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had ordered claret. One day Thackeray death made a blank which has never been walked up to our house carrying a rug of filled up. When great men are called very bright, pleasant, and cheerful colors away, the world at large feels their loss, under his arm, which he himself laid down and knows that their places are empty, on the floor of my sister's room, thinking but still have the works of their genius on it would tend to raise her spirits. With which to feed, and by which they may children he was always delightful; with remember them; but to those who have older or with unsympathetic people he loved them, and met them in the easy, could be satirical, cold, and cynical. He kindly intercourse of every-day life, who one day remarked to an acquaintance in have received their love and consolations my hearing that he only liked “second. in time of sorrow, and have mingled with rate books, second-rate women, but first- their tears and laughter, no one can fill for rate wines.”

them the empty seats, and the heart goes Mr. Thackeray had talent for drawing, back in longing to the days they were but he was never satisfied with any of his among us. achievements. My father called upon

him This is but a rough, inadequate sketch, one morning, and found him fretting over but to those who cherish his memory, even a drawing of his own.

a passing moment with such a man is " Look!” he said. “Now G. (mention- worth the most precious place in one's ing some clever draughtsman), by a few remembrance. Thackeray was not touches, throwing some light or shadow character to be hit off with a few broad here and there, would make this a picture. strokes; for there lay underneath the How is it I know not, but I certainly can- ever-varying surface a deep. fountain of not do it at all."

tenderness, ever ready at the call of need Thackeray sometimes looked worried, and suffering: and I once heard him say that he suffered His hatred of humbugs and snobs was from mental depression.

proverbial, but he loved all that was sim“ My number (Cornhill) is nearly due, ple and sincere. and I cannot make it come!” he ex- Amongst guileless, happy children claimed, tapping his forehead. Yes, I Thackeray was at his best would like to rest my head in some quiet

Whose feet are guided thro' the land, corner; I had a nice scene this morning,

Whose jest among his friends is free, but 'tis all gone, and I cannot call to mind Who takes the children on his knee, a bit of it now!"

And winds their curls about his hand. My father, who was full of intellect, which Thackeray fully appreciated, was a

He plays with threads, he beats his chair shy, dreamy, unobtrusive man, with a

For pastime, dreaming of the sky

His inner day can never die, great deal of pride and, perhaps, over- His night of loss is always there. sensitiveness. In his time of trouble

HENRIETTE CORKRAN. Thackeray was more than a brother to him. My mother told me that when he heard for the first time of my father's pecuniary loss he was very agitated, and turning to my mother, he asked her what

From The Spectator, she was going to do.

SOME SUPERSTITIONS OF THE “I mean to trust to the ravens," she answered.

That, in the course of centuries, many An expression of pain fitted over the strange superstitions should have taken great man's face, but after a few seconds root in the synagogue, can hardly be matof silence he put his large hand over hers, ter of surprise to any one acquainted even and in a husky voice said, “ And so you superficially with the history of mediæval may, the ravens are kind friends." rabbinism. But it is a question, for all

At a large dinner it happened that my that, whether outsiders have any idea of father's name was mentioned. Thackeray, the odd nature of the beliefs that lie at the who had been very silent, brightened up, bottom of many Jewish rites and ceremoand exclaimed: “When Corkran dies, he nies. It is not too much to affirm that will go straight to Heaven, and all the one-half of the ritual of the synagogue angels will turn out and present arms to not, be it understood, in the ignorant him!”

