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still likely enough to splutter when they for a background; it is weird to hear the get a mouthful of it. Caviare is the roe shouts from boat to boat, and the loud of the sturgeon tribe of fish; but salmon merriment of those on shore. and pike roe are usually added, to assist The capitalists who fish for a season go in increasing the bulk. The roe is cleaned, to work more systematically. They first then washed with vinegar, salted, and of all construct an utschiug or fish-dam. dried, when it is packed in casks. The Stout poles long enough to project a foot

st quality is prepared more carefully out of the water are driven into the bed of from the sturgeons alone. The salting is the river until they reach right across. A conducted in long narrow bags of linen, strong rail joins the tops of these posts; which are hung along a cord and half filled and to this are fastened constructions of with roe.

A very strong brine is then basket-work which do not touch the botpoured into each' bag until it overflows. tom. On this arrangement, against the When the brine has all passed through, the stream, are placed a number of chambers bags are taken down, carefully squeezed, or compartments of basket-work with a to expel all superfluous liquid, and after swing flap or door. When the fish comes a short exposure to the air, packed in against the flap, it opens, admits the fish casks. The finest quality of caviare made into the compartment, and then closes. is that prepared from sterlet roe; but this Occasionally, such a chamber is lowered is said not to find its way into commerce, into the water by itself by means of a being reserved mainly for the czar's table. number of ropes. In these compartments It has been stated that three and one-half are arranged several strings, attached to million pounds of caviare are annually floats in such a way that by watching the packed at Astrakhan alone.

floats it is easy to see when a capture is Every known method of fish-capture is made. In winter, one of these compartprobably pursued in Russia, from the ments is let down through a hole in the spear to the book, and from the net to the ice, and a hut is erected close by for the trap; but as the Russian fishes for com- watchers. Sometimes, especially in winmerce, and not for sport, the sanity of a ter, the telltales, instead of being attached man who prefers a "fly” to a dragging, to floats, are fastened to bells, so that the net would be strongly questioned. In attendants may remain on shore by their other words, “ legitimate sport” is a con- fire until they hear the fish ringing his sideration which never enters a Russian's death-knell. head. The fishery is the best harvest, Occasionally, a cable is sunk into the and the best man is he who boasts the water; to this are attached a certain numbiggest take. The fishing-season is a ber of night-lines baited with a kind of time of joy, for then each man knows he fish known as an obla. Whenever the is laying in a stock for the winter, or is compartments or night-lines are examined, earning his best wages. At the fishing: a man stands ready with a strong gaff, season, therefore, the villages are full of which he plunges smartly into the gills of life and merriment. Bonfires are lighted the fish as soon as it appears on the suron the shore, to prepare food for the fish- face. A rope is immediately fixed to the ermen, and carts are held in readiness to gaff, and the boat makes for the shore, take the monsters off at once to the clean- where the fish is more readily despatched. ing-houses, where men and women are The cleansers commence operations by busily engaged in the various processes, beheading their fish; they then open it

Night expeditions are preferred by the and carefully remove the roe, which is villagers. Beyond the prow of the boat placed by itself in a tub, and sent off to bangs an iron cage, in which burns a fire the caviare works. The sounds are next of pine logs. The fish come in shoals taken out and hung up on a long line to towards the light, and a man standing in dry in the sun.

The inner fat is now the boat harpoons them with a spear of scraped out, and sent away, to be clarified three prongs. Now and again, down goes and made into a kind of fish butter. The the spear; and when it is drawn in, a finny Aesh is last of all cut up into convenient monster is wriggling on its prongs. This slices, and salted or smoked as the case is drawn into the boat by means of hooks, may be, or preserved in ice, to be sent all and the men immediately row to the over Russia as fresh fish. shore with their prize. It is a weird sight Some years back, the entrails and refuse to see the immense expanse of water dot. were thrown away, and were at once seized ted with these moving fires, and sur- by cormorants, which came in great numrounded by the stationary fires of the bérs; but in the best-regulated fish-vilencampment, with the dark pine forests | lages, the modern economic chemist has

a

LOWER CLASSES.

