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ants, regarding them as the black sheep | estate in 1770, at the age of thirty-four. of the family, are unwilling or unable to The very day of his father's death, he supply any information – oftener, per- and the disinherited son of Sir William haps, unable than unwilling, for the proba- Codrington, at Newmarket, “ran their bility is that these emigrants mostly broke fathers' lives one against the other” sor off all intercourse with their kinsmen, five hundred guineas. The elder Pigott especially as after a certain date war ren- having already been dead a few hours at dered cominunication very uncertain and Chetwynd, though neither party knew of difficult. There are, indeed, sources of it, Pigott maintained that the bet was off ; information in France, contemporary but Lord Mansfield gave judgment for newspapers and pamphlets, local and na- Codrington, holding that the impossibility tional archives, but even these are incom- of a contingency did not debar its being plete, and as regards manuscripts rarely the subject of a wager, if both parties catalogued. The Commune of 1871, more- were at the time unaware of that impossiover, created an irreparable gap, for in bility. Pigott had soon to serve, as his the burning of the Palais de Justice and grandfather had done before him, as high Hôtel de Ville the municipal records, the sheriff of the county ; but he held eccentric registers of deaths, and many of the prison views. He shared the belief of croakers. lists were consumed. We have, however, that England's fall was imminent; sold all in researches on the principal Englishmen his estates (said, including the manor of who figured in the Revolution, profited by Chesterton, Hunts, to be worth 9,000l. a every still available source of information. year), and went to live at Geneva. We We have skimmed a multitude of journals know nothing, however, of how long he and tracts, rummaged musty documents, stayed or what acquaintances he made; made inquiries of relatives which have Voltaire must have been of the number. not always proved fruitless, and, although we next hear of him in London, where such researches would a generation ago Brissot was introduced to him. Pigott have doubtless been more productive, we had become a vegetarian, or, as it was have collected data which from the fading then called, a Pythagorean. To this he away of traditions and from material or had probably been converted by a Dr. political accidents might not at a future Graham, brother to the well-known Mrs. period have been obtainable.

Macaulay's young second husband, the Although Paine, as a member of the notorious charlatan with whose mud baths Convention, might seem entitled to pre- and electric beds the future Lady Hamil. cedence, we prefer to begin with men of ton was associated. Brissot, when calling higher status and wider culture, who, even on Pigott, frequently found Graham with if eventually brought into political asso- him. Pigott was thus evidently just the ciation with him, must have loathed his man to be kindled into enthusiasm by the vulgarity and coarseness. Robert Pigott, Revolution. He had, moreover, an an. for instance, who, as Clootz's biographer, tipathy to cocked or other hats, as the M. Avenel, has ascertained, represented invention of priests and despots, and wore England in the deputation of June 19, a cap which at the Feast of Pikes made 1790, had been an opulent country gentle. him the observed of all observers. When man. The Pigotts claimed descent from royalist deputies, suspecting the genuinea Norman family named Picot, and had ness of Clootz's deputation, sent an usher for eleven generations owned an estate at who spoke English — probably Rose, a Chetwynd, Shropshire. They had been man of Scotch extraction - to test the strongly attached to the Stuarts, and two English representative, he was answered heirlooms are still preserved in the family by Pigott in "good Miltonic English,"

a ring, one of four presented by Charles and retired in confusion. We may imI. on the eve of his execution; and a por-agine Pigott receiving from Clootz a certrait on ivory of the Pretender presented tificate of his presence at the Feast of by himself to Robert Pigott's father at Pikes, couched, with a simple alteration Rome in 1720. Robert succeeded to the l of name and nationality, in these terms, .


and entitling the bearer to a federal rib-publicanism that the president pocketed bon and diploma :

his cap, all present following suit, it canCapital of the globe, February 5, year 2.

