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bora, it is said only twenty-six survived. | Dutch customs in Macassar our author There is an enormous gap on the northern side of the lip of the crater, through which a stream of lava has burst and torn its way through the forest to the sea; but the scars which in Europe would remain for centuries to witness to the phenomenon of a mighty eruption are soon hidden by the rank vegetation of the tropics. Thus has it been with Tambora.
gives a full account. A ceremonial call is generally at 7 P. M.; dinner at a quarter or half past eight; a frock coat with tails is a sine quâ non; a dress coat and waistcoat are considered de rigueur; but a frock coat, or even "a cutaway," may be worn, we are told, without a breach of decorum. The trousers should be white, and a hat, if only carried, is indispensable; though The avi-fauna of Sumbawa exhibits a in the Dutch East Indies head coverings mingling of the Indian and Australian are not worn by either sex after sunset. forms, Sumbawa being on the outskirts of The guests are seated, generally in the the Austro-Malayan sub-region. Indian verandah, round a table, and Port, Maforms occur with genera of Australian deira, and Hollands and bitters are, in origin. Birds were numerous in the fruit- defiance of the climate, placed before gardens in and around Bima; the bag at them; Manila cheroots are handed, for the end of a long day contained over sixty smoking is universal. The ladies in way specimens; among them was a Zosterops of dress are far in advance of their Anglo(Z. sumbavensis) -a genus of insessorial Indian sisters, and suit their attire to the birds new to science, with a brownish climate. In the morning they appear in head and the rest of the body a pretty golden yellow. Nightjars (Caprimulgus) hawk over the dried-up padi fields in hundreds. In no other part of the world had Dr. Guillemard ever seen birds of this genus in such extraordinary abundance. The marketables are chiefly dried fish, bananas, and excellent tobacco, the greater part of which latter commodity comes from Lombok, a small island to the west of Sumbawa. The tobacco grown on this island would probably be equally good, but the natives do not know how to prepare it. With the exception of single ship which annually comes to Bima from Mauritius to buy ponies, perhaps not another vessel worthy of the name ever visits the island. Ponies are also exported from Timor and Sandalwood The Sumbawan animals are described as being admirable little beasts, about twelve hands high, of good shape, and up to almost any weight in spite of their small size; in color generally brown or skewbald; their price ranges from twelve to fifty dollars. Dr. Guillemard did not add any of these equine specimens to his menagerie on board the Marchesa.
From Sumbawa the Marchesa proceeded to Macassar, on the south coast of Celebes. The town is not attractive from the sea, the land being flat and low; "the place fairly grilled in the heat." Putting Java aside, Macassar is the most important town in the whole of the Dutch East Indies, and the centre of trade of a vast extent of country. "Batavia is the Singapore of the Dutch; Macassar their Hong. kong." An Englishman is seldom found in these regions, and our ships rarely cruise in their waters. Of the dress and
native costume-"a short, lace-edged kibaya of thin white linen buttons up to the throat, and a silk sarong reaches to the feet, which are without stockings and clad only in a pair of gold-embroidered Turkish slippers." The effect, especially in young and pretty women, is said to be decidedly good. The society in Macassar was found very pleasant; almost every one spoke English or French, as well as his own language. An entertainment, to which the travellers were invited, was a private theatrical performance followed by a ball given in a public hall, which on Sundays served the purposes of a church. A large number of people were present, and an astonishing proportion of the fair sex of the "chocolate ladies," as they are here termed, may be included in that category. The Dutch official in these regions must serve for a number of years, perhaps fifteen, before he can obtain furlough, so he forgets his fatherland and the ladies thereof, and marries not perhaps a halfcaste, but one "whose dark hair and rich warm coloring betray the presence of other than European blood. Should his constitution survive the ante-prandial port and bitters, he retires to Batavia or Buitenzorg on the completion of his term of service, and spends the remainder of his life in the society of his fellows."