set to work to convert all this refuse into all those whose defects of vision were so isinglass, glue, or manure. He acknowl- obvious as to attract the notice of the edges nothing as “waste," and has not recruiter and who would be thus excluded. only banished the word from his vocabu- There was a peculiar form of ophthalmia lary, but has actually shown that some of which, wherever it was met with, whether the most solid profits of a fishery are in military or civil life, was mainly caused realized by “ gathering up the fragments.” by the vitiated atmosphere arising from

overcrowding. Of late years that scourge had been practically banished by the san

itary improvements that have been introFrom St. James's Gazette. duced into barracks. It was to his mind PHYSICAL DETERIORATION AMONG THE the most striking illustration of what such

measures could accomplish, and there was SIR THOMAS CRAWFORD recently de- no longer any excuse for the existence of livered an address at the Congress of the the disease. As with the blind so with British Medical Association in Dublin. the insane. What were the causes which Referring to the boasts of the champions produced the very large class of sufferers of sanitary science as to the prolongation included under this head? He might be of life which has been secured through told these causes were moral, lying beimproved sanitary arrangements, he said yond the proper sphere of the sanitary there was evidence of perceptible deterio- officer; but was it really so? They must ration or degradation of life in the lower look to improved personal hygiene, espe. order of people. An analysis of the re- cially during the training of the young, sults from 32,324 examinations of men if they desired these classes of breadmade by army surgeons from 1860 to 1864 winners so reared that they might enter inclusive showed that during those years, upon the struggles of life both mentally in which the number of men required and physically fit; and if that be so with for the army averaged 6,465, and per- the bread-winners, why not still more necmitted therefore a stricter investigation of essary in regard to the genesis of the physical fitness both by recruiters and future race? The habits of the people, surgeons, the rejections from all causes too, had a very marked effect upon the were only 371.67 per 1,000; while out of development or deterioration of the spe132,563 men examined between 1882 and cies. Look at the effects of physical cul1886 inclusive the rejections were 41508 ture as seen in the upper and middle per 1,000. A careful examination of those classes of England at the present time, tables led to the inference that the lower where every well-regulated school has its class, from whom the recruits for the gymnasium, every village its cricketarmy are chiefly taken, are of an inferior ground, and every house its lawn-tennis physique now to what they were twenty- courts, and compare the young men and five years ago.

The recruits drawn from women to be seen there with the dwarfed town-bred populations, gave by far the specimens of humanity in the overcrowded larger proportion of rejections ; while the slums of the large towns. The result of

es of rejection usually indicate a de- such a contrast will convince the most cidedly inferior physique. The rejections sceptical not only of the value but also of from defective vision and diseases of the the necessity of educating public opinion eye vere nearly 42 per 1,000, exclusive of on this important subject

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RUSSIAN QUICKSILVER. - Quicksilver has feet deep, supplied with the necessary ma been long known to exist in the Ural Moun-chinery and appliances for the production of tains and in the district of Nertchinsk, but the quicksilver, store-rooms, etc., and dwellings mines were never turned to account. That for the miners are also being erected. All the found several years ago near Nikitofka Sta- works just mentioned will shortly be com tion, on the Koursk-Kharkoff-Azoff Railway, pleted.' Up to the present, about three thou Bakhmoot district, province of Ekaterinoslav, sand tons of ore containing cinnabar have been is now being worked by a company under the extracted. The ore, it is calculated, will ren superintendence of Mr. Minenkoff, mining der one per cent. of metal, and it is proposed engineer, who discovered this precious metal. to turn out annually about thirty-two hundred A pit is being sunk two hundred and eighty hundredweight of mercury.

Industrial Revier

Fifth Sories,
Volume LX.

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No. 2264.- November 19, 1887.

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Vol. OLXXV.

