walls, unbroken green pastures dotted the Rembrandts, and dearest of these the with cattle stretched away for some miles noble old lady - a work of love — with around to Haarlem and its cathedral. the down of age on her chin, but such Nearer, on the seaside, rose steep and eternal beauty of soul shining through her sharp, if low, the white sand-hills, topped wrinkled face that one knows she must with turf, in all sorts of jagged, fantastic have loved and suffered, laughed and wept, outline like miniature Alps. Exactly the and lived as a true and good woman till same these meadows must have looked she was painted there at eighty. Then “long time ago," when the hunt rode out to the Broeker-huis, a mediæval_little in the morning from the courtyard; or a house transported piecemeal from Broek, jousting.match was held down below on (“cleanest village in the world,” vide the sward in the afternoon. After dinner Murray), and set up here by the good here, the dames and squires came out Amsterdam corporation, all fitted with old “ to play" in the meadow, as told in old furniture, and shown by a costumed young romances, whilst the heavy old lords prouw, to show this generation exactly snored or caroused, and many a countess how the “old people ” lived ; a most intrailing her skirts along these castle walls teresting sight. Later — to be brief must have wearied of her life and of the what a good table d'hôte we enjoyed at low, rich, but monotonous pastures lying the Amstel Hotel; and how my friends there below her eyes.

detected one guest to be English, because


« ElőzőTovább »