At the theatrical entertainment the acting was good, but the blijspel (comedy) rather heavy. At the ball the supply of champagne a favorite wine with the Dutch- was inexhaustible. It is supposed to have a prophylactic power against cholera, whose advent was expected, and the guests were instructed how to avoid the dreadful scourge. "Float the liver,
my dear sir, keep your liver constantly | homeward passage from the effects of a floating in champagne, and you will never gale of wind in the Bay of Biscay. The catch the cholera," was the advice given; collection of live birds and other living and "every one certainly seemed to act things, which at a later period of her cruise up to it to the best of his ability." While almost "turned the Marchesa into a floatat Macassar the king of Goa gave a house- ing zoological garden, made its first real warming, to which most of the Dutch and commencement in northern Celebes." German residents were invited. Though Among other curiosities, the most interon friendly terms with the Dutch, he gives esting of all the additions to the menagerie a considerable amount of trouble from the was a tiny lemuroid animal (Tarsius specproximity of his dominions to the town, trum, Geoffroy), which a native brought. for robberies are not unfrequent. The This small, active creature about the entertainment ended with cockfighting, a size of a rat is arboreal and nocturnal favorite sport of all Malays. in its habits; it is covered with a very thick, soft, woolly fur; the tail is long, the long, and made of the blades of razors ground middle portion being nearly bare. The root and tip are covered with hair, the down to excessive thinness. With such weapans there is but little cruelty in the affair. We eyes and ears are enormous, and seem to waited to see a main fought before we left. make up the greater part of the face, the The king and other royal personages made jaw and nose being small. The hind limb their bets; the combatants were placed oppo- at once attracts attention, for the tarsal site to one another; they made two feints, and bones are of great length. This peculiin less than half-a-dozen seconds the van-arity has given the animal its scientific quished bird lay motionless on the ground. Had he met his fate legitimately at the hands of the poulterer, his death could not have been more rapidly effected.
The spurs used were about three inches
(generic) name. "The hand is equally noticeable for its length, the curious claws with which it is provided, and the extraordinary disc-shaped pulps on the palmar At Menado, in north Celebes, the trav- surface of the fingers, which probably enellers made their first acquaintance with able the animal to retain its hold in almost the kanari nut, said by Dr. Guillemard to any position." The specific name of specbe incomparably superior, when eaten trum alludes to the terror which the fresh, to any nut he ever tasted. The animal, with its curious-shaped face and tree grows to a great height; a shell of sudden appearance at dusk, excites in the extreme hardness so hard as to require minds of the natives of the East Indian a hammer to break it-encloses a fleshy Archipelago. The little captive would fruit of one to three kernels covered with remain still in its darkened cage by day, a thin skin; and this being removed, "the" 'but at night, especially if disturbed, it nut falls into a number of irregular flakes, would spring vertically upwards in an snowy white, and of delicious flavor." odd, mechanical manner, not unlike the The black cockatoo of New Guinea (Microglossus aterrimus) has an enormously powerful beak, and is able to open the nut therewith. "The labor is considerable, but the bird may be considered to be amply rewarded." Mr. Wallace found the kanari tree in the dense forests of Batchian, an island of the Moluccas. A much-prized addition to the collection was made in this part of Celebes (Menado) in the shape of a young bull Sapi-utan At Likoupang, near Maim Bay, north (Anoa depressicornis), which a native Celebes, itself a small bay about ten miles brought alive. This animal, one of the across, numbers of a peculiar bird, sole many peculiar Celebesian forms, has a representative of its genus, the maleo, small but powerful body, and clean limbs; were seen vigorously digging on the shore. it is a species of buffalo, with short, rather The only successful plan of shooting specslender, depressed horns, which are ringed imens was "to approach as near as posat the base and point nearly straight back-sible without being seen, then suddenly wards. The specimen, about two years to run in upon them, waving one's arms old, was tame and tractable, and was and firing. The birds, instead of running destined for the Regent's Park Zoolog- away, take to flight, and perch almost imical Gardens; but unfortunately it never mediately upon the trees at the edge of reached England, having died on the the beach." Here the maleo considers
hopping of a flea." As it would not eat the cockroaches, the only food obtainable, it only lived till the third day, when "it found a grave in a pickle bottle, and was duly consigned to a shelf in the Marchesa's columbarium." This weird-looking little creature appears in an illustration on p. 184, vol. ii., of our author's work. We believe that no living specimen has ever been brought to England.
