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decided in their opposition to Pascal and rapidity and completeness of his theory Montaigne. “Le pyrrhonisme," wrote Ni- of the cycloid. When he turns from scicole, "n'est pas une secte de gens qui ence to literature, there is the same origi. soient persuadés de ce qu'ils disent, mais nality, the same triumphant and rapid c'est une secte de menteurs." Neither footstep, the same brilliance of result. Nicole nor Arnauld were, in fact, fanatics; He has not got the constructive and comand Nicole, who had never come under prehensive mind of Descartes nor the the influence of St. Cyran, even went so erudition of Arnauld; but though he is far as to substitute a theory of general the author of no system, his “Provincial grace for the special and peculiar grace of Letters ” — both in the exquisite raillery the Jansenists. Here Arnauld could not of the earlier ones and the passionate follow. In anything which touched on rhetoric of the later - mark an era in the the authority of Jansen he was unalterably history of French prose and world-literafirm in his attachment to his master, the ture. But this intensity and keenness of great St. Cyran. If there was one man character equally account for other traits who ruined Port Royal from the point of in Pascal, which are not so amiable or so view of the world it was St. Cyran. With- helpful to the world. They explain his out him Port Royal would not have been sudden changes of life, his narrow enthufamous, but it would have been safe. It siasms, his wild fanaticism, his almost was he who, owing to his friendship with splendid wrong-headedness. There is Cornelius Jansen, forced upon the Cis. some doubt whether Descartes suggested tercian monastery the doctrines of the to Pascal the experiment on the Puy de “ Augustinus," which afterwards led to Dôme in 1648, or whether the idea was the expulsion of Arnauld from the Sor- wholly Pascal's own. But when a letter bonne, and formed the immediate occasion from Descartes is shown to Pascal by for the “ Provincial Letters. St. Cyran Carcavi the mathematician, claiming the was at once a theologian and a great ruler originality of the idea, Pascal is outraged, of men.
He wrote books which were the affects first to despise the letter, and then talk of his age, and Richelieu once pointed angrily denies its truth. Yet both Baillet him out as "the most learned man in and Montucla, the first in his life of DesEurope.” With his rare force of character cartes, the second in his “ Histoire des he had also the power both to select the Mathématiques," appear to prove that Pas. right men for his purpose and mould them cal was anything but just to his predecesas he would. It was he who saw the value sor. When in 1646 his father brings him of those two great engines of influence, into contact for the first time with Port education and the confessional; for he Royalist teachers, it is Pascal whose young was the real author of the Port Royal religious ardor serves to convert not only schools, and through the mouth of Singlin himself but his sister Jacqueline slso. and De Saçi he ruled over the consciences Jacqueline, indeed, affords many points of of the sisters and the penitents, even similarity with her brother; she has the from the depths of his prison at Vin- same ardent zeal, the same inflexible devo
His was the power and range of tion to that cause which she has once a great intellectual character, while Pas- espoused. But this passionate sensibility cal's strength lay rather in the narrow in- to new ideas perhaps is more often found tensity of his emotions.