not be supposed that they went home bareI certify and make known to all the free men headed. These red caps must have been of the earth that Joseph Cajadaer Chammas, confined to indoor use. Pigott, however, member of the oppressed sovereign [the peo- was clearly the introducer of the bonnet ple) of Mesopotamia, had the honor of attend-rouge, for the Château-Vieux mutineers, ing the Federation of July 14, by virtue of a to whom it is usually attributed, did not decree emanating from the august French Sen- enter Paris till three months after caps ate, June 19, year 1. ANACHARSIS Clootz, had come in and gone out. The cap of orator of the human race in the French Na liberty had been a symbol, indeed, emtional Assembly. *

ployed from the outset of the Revolution, What a contrast between the high sheriff but it was Pigott who made it an article of Salop paying the honors to the judges of dress. He had apparently quitted Paris of assize and the cap-headed man at the by the summer, when it was revived, and bar of the National Assembly! Pigott is this time undoubtedly worn outdoors, described in one place as a journalist, but sometimes placed on the back of the head, perhaps merely because he had sent an like that of a Zouave of the present day, address to the Assembly on Sieyès's press sometimes covering the top of the head, bill of 1790. He spoke in this address of with the end slightly lapping over in front. loving France as warmly as if he had been Pigott's next two years are a blank for a native, and of bis having hastened over He must have left Paris before No. with a multitude of foreigners to enjoy vember, 1792, or he would have figured in the rights of man in all their purity. He the British Club which then made itself dissuaded the Assembly from taking En-conspicuous. We thought, indeed, at one glish legislation as a model, for the shame time to have traced him under the guise ful war with America had shown how of Picotte or Pigatte in the Paris prison people could be misled by a press which rolls, in which case he might have met his the government could oppress or coerce. old friend Codrington as a fellow-prisoner, England, he said, was not really free, but but the dates do not agree. He died at had only a semblance of a freedom. Toulouse on July 7, 1794, three weeks

At the beginning of 1792, Pigott, in a before Robespierre's fall, leaving a widow, pamphlet which we have been unable to Antoinette Bontan, possibly the Mrs. find, but passages from which appeared in Pigott who was living at Geneva in 1807–9. Brissot's paper, the Patriote Français, He is said also to have had a son who advocated the use of caps, as allowing the predeceased him. face to be well seen, and as susceptible James Watt, junior, son of the great by various shapes and colors all sorts inventor, represented his country, like of embellishments. He condemned the Pigott, in a cosmopolitan procession. He hat as gloomy and morose, denounced the had become intimate at Manchester with uncovering of the head as a servile and an ardent politician, Thomas Cooper,* a ridiculous salutation, and appealed to chemist; and the Constitutional Society Greek, Roman, and Gaulish usage, as also of that town deputed both of them, toto the example of Voltaire and Rousseau. wards the end of 1791, to carry an address The effect of the appeal was electrical. of congratulation to the Jacobin Club. For a few weeks caps were the rage, Young Watt was in all probability the though it is not clear how far the republi. anonymous

“constitutional Whig who cans, any more than Voltaire and Rous- figured in the " moral-sublime” seau, wore them outdoors. When on quoted by Carlyle in his essays. The poet March 19, 1792, Pétion wrote to the Wordsworth arrived in Paris a little later, Jacobin Club so strong and sensible a made Watt's acquaintance, likewise atremonstrance against external signs of re-tended the assembly of the Jacobins, and




• Lettre du Prussien Clootz au Prussien Hertzberg. Paris: 1791.

* Cooper eventually emigrated to America, and died

in 1829.