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CONTENTS.
I. ENGLISH ACTORS IN THE FRENCH REVO-
LUTION,

Edinburgh Review,
II. A VISIT IN A DUTCH COUNTRY HOUSE.
Conclusion,

English Illustrated Magazine,
III. MY OLD VILLAGE,

Longman's Magazine, .
IV. MAJOR LAWRENCE, F.L.S. Part XV., Murray's Magazine,
V. AFGHAN LIFE IN AFGHAN SONGS,

Contemporary Review,
VI. RICHARD JEFFERIES AND THE OPEN AIR,. National Review,
VII. RICHARD CABLE,

LIGHTSHIPMAN.
Part XXVI.,

Chambers' Journal,
VIII. A JEWISH HUMORIST,

Spectator, IX. A HOT-WIND DAY IN AUSTRALIA,

Murray's Magazine,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGR will be panctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register le' ers when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGE, 18 cents,

A LAMENT.

A BALLAD OF THE HOUR GONE BY. O LITTLE waves, that clasp the shore FROM many a distant land, in many a tongue, With passionate caress,

With many tears and many a bitter moan, Your creamy curves forevermore

With hearts for loss of dearest treasure wrung, Do fill me with distress.

We cast ourselves, princess, before thy

throne; Why are you now so calm and bright Upon thy servants let thy grace be shown, Now that my love is dead,

Grant us the boon for which we loudly When every curve of azure light

cry. Is circling round his head?

But now 'twas here, now seems forever

flown, Why do you wear that smiling face,

The hour gone by.
O cruel hungry sea,
When on the earth you've left no trace

Accursèd be the bell which sadly rung
Of one that smiled on me?

The close of that lost hour; its fatal tone

Within our ears like adder's poison stung. I sit and watch you wave by wave

So many seeds we had that are unsown, Laughing in careless joy;

So many ungarnered sheaves we may not I sit and watch the foam-flecked grave

own, Where lies my sailor boy.

So many stars uncounted in the sky!

Grant us this boon, or we are all undone : I bring no flowers as others do

The hour gone by.
To scatter on the tomb;
He's covered o'er with sapphires blue

We see it now shine brilliantly among
And depths of purple gloom.

The fairest flow'rs along our memory strewn;

The sweetest songs within that hour were sung, He has no gravestone but the cliff,

The dearest loves belonged to it alone: All gilded in the sun;

We wasted it. Ahl how shall we atone? No epitaph above his head

The present hour is void, and we descry Records what he has done.

Naught in the future; wherefore we bemoan

The hour gone by.
Would I could write each noble deed

Envoi.
In letters of pure flame,
That all who passed might stop and read

Princess, unless thy heart indeed be stone, And spread abroad his fame.

Grant us the boon or e'er thy servants die; We crave one hour of all the hours but

one!And whisper how each stormy night

The hour gone by. He was the first to brave

Spectator, The terrors of the billow-fight,

LOUIS N. PARKER.
The death-gloom of the wave.
How, rescuing souls from that dark sea,

Its horrors he defied;
And whisper, while they weep like me,

IN A GLEN.
In saving life he died."
Leisure Hour.

B. T. A. W. Wild hollow deeply cloven in the hills,

O faint-lit cloistral harborage of rest!
Where silence, drowsing on thy placid

breast,
Is lulled with low, half-noiseless noise of rills;

Where grey hill-shadows keep the noontide THE FISHERMAN.

cool,

Where no rude world-born dissonance inTHERIS the old, the waves that harvested,

trudes, More keen than birds that labor in the sea, The heart evolves within thy solitudes, With spear and net, by shore and rocky bed, From formless dreams the formed and beauti. Not with the well-manned galley, labored ful.

he. Him not the Star of Storms, nor sudden sweep What wonder I have chosen thee, dark glen, Of wind with all his years hath smitten and For song and rest, since following thy

streams, But in his hut of reeds he fell asleep,

I lonely, rapt in tremulous gladness, far As fades a lamp when all the oil is spent:

From turmoil and the narrow ways of men, This tomb nor wife nor children raised, but Have known the light of slowly kindling

dreams, His fellow-toilers, fishers of the sea.

bent;

we

And nebulous thought concentring to a “Byways of Greek Song."

star? Fortnightly Review,

I Spectator.