himself safe, and can be shot without evening birds would be exposed to much tisk; putting to flight a fellow-victim on the buried beneath a layer of sand or within a same branch; thus the party secured a mound, they are comparatively safe. But good series of skins and delicious food. the depth at which the eggs are found is The bird, which is about the size of a often three feet or more. "If the weight small turkey, is peculiar to the island of of a superincumbent mass of gravel of Celebes, and belongs to the family of Me- this thickness be taken into consideration, gapodes or mound-builders, gallinaceous it will be seen that it must be such that birds, characteristic of the Australian no chick of ordinary size could force its region; but, unlike most of the Austra- way through it to the surface; hence lian and Papuan birds, which construct a the necessity of a large egg and a powermound of sticks, sand, and leaves, the ful chick, "which are adapted to the pecul maleo uses the gravel of the sea-beach iar nesting habits of the species. Mr. alone wherein to hatch its eggs. The Wallace thinks that the instincts of the eggs are of enormous size, quite dispro- bird have been made to suit its unusual portionate to the size of the bird. No ovulation; our author, that the ovulation regular mounds are made, but the beach is dependent upon habits which have been presents a series of irregular elevations adopted for the preservation of the species. and depressions, which Dr. Guillemard While staying at Limbé Island, which lies compares to the surface of a rough, con- to the east of north Celebes, the party fused sea. The eggs are not found at the made preparations for hunting babirusa, bottom of the depressions nor on the sum- or wild "pig-deer," so named by the namit of the mounds, but in shallow trenches tives from the long slender legs and curved and the slopes of the irregular hummocks. tusks of the animal, which bear some reThe natives, who are adepts in the art, semblance to horns. This extraordinary probe the gravel with a fine stick. "When creature is one of the Suide or hog family, the egg has been just covered, this is of and has four tusks; the pair in the lower course much looser, and the stick passes jaw are long and sharp and formidable in readily. The gravel is then scraped weapons of attack, the upper pair do not away, the stick again used to make certain grow downwards in the usual way, but of the direction, and, finally, the egg is curve backwards almost to the eyes. disinterred, often at the depth of a yard What is the use of these horn-like teeth? or more below the surface. The heat of Here is another curious Celebesian probthe beach, on which the sun is always lem. At present no satisfactory reason shining, is considerable." Cock birds dig has been given as to their use. Mr. Walas well as hens, and throw up the sand in lace thinks that these tusks were once perfect fountains; but the maleo does not useful, and were then worn down as fast as scratch alternately with both feet like the they grew; but that changed conditions of common fowl; he poises himself on one life have rendered them unnecessary, and leg and gives several rapid digs with the they now develop into monstrous forms, other; the large foot - he is rightly called just as the incisors of the beaver or rabbit Megapode "is broad, solid, and slightly will go on growing if the opposite teeth webbed at the base of the toes, and is do not wear them away; and this seems nearly as effective as a man's hand would to us a probable explanation. Two days' be." After the eggs are deposited in the bag showed six wild pigs and four babisand or gravel no further notice is taken rusa. The old boars are ferocious antag of them by the parents. onists. One of the hunting party had a narrow escape; an old boar got entangled in the meshes of the net by his tusks, and the natives ran up to spear him; he broke loose, however, and scattered his foes in all directions; one man took to a tree.
The island of Celebes presents more curious problems for solution than any other island in the world, and the abnormal size of the maleo's egg is one of those problems. Why should the egg be so disproportionate to the size of the bird? Each egg ready for extrusion is so large The babirusa pulled up at the bottom, and that it fills up the abdominal cavity, but to our intense astonishment proceeded to the next egg in the ovary was found by verify the statement made by the Hukum Dr. Guillemard to be about the size of a Kadua at Likoupang, by trying to scramble cherry, so that some days must elapse How far he would have ascended we unfortu up the sloping trunk after his antagonist. before it would be ready for extrusion. nately never had the opportunity of knowing, Dr. Guillemard's theory to explain the for he had hardly got his feet off the ground size of the egg seems to us perfectly sat- before his progress was stopped by a ludicrous isfactory. The eggs of large ground-nest-incident. Anxious to escape, the man had
got too far out upon a branch. It gave way, and the unlucky hunter was suddenly deposited on his back within a yard or two of the formidable needle-pointed tusks of his adversary. Fortunately the attention of the latter was diverted by another native, whom he immediately charged. The man stood his ground in the most plucky manner, crouching and receiving the charge at the point of his razoredged spear. It entered just in front of the shoulder, and although nearly knocked over by the shock, he contrived to keep the animal off for the few seconds necessary for his companions to run to his assistance. Even with four spears buried in his body the old boar died game, striving to the very last to get at his antagonists.