East, but in the communities of the culBut William Makepeace Thackeray was tured West — is based upon superstitions beckoned away, many years before my so puerile, so silly, as to provoke only the father was to join the great majority. His amused wonderment of rational men. For

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instance, incredible though it may appear, world faiths and fancies. Take again, for it is nevertheless a fact that the most sol- example, the belief in the significance of emn function of the Jewish Church, the dreams. This has so strong a hold of the sounding of the “shophar,” or “ram's Jew, that the ritual dares not ignore it. born trumpet," on the New Year festival On the five great feasts of the year is prearranged with a view to tricking the Passover, Pentecost, Tabernacles, New arch-accuser, Satan, –or, in plain En-Year, and the Day of Atonement - the glish, cheating the devil. The New Year Gentile who has the curiosity to visit a is, according to Jewish belief, the day of synagogue will infallibly be struck by one judgment. On this day, the record of ceremony peculiar to these solemn days. Israel's shortcomings is read before the All the worshippers of priestly descent, heavenly throne ; but when the sound of known as “kohanim,” station themselves the sacred trumpet is heard, only the in front of the ark of the law, cover their merits and sufferings of the tribes are beads with their praying-scarves, raise remembered, and their transgressions are their hands with the fingers spread twoblotted out. Hence, as the festival ap- and-two together - why or wherefore they proaches, it is an object with the arch- do not know — and pronounce a benedica

to prevent the notes of the tion, while the congregants, with bated shophar from reaching the throne of grace, breath and heads averted, repeat a portion or so devout Jews allege; and to circum- of the ritual of the day. The performance vent him, recourse is had to what they looks very imposing to the uninitiated. consider an ingenious device. For á As a matter of fact, the worshippers are month previously during the whole of simply mumbliug over an old cabalistic the month of Ellul, that is the trumpet invocation against bad dreams, of which is blown every morning in the synagogue the most important part is the mental repafter the early service. Satan, on the etition - for the words are too sacred for watch, flies upwards when the first notes actual enunciation - of some thaumaturreach bim, in order to bar the way. And gic names of the Creator, compounded, this he does on each succeeding day when after the usual cabalistic fashion, of the he hears the sound. On the last day of initials of a number of words occurring the month, the day preceding the New in the blessing uttered by the priests. Year, the blowing of the shophar is dis. Those who think that this belief in the continued. Satan thinks it all over, of efficacy of cabalistic formulæ is confined course, and no longer listens for the ob. to thé illiterate and fanatical Jews of jectionable tones, and the result is that the south-eastern Europe and Palestine, are next day, which is the true Feast of much in error. A visit to the city of LonTrumpets, the Jews have it all their own don will undeceive them; for in the side way, and the sound without let or hin- streets of Whitechapel, charms to keep drance reaches the seat of mercy. For off the night-witch Lilith may be bought nearly two thousand years, the practice of at the not extravagant price of a penny intermitting the blowing of the shophar apiece. The superstition about Lilith, to on the eve of the New Year L'arbib ha- whom Adam was wedded before Eve was Satan— to use the explanatory phrase created, and who bore him all the demons of the rabbins " to puzzle Satan,” has that vexed the ancient world, is as strong been in vogue, and the arch-accuser ought to-day among the great body of believing certainly to be up to the trick by this Jews as it was four thousand years ago time. However, this view of the matter among their ancestors in the plains of does not appear to have struck the modern Shinar. So great is the demand for these Jews, who continue the practice with a documents, that there is one Jewish printchildlike reliance on the simplicity of ing-office in Great Alie Street that turns Satan, and the efficacy of their device for them out by the thousands,

one of the circumventing him.

most curious products certainly of the This is far from being an exceptional modern printing-press. The efficacy of instance of the odd beliefs that have found these documents lies in the repetition of favor in Jewry and acceptance in the ritual the various aliases by which the witch of the synagogue. The ceremonial of the Lilith is known; for a tradition of the Jews is cram full of similar superstitions; holy“ Zoar," the text book of the Kabala, it is impossible to turn a page of the Jew- tells us that when Elijah the prophet met ish prayer-book, or enter a Jewish house the uncanny creature on one of her nocof worship, without being struck by some turnal expeditions, he contrived to draw one or other of these survivals of old from her the information that in whatsoever place the several names applied to Folk-lorists would find a good deal to her in the demon world were posted up, repay them in a study of the Jewish ritual she was powerless to enter.