on continuing his journey to Orleans took | ever, left unmolested, went back after a away a fragment of the Bastille as a relic. time to Birmingham, succeeded to his Wait may have introduced the future father's business, and in 1817 was the . laureate, then a heated democrat, ulti- first to cross the Channel and ascend the mately an extreme Tory, to Robespierre Rhine to Coblentz by steam. He lived and Danton, for he knew them well, was till June, 1848, thus hearing of the proclaDanton's second when they had quar- mation of the second republic, after have relled, and on the ground effected a recon. ing witnessed the virtual establishment of ciliation by urging the loss to the cause of the first. liberty if either of them fell. When, on William Playfair, more actively engaged April 15, 1792, the forty mutinous soldiers in the Revolution than Watt, had also to of the Château-Vieux regiment, released fee for his life, but unlike Watt he ended from the galleys of Brest, had a triumphal. by cursing what he originally blessed. procession through Paris, Cooper and Brother of John Playfair, the Edinburgh Watt were in it, bearing the British flag, mathematician and geologist, he was a with the bust of Algernon Sydney. Burke, civil engineer, and had settled in Paris. in the House of Commons nearly a year He had patented a new rolling inachine, afterwards, vehemently denounced thein and in 1789 joined Joel Barlow in launchas having thus applauded mutiny and ing the Scioto Company, which in two murder, and as having exchanged em- months disposed of fifty thousand acres braces with Marat. Watt's biographer, in Ohio to two convoys of French emiMuirhead, speaks of him as horrified by grants. When Barlow was called back to the storming of the Tuileries and the America, Playfair acted as sole agent. September massacres, but he was so far He assisted, in all probability, in the capfrom reprobating the former that on ture of the Bastille, for he was one of the August 14 he waited on the Assembly, eleven or twelve hundred inhabitants of together with Gamble and Raymont — the St. Antoine quarter who on the previDidot, the paper-maker, had married a ous day had forined themselves into a Miss Gamble, and this was probably her militia, and who, with the exception of a brother — to present thirteen hundred and few detained by patrol duty, headed the fifteen francs for the families of the com- attack on the fortress. It is significant, batants. The September massacres, how- but scarcely excusable, that in his "Hisever, certainly horrified Watt, and so little tory of Jacobinism” he makes light of did he make a secret of it that Robes- the capture of the Bastille, and does not pierre denounced the two Manchester hint that he was concerned in it. Indeed, delegates to the Jacobins as Pitt's emis. the only reference to his having been in saries. Watt, whom three years' school. Paris at all is the remark, “I do not coning at Geneva had made fluent in French, sider virtue to consist in the simple manwas equal to the occasion. Springing on ners and republican phrases of a Brissot, the platform, he pushed Robespierre aside, and I have told him so to his face.” A and in a short but vehement speech “com- French pamphlet of 1790 on paper money pletely silenced his formidable antagonist, is attributed to him. It was he (not pé carrying with him the feelings of the rest tion, as Carlyle represents) who courageof the audience, who expressed their sense ously rescued D’Espréménil, an old acof his honest British spirit in a loud burst quaintance, when half killed by a mob in of applause.” On going back to his lodg- the Palais Royal in February, 1791.. Péings, however, Watt had a warning that tion simply visited and condoled with the his life was not safe, and we know that poor man after the rescue, in which Playthe incorruptible Robespierre was also fair was assisted by a brave National the unforgiving Robespierre. He imme. Guardsman, a horse-dealer, who afterwards diately left Paris without a passport, and pawned his uniform to give Playfair a with some difficulty made his way to dinner, and was with difficulty persuaded Italy. On his return to England in 1794 to accept a few louis.* On Playfair speakhis father had serious apprehensions lest ing out too plainly on the excesses of the he should be prosecuted, and contem- Revolution, Barrére is said to have proplated shipping him to northern Europe cured an order for his arrest, but he esor America; for though young Watt (by, caped to Holland and thence to England. this time twenty-five years of age) had By 1793 he was back in London, pubbroken off correspondence with France lishing pamphlets which advocated a he was still a Radical, and deemned it an honor to dine with two of the “acquitted • France as it Is, not Lady Morgan's, by W. Playselons” of the 1794 trials. He was, how- fair, 1819.