The peculiarities of the Celebesian fauna have been already alluded to; the anoa, the babirusa, and a black baboonlike ape are without near allies in any of the neighboring islands. The birds also are remarkable for the same reason; the butterflies and other insects show similar peculiarities; so that Celebes, notwithstanding the proximity of the surrounding lands, became isolated at a very remote geological time. On the arrival of the Marchesa at Ternate, a small island of the Moluccas, the voyagers visited the resident, Mr. Van Bruijn Morris, who had just returned from a voyage to New Guinea, and possessed an extensive collection of natural-history curiosities. His aviary contained a great variety of the rarest and most beautiful of the parrots of the Papuan region, amongst them the rare Pesquet's parrot (Dasyptilus Pesqueti), half vulturine in appearance, the face and throat being bare; it is a native of the mainland of New Guinea.
At Ternate there was opportunity to overhaul the ship's gear, get repairs and alterations done on board, dry and arrange the specimens collected, and clear the ship of useless lumber to make room for the "trade" it was necessary to lay in before starting for the New Guinea region. A Dutch friend most kindly took the voyag ers, bag and baggage, to his house, and made them his guests till the ship was ready for sea again. Dr. Guillemard mentions this as only one of the many acts of kindness they experienced at the hands of the Dutch merchants and officials in the Malay Archipelago - kindness to which their very pleasant recollections of civilization in these ports were in no small degree due. The list of articles with which the Marchesa was provided consisted of pieces of Turkey red, prints, dark blue cotton, cotton shirts, needles, reels of cotton, packets of pins, axes, assorted beads, bottles of sweets, clasp knives, round gold Chinese buttons, Chinese looking-glasses, musical boxes, Chinese and American tobacco, bars of iron, brass wire, fishhooks, and Malay sarongs. The most marketable of this stock in trade were the Chinese gold buttons, of which the natives made earrings, but the axes and iron were much run after. The Turkey red and cotton proved almost useless, for the Papuan does not set his affections on clothing; neither were the fishhooks in much request, the natives preferring their own clumsy kind, which were gener. ally cut out of the clam or some other shell. Thus provided, the Marchesa proceeded to New Guinea, whither we must now follow her. The visit was to be The gems of the collection were two superb confined to the portion claimed by the specimens both full-plumaged malesof Dutch namely, the western half the twelve-wired bird of paradise (Seleucides). "which from the variation in species from The native prepared skins seen in European island to island, and the peculiarity in the museums give no idea of the glorious beauty distribution of the birds of paradise, is of the living bird. The sub-alar plumes, perhaps the most interesting to a naturalwhose prolonged and wire-like shafts have ist." Here, too, the Papuan exists as a given the bird its English name, are of a rich golden yellow, and the pectoral shield, when pure type. Moreover, Dutch New Guinea was the nearest and most accessible part spread, shows to advantage its tipping of meof the island. tallic emerald. These exquisite creatures were fed on the fruit of the Pandanus, with an occasional cockroach as a bonne bouche. In devouring the insects, which they did by throwing them in the air and catching them again, they displayed the wonderful grassgreen coloring of the inside of the mouth and throat. The feelings of admiration with which I watched these birds, which are among the most exquisitely beautiful of all living beings, I need not attempt to describe. My reader, if a naturalist, will divine them; if not, no description of mine could ever make him realize the intense pleasure of the first sight of such masterpieces of coloring.