and the various rites and ceremonies of One of the features of the synagogue the Jewish Church. In nearly every case, service is the repetition of a prayer known these rest upon a substratum of superstias the “kaddish," or sanctification. The tion of no little interest to the collector of prayer in itself is a perfectly unobjection early myths and beliefs. And, in the case able production, attributing sanctity and of the Jews too, some of the superstition honor to the Creator. Rabbinical ingenuity embodied in the ritual has come to shadow has, however, made it the means of per- the house of worship itself. The synapetuating among Jews one of the grossest gogue is firmly believed to be a meeting. superstitions of crude Judaism, the belief house for the dead as well as for the livin an actual purgatory. It was one of the ing. Hence a Jew never enters an empty early tenets of the synagogue that every synagogue without knocking three times soul had to pass a given time in purgatory. at the door, to warn the ghostly congre. One of the rabbis — Akiba, if we recollect gants within of the approach of a living aright — fixed the term at a period not person; nor would any worshipper look exceeding twelve months. For the pious, back over his shoulder as he leaves the the term was, of course, less in proportion house of prayer. A law peculiar to the to their piety. Now, it became at once great synagogue of Posen, in east Prusan object to shorten the period of purga- sia, is said to have been published owing tion, and it happened that one of the most to the presence of a number of dead vis. austere of the Pharisees dreamt that the itors there on the high festival of the year. recitation of the kaddish by the son of No Jew there is allowed to cover his head the deceased had the effect of helping his with the praying.scarf, as is the custom in father one foot out of purgatory; it was other places. The legend that accounts forthwith made an institution of Judaism for this — whatever may be its worth - is that for eleven months after the death of as follows. On a certain New Year, in a parent, a son should publicly repeat the the days of Rabbi Eger, the congregants sanctification in synagogue as often as he were engaged in their devotions with, as could, the rapidity with which the de- usual, their heads covered, when they parted got out of purgatory depending found themselves cramped for want of entirely upon the frequency with which the room. The crush became terrible, and prayer was repeated. The reason eleven men could scarcely breathe, when the aged months was fixed upon as the limit of rabbi, moved by the sense of uneasiness time for the mourner's kaddish, was due apparent in the congregation, turned and to respect for the deceased. Twelve saw there, among the living worshippers, months being the longest period for which the forms and figures of many long passed the very wickedest was condemned to away. Instantly he called out that all suffer, it was deemed only considerate to who were alive should remove the praying. regard the late-lamented as not quite as scarves from their heads. They did so, bad as he might have been by an amount and only the dead remained covered. of wickedness equivalent to a month's Then the rabbi adjured the souls present, confinement in purgatory. And in no part in the name of the living God, to leave the of the world is the punctual saying of the place in peace, and the people to their de kaddish neglected.' On a par with the votions. Whereupon the dead slowly practice, so far as the superstition that vanished; and since that time no living underlies it is concerned, is the custom worshipper ever covers his head in the of keeping a lighted lamp burning in the Posen synagogue. Whatever be the truth room where a death has occurred, for concerning this story, the fact remains seven days after the burial, in order that that a Jew would no more enter a synathe soul still hovering about may not feel gogue without the preliminary knocks to lonesome; and the yet stranger practice warn the dead of his presence, than he of placing a loaf of bread on the body of would leave a burial-ground without pluck. a dcad person, when for any reason it is ing a little grass and casting it over his necessary to move it on the Sabbath. It shoulder, taking care at the same time not is unlawful to move a corpse on the Sab- to look back, lest he might see the soul of bath, but rabbinical casuistry finds noth- the co-religionist last interred there in the ing to urge against moving a vessel that shape of a fire-spark hovering over the contains a loaf of bread on that day. new-made grave.

Fifth Serios,
Volume LX.

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No. 2263.- November 12, 1887.

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From Beginning,
Vol. CLXXV.