wholesale manufacture of forged assignats London. He induced his uncle to embark as the surest and most merciful method of in speculations which ultimately proved crushing the Revolution. He urged that ruinous. There is a tradition in the fam. this would save many lives, that American ily that he assisted at the capture of the notes were forged in General Howe's Bastille, but there is no positive evidence camp without its being deemed dishonor of his being in Paris till three years later. able, and that there could be no fear of In October, 1790, he presided at a dinner retaliation, seeing that Bank of England given by the Society of Friends of the notes were payable at sight. Names, says Revolution (of 1688) to a deputation from the old song, go by contraries. Only on Nantes. They wrote home that he was the lucus a non principle can we explain thoroughly acquainted with all the Eurothe sanguinary temper of a Rossignol or pean languages and literatures, and that a Saint Just and the forged assignat pro- on dining at his house they met the leadposal of a Playfair. Unfortunately his ing men of letters. Samuel Rogers may suggestion did not fall on deaf ears. The have been one of the number, for he knew British government is alleged to have Stone well, and twelve months later, din. connived at the manufacture by the émi-ing with him, met Fox, Sheridan, Talleygrés of forged assignats at Howden, near rand, Madame de Genlis, and Pamela, Hexham. The local tradition is that this quite radiant with beauty.” In Novempaper-mill on the Tyne never prospered ber, 1792, Stone was in Paris, and wrote afterwards. Some of the exiled bishops to dissuade Sheridan from accepting and clergy reprobated the act, but the French citizenship, which the Convention Bourbon princes apparently reconciled intended conferring on him and Fox. themselves to it on the casuistical plea" Obscure and vulgar men, and scounthat the counterfeit notes had a secret drels” — does he include Paine?- having mark by which, in the event of the resto- already received the distinction, he had ration of the monarchy, they could be persuaded Brissot to defer the proposal, distinguished and cashed. One ill deed especially as it would be made a handle of begets another, and though the royalist by the Tories. In the same month he issue had long ceased, Napoleon in 1803 presided at a dinner of British residents organized a forgery of English, Austrian, in Paris to celebrate French victories. and Russian notes, the plates of which Paine was present, as also Lord Edward were claimed by and given up to the Fitzgerald, whom Stone introduced to the respective ambassadors on his fall. Play- fascinating Pamela. Stone was well acfair, who is more honorably known as an quainted with Madame de Genlis, Pameeditor of Adam Smith's works, was con- la's adoptive (or real) mother, and on havstantly unsuccessful, despite his inventive ing to quit Paris she entrusted her manugenius. He returned to Paris after Water- scripts to him. He handed them over to Too to edit Galignani's Messenger, but in Helen Maria Williams, who, on the eve 1818 an account of a duel brought on him of a threatened domiciliary visit, burnt a sentence of three months'imprisonment, them. The “scribbling trollop,” as Horto escape which he fled to London, where ace Walpole styles her, never forgave him he died five years afterwards, at the age for this holocaust, yet he is said to have of sixty-four. His brother, the professor, advanced fifteen thousand francs with a remained a staunch Whig; and a Dundee view to procuring her husband's escape minister, James Playfair, who in 1790 from prison. signed an address of congratulation to Sympathy with the Revolution ensured the French Assembly, was probably a no immunity from the wholesale arrest of cousin.

British subjects as hostages for Toulon. John Hurford Stone resembled Playfair Stone was apprehended and consigned to only in enterprise and eventual poverty. the Luxembourg on October 13, 1793, but He was born at Tiverton in 1763, lost his released on the 30th. He was again arfather in childhood, and was sent up to rested, together with his wife, in April, London with his brother William to assist 1794, but liberated next day on condition in the business of their uncle William leaving Fra

ce. He could not safely Hurford, the son of a Tiverton serge- return to England, for his brother was in maker, who had become a coal merchant. Newgate on a charge of treason, and he Stone, according to information furnished himself was described in the indictment us by a kinsman, was very clever and as the principal. He went to Switzerland, cultured, and had completely thrown off probably joining Helen Williams there, the Unitarian docrines of his family. He but he must have been back in June, for was one of Dr. Price's congregation in / he then obtained a divorce from his wife Rachel Coope. This is the presumptive | which must have made him acquainted date of his liaison or secret marriage with with Humboldt, ruined him, and in 1813 Miss Williams. Their friend Bishop Gré- he had to hand it over to Smith, likewise goire perhaps married them; but it is not apparently an Englishman. He was nat. easy to understand why they were not pub- uralized in 1817, simultaneously with licly and legally united.