Although but little explored, this, the finest portion of the island, is known to abound in excellent harbors, to possess several rivers, one of which, the Amberno, is of great size; the interior is trav ersed by mountain ranges, which our author thinks are destined in the distant future to be the site of plantations equal in value to those of Java. In the whole of the vast extent of country which forms the eastern limit of the Dutch possessions, there is not, we are told, a single Dutch settlement of any kind, with the exception
perfection, and bursts into shouts of laughter." The bump of veneration, says our author, appears to be entirely absent from the cranium of the Papuan, who, as far as the white man can judge, is a noisy, ebullient gentleman of distinct socialistic tendencies, though not without a pretty humor of his own, as the following story, the truth of which was vouched for by "Shat-some Dutch friends, will show:
of Dorei, on the north-eastern coast, in Geelvink Bay, where a mission has been in existence since 1855. Here and in the neighborhood are five Dutch missionaries the only Europeans in the countrywhose acquaintance the voyagers made before they left the island. Few are the converts made little in excess of those who have sacrificed their lives in the cause - but the work still continues. tered in constitution," our author observes, "from the pernicious climate, and depressed by the non-success of their work, their condition seemed to us deplorable, and one could not help regretting that their labors were not transferred to some more satisfactory field." The result of twenty-eight years of missionary work in Dorei Bay gives only sixteen adults and twenty-six child converts, and many lives have been sacrificed to the terrible effects of the climate, for which the pestilential mangrove-clad coasts are in a great measure responsible. The missionaries buy the native children, wherever possible, when very young; but the parents are unwilling to sell their own, so that orphans or the children of slaves alone come into the hands of the missionary. "The Papuan is bold, self-reliant, and independent, and no rapid conversion to Christianity, as has been the case in some of the Pacific islands, is ever likely to take place in New Guinea." Dr. Guillemard's experience of Dorei leads him to think that the mission has had little or no influence over the Papuans; they leave the Europeans unmolested, but their customs and habits remain unchanged. At the time of the Marchesa's visit, an idolhouse," Rum-slam," which had been accidentally destroyed by fire, was being rebuilt in all its former hideousness and indecency.
Of the true mop-headed Papuan our author gives a very interesting account. A number visited the ship in their canoes; at first a little mistrustful, they soon shook off their shyness, clambered boldly up the sides, and overran the deck, talking and shouting loudly, examining the novel objects around them. The striking of the ship's bell greatly astonished them, and was the signal for a burst of cheering. Dr. Guillemard saw a roughly carved wooden head-rest in one of the praus alongside, and began to bargain for it. The owner wanted three knives for it; on the doctor's refusal with "an emphatic tida, indicative of astonishment and disgust at the exorbitant demand, the by. standers mimicked voice and gesture to
northern coast of New Guinea a village was During a cruise of a certain gunboat on the touched at which, up to that time, had never been visited by Europeans. The captain, anxious to impress the untutored savage, arrayed himself in full uniform and landed in company with the surgeon, who was similarly attired. The natives crowded down to meet them in hundreds,, and appeared tolerably trustworthy, but before long intimated that they were to pay a visit to the chief's house. This the captain resisted, fearing treachery; but in spite of his endeavors they were carried off, and his guard prevented from following. The hours passed away without a sign of the officers, and the boat's crew waiting for them began to fear the worst. Suddenly a crowd was seen approaching. It parted, and disclosed the gallant captain to his astonished sailors, bereft of his uniform and dressed in alternate stripes of red and white paint.
While in Marchesa Bay, east of Battanta Island, the party obtained ten specimens of Wilson's bird of paradise (Diphyl lodes Wilsoni), which is entirely confined to Battanta and Waigiou Islands, though in the latter island it is much rarer. This exquisitely lovely bird, the smallest of all the birds of paradise, has the wings and back scarlet, and behind the head an erect ruff of canary-colored feathers; on the breast is a shield of glossy green plumes which have metallic green and violet spots of extraordinary brilliancy; the two central tail feathers extend for five or six inches beyond the others and cross one another, and then curve gracefully into a circle of bright steely purple; "but the chief peculiarity of the bird is in the head, which is bald from the vertex backwards, the bare skin being of the brightest imag inable cobalt blue," which, however, fades soon after death, and ultimately becomes quite black. Of the red bird of paradise (P. rubra) which is also confined to Battanta and Waigiou, Dr. Guillemard was fortunate enough to obtain specimens in nearly every stage of development, showing the various changes in the plumage from the sober-colored young bird to the beautiful and quaintly ornamented adult. Of the nesting habits of the birds of paradise nothing seems to be definitely known,