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CONTENTS.
I. LITERATURE FOR THE LITTLE ONES,. Nineteenth Century,
II. MAJOR LAWRENCE, F.L.S. Part XIV., Murray's Magazine,
III. MADAME NECKER,

Temple Bar,
IV. RICHARD CABLE, THE LIGHTSHIPMAN.
Part XXV.,

Chambers' Journal,
V. THE CRUISE OF THE MARCHESA,

Edinburgh Review,
VI. THE SEASON OF THE TWELVE DAYS, Gentleman's Magazine,
VII. RUSSIAN FISHERIES,

Chambers' Journal,
VIII. PHYSICAL DETERIORATION
LOWER CLASSES,

St. James's Gazette,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Ergut DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGR will be panctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. "Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGR, 18 cents

“ FOUNDERED."

That was all to tell of the desperate strife that GAILY she sailed from the northern port, in

for life and death they made, the dawn of the April day,

Who sank to the depths of the great North When the sunrise touched the Nab's black

Sea, with never a hand to aid.

AU The Year Round. crest, and blushed over Whitby Bay. Father and two bold sons were there, as blithe

as the morn all three.

said, “ does aught go wrong with thee? “What ails thee, mate," to the fourth they

“WEARY." “By the birds that swoop round Kettleness, WEARY! weary! Oh that some soft breeze

there's fish where our lines we set, Would nurse me weary on its hurrying And the brave new coble springs to her work,

breast, as no boat has served us yet.'

And coursing lightly o’er the moaning seas,

Whirl me to rest. Ay, the coble's tight and strong enow, an' I know what the sea-gulls mean,

Wearyl weary! all the sunny noon But I left my missus bad up there," and he glanced at the headland green,

Toiling! and ever, when the hope seemed

high

Of some sweet solace that had charmed me Where a red roof hung like a marten's nest, and his bold brown eyes grew dim;

soon,

Seeing it fade and die! With kindly cheer and honest jest, his fellows heartened him.

What though for comfort by the wild wayside, Or ever the sun was high at noon, the bright Sweet flowers are waving dainty buds on blue sky was black,

high, The wild white horses tossed their crests over If that one fower, my darling and my pride, the gathering wrack;

Bloomed but to die. Over the grey seas fast and fierce, through the clouds of flying foam,

Weary' weary! in a vision shown

Sweet angel faces that might have soothed The squall swept on from the cruel east - the boat was far from home.

Dear angel love that might have been my own, Three women watched from the great pier head,

But all untimely slain. through the black and bitter night; One lay and shivered to hear the blast, as it Weary! weary! but when the allotted part rushed o'er the rocky height,

Of joyless life be spent and noon be past,

Even the weary, broken, battered heart
And nestled closely to her side lay her little
new-born son,

May find a rest at last.
Temple Bar.

OSCAR BOULTON. While the women said, “He'll be back to see,

long ere the day is done." But ever the pale cheek flushed and burned,

and ever the eyes grew wild; She bade them take the babe away, “for he'll never see his child.”

BIMETALLISM.

WHEN Clara's little golden head Many a boat in bootless search flew over the

Is lifted up to greet you, Fred,
lessening waves,

If every kiss of hers secures
Many a keen eye strained its sight, from the
Head with its crowded graves;

Just fifteen and a half of yours,

'Tis plain, a constant price for gold But the April days, in shade and shine, passed

In poorer metal can be told. in a deepening pain,

But if she rather, as I guess,
And never over the harbor bar came the

Deals you her kisses, more or less
Whitby Lass again.

According as she judges you

Deserve them plentiful or few; Hope sank and rose, and sank and died; the A precious thing, you're forced to say, fishermen knew at last,

Is worth whate'er one's forced to pay. That from deep-sea harvest and busy staithes, Or if your richest merchandise four gallant “ hands" had passed.

Seems poor and worthless in her eyes,

So that the most that you can give They found the boat on the flowing tide, ere Can't win you wherewithal to live, the year to winter grew;

Then Clara may your want supply Her sails were rent, her block was jammed, Not as of debt, but charity. her strop was half cut through.

Academy.

W. H. S.

my pain,

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