Helen Williams, and died in the following William Stone was tried at the Old year. His tombstone in Père Lachaise, Bailey, after nearly two years' incarcera. “ the last tribute of a long friendship, tion, on January 28 and 29, 1796, for describes him as an enlightened champion “treacherously conspiring with his broth- of religion and liberty. A now fallen er, John Hurford Stone, now in France, to stone alongside seemingly marks the spot destroy the life of the king and to raise a where Helen Williams was interred nine rebellion in his realms.” The truth was, years later. however, that he had urged his brother, The prosecution of William Stone " that seditious and wicked traitor,” as caused the flight of Benjamin Vaughan, Sir John Scott (afterwards Lord Eldon) M.P. for Calne, and uncle by marriage of styled him, to dissuade the French from Cardinal Manning. Vaughan was the son invading England, inasınuch as they of Samuel Vaughan, a London merchant would find none of the sympathy they trading with America, by the daughter of expected, but were doomed to failure. a Boston (U.S.) merchant, was born in Scott argued, indeed, that by warning the Jamaica in 1751, and was educated at French -against a hopeless enterprise Cambridge, but being a Unitarian could William Stone had acted as their friend not graduate. Private secretary to Lord and as the king's enemy; but Erskine Shelburne, he fell in love with Miss and Adair, his counsel, urged that if pro- Manning, but her father withheld his conmoting an invasion was treason, warding sent to the marriage on the ground that it off must be the reverse. The prisoner, Vaughan had no profession. Thereupon indeed, had sheltered his brother's emis- Vaughan went and studied medicine at sary, the Irish

Presbyterian minister Edinburgh, married on his return, and beJackson, had corresponded with Jackson came partner with Manning & Son, merin Ireland, signing his name backwards chants in Billiter Square. He acted as (Enots), and had forwarded to the govern- confidential messenger in peace negotia. ment garbled extracts from his brother's tions with America, edited a London edi. letters; but Lord Lauderdale, Sheridan, tion of Franklin's works, and wrote a and William Smith, M.P., testified that pamphlet on international trade, which he was merely a weak enthusiast, anxious was translated into French in 1789. He to give himself airs, but sincerely desirous was returned for Calne at a bye election of a peace with France. Rogers, called in February, 1792, Lord Shelburne having as a witness for the prosecution, and asked evidently effected the vacancy for him. as to the prisoner's loyalty to his king and In February, 1794, he made a speech adregard for his country, evasively answered vocating precautions against negro risings that he had always thought him a well in the West Indies, on account of the meaning man. He was acquitted, and emancipation of slaves in the French coloafter a fortnight's detention for debt re- nies; but although this speech argued tired to France.

little sympathy with the Jacobins, a letter J. H. Stone, in a published letter to Dr. from him found on Wm. Stone, seemingly Priestley, made some caustic comments addressed to or intended for J. H. Stone, on this prosecution, and incidentally ex- and dissuading the French from an invapressed admiration of Charlotte Corday, sion, led him to take refuge in France. though her act had done more harm than To avoid arrest as an Englishman, he as. good. He also extolled the Girondins, sumed the name of Jean Martin, and lived and declared his dissent from Paine's in retirement at Passy, his identity being religious views and his belief in an en- known to only five or six persons. One lightened Christianity. He had by this of these was Bishop Grégoire, who states time started afresh in business, and while that the English government supposed still an ardent politician, and in the confi- him to have gone to America, or would dence of the Directory, became one of otherwise have outlawed him. Another the chief printers in Paris. In 1805 he was Robespierre, to whom he paid secret brought out an edition of the Geneva visits. In June the Committee of Public Bible. He published several English re- Safety detected his incognito and arrested prints, and he undertook a costly edition him, but after a month's detention at the of “Humboldt's Travels." This work, Carmelite monastery he was. banished.

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