GEORGE L. MOORE.

9

ENGLISH ACTORS IN THE FRENCH

REVOLUTION.*

From The Edinburgh Review. serving of study. There was much base

metal, but there was also genuine gold.

If of some who underwent imprisonment The first French Revolution, it is well

or death we can hardly avoid thinking known, attracted to Paris men from all that they deserved their fate, there are parts of the world, and of all classes

others whom we must sincerely pity, men enthusiasts, adventurers, sensation-hunt

to whom the Revolution was a religion ers; some of the best specimens of hu- over-riding all claims of country and kinmanity and some of the worst; some of

dred. the most generous minds and some of the

French historians cannot be expected most selfish; some of the busiest brains to take much notice of these aliens. In and some of the idlest. Not a few of their eyes they are but imperceptible these moths perished in the flame which

specks in the great eddy. Their attenthey had imprudently approached; others

tion is absorbed by their own country. escaped with a singeing of their wings; men; they have none to spare for interothers, again, were fortunate enough to lopers, none of whom played a leading pass unscathed. Some died in their beds rôle

. If they devote a few lines to Clootz just before the Te ror ended, but without

or Paine, they consider they have done any assurance of its ending; others only quite enough. French readers, moreover, just saw the end. The foreigners, like while anxious for the minutest details on the natives, who fairly survived the Rev. Mirabeau, or Madame Roland, or Danton, olution, had very various fortunes. Some

and while familiar at least with the names were thoroughly disillusioned, became

of the principal Girondins and Montavehement reactionaries, or abjured poli- gnards, do not care to hear about a foro tics and were transformed into sober or

eigner who here and there sat in the As. enterprising men of business, Others

semblies, commanded on battle-fields, or crossed or recrossed the Atlantic, and lived fell a victim to the guillotine. Yet for us, to a green and honored old age, or gave surely, fellow-countrymen have an espeway to degrading vices. Others, remain- cial interest. We would fain single them ing in France, hailed the rising star of Na- out on the crowded stage of the Revolupoleon, and lived long enough to be disen- tion. They are more to us, not than the chanted, but perhaps not long enough to

actors of first rank, but than secondary see the restoration of the Bourbons. The characters like Brissot or Vergniaud. characters of these men are an interesting Here, however, English writers will not chapter in psychology. The honest among help us. If they have not surveyed the them had left house and parents and breth- field with French eyes, they have at least ren, if not wife and children, for the sake used French spectacles. French artists of what they believed to be in its way a have painted the panorama; English conkingdom of heaven. They appeal to our noisseurs give us their opinion of the pan. sympathies more than the cold observers, orama, but not of the actual scene which if indeed there were any such, who fore

it represents. To vary the metaphor, or saw the lamentable collapse of all these rather to state a fact, they work up the mahighly-wrought expectations. No doubt

terials collected by French authors; they some of these immigrants were restless do not go in search of materials for themagitators, empty demagogues, pretentious selves. Not a single English book on the egotists; but even these are not unde. Revolution tells us who represented our 1. Paris Newspapers of 1789-94.

own country in Clootz's deputation of the Par G. Avenel. Paris: human race, gives us an accurate account 1876.

of Paine's experiences, or specifies the 3. Etat des dons patriotiques. Paris : 1790. 4 Letter by 7. H. Stone to Dr. Priestley. Paris : number, much less the names, of the Brit

ish victims to the guillotine. Nor can pri5. Maine Historical Sociely's Collections. 1859.

vate inquiry do very much to remedy this 6. History of Alnwick

7. Histoire de Madame du Barry. Par Ch. Vatel. deficiency. The men in question, as a rule, Paris: 1884

left no issue, and their collateral descend

a

2. Anacharsis Clootz.

1796.

By George TATE.

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