in women than in men, and in Pascal himThe key-note to Pascal's character is self the gusty violence of his temperament seen by his sister, when she refers to his often strikes one as feminine. The womhumeur bouillante. It was the passionate en, too, of Port Royal were at least the keenness of his disposition which explains equal of the men, and La Mère Angelique at once his success and his failure. In and Jacqueline were hardly surpassed by the earlier stage of his life, when he was Arnauld or Pascal himself. Yet Jacquéfull of scientific tastes and predilections, line is, at all events, more consistent than there was nothing which he took up which her brother. When once she is converted he did not carry out with singular neatness through her brother's instrumentality, she and precision. Without the assistance of does not waver again, but carries through Euclid, he worked out for himself Euclid's her decision to join the nuns even in the propositions. His experiments on the teeth of the opposition of both her father Puy de Dôme formed the exact proof that Etienne and her brother Blaise. But she was wanting to establish the fact of at- has to bewail the comparative changeable. mospheric pressure. He astonishes his ness of the very man who first led her to agę by inventing a calculating machine, become dead to the world, and when Pas. and distances all other competitors in the I cal finally joined Port Royal in 1654, she
had already been for some years an inhab- question. The document begins with the itant of the monastery. From 1652 to mysterious word “Feu" and contains the nearly the end of 1654, there is an interval following significant phrases among many of some two years and a half, during which others, which are of highly mystical imBlaise Pascal bas apparently forgotten his port: “Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu d'Isaac, religious fervor, and has after the death Dieu de Jacob; non des philosophes et of his father become master of his own des savans. Certitude, certitude, sentiforcunes and entered the gay world of mens, vue, joie, paix. Oubli du monde, et Paris. How was that interval spent? It de tout hormis Dieu. Reconciliation tois difficult to say. He was certainly known tale et douce. Soumission totale à Jesusin the salons of the capital, and probably Christ et à mon directeur.” This is the figured in the assemblies of Madame de so-called “amulet” of Pascal. Amulet it Sablé, Madame de Lafayette, and Madame was not, but rather the record of some de Longueville; and to the Port Royal singular and awful experiences which Pasascetics he appeared indubitably as a cal wished forever to remember. What. worldling. Once launched in the gaieties ever view wę may take of it, it is certain of Paris, his keen ardor probably led him that it marks the turning-point in his life. to satisfy his curiosity in amusements Henceforth, the adieux. had been said to which might be indiscreet and were cer- the society of Paris, and to the love of tainly unedifying. We are not without science, and the new life begins at Port positive evidence on this point. To this Royal; the new life of monkish seclusion period belongs that curious fragment and fanatical austerity. To the God, not which Cousin discovered, the “ Discours of philosophers and scientists, but of sur les Passions de l'Amour," and though Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the penitent it is hard to imagine Pascal in love, yet turns. And he carries even into the Faugère has not hesitated to suggest that changed conditions the wonted eagerness, the object of his affection was the sister the same passionate zeal, the old humeur. of his friend the Duc de Roannez. A bouillante. He will outdo all others in somewhat dubious confirmation of Pas the ardor of his converted zeal. Arnauld cal's weaknesses is furnished by the me- might study Descartes, but for himself he moirs of Fléchier cited by M. Gonod. It could not forgive him. De Saçi might appears that a certain lady, " qui était la turn aside from knowledge and philos. Sapho du pays," was to be found at Clar- ophy; Pascal will trample them under his mont, and that “M. Pascal, qui s'est de- feet. Let others make terms if they will puis acquis tant de réputation, et un autre with the Jesuits, he will expose all their savant, étaient continuellement auprès de casuistical chicanery and perverted mor-: cette belle savante.” But perhaps it is ais. Nicole might wish the formulary to more charitable to suppose that this amor- be signed, but Pascal and Jacqueline will ous personage is not the same as our hero stand out alone. Pascal himself fainted of the humeur bouillante.
away at the idea of any proposed comproThen succeeds that memorable change, mise with the enemies of Jansenism; and called by his historians his second conver- poor Jacqueline, signing at last the desion, in the latter part of 1654, from which tested document with grave doubts and date Pascal is forever lost to science and fears, dies shortly after of a broken heart. to the world, and forever won for theology No one shall exceed Pascal as a zealot and and the Church. It is prefaced by two a fanatic. His stormy vehemence of sacevents; first the accident at the Pont de rifice shall include the sacrifice alike of Neuilly, when Pascal, driving in a car- philosophy and of himself. riage, sees his horses precipitated into Rarely, indeed, has there been such a the river, while he is himself preserved zealot. The " • Pensées” remain as the through the providential breaking of the chief witness of the fact. But there are traces ; second, the experiences of the other evidences beside. His sister had to night of Monday, November 23rd, 1654: expostulate with him on his neglect of his After Pascal's death a servant discovered ablutions and to remind him that godliin his waistcoat a little parcel which had ness did not necessarily mean uncleanbeen evidently worn, stitched up in his ness. When he was dying he wanted to clothes, from day to day. The parcel be carried to the Hospital of the Incuracontained two copies, one on parchment bles to die among the poor. After he the other written on paper, of a marvellous was dead, it was found that he carried an document relating a vision or series of iron girdle with spikes which he was in visions wbich had happened to him from the habit of pressing to his side when he 10.30 P. M. to 12.30 P. M. on the night in I felt anything which his sensitive mind
BY THE AUTHOR OF
SEVEN RED WINDOWS.
could call a temptation. And mark the | enable her to go to service. The ecclesialmost savage fanaticism towards the or- astic wished to know the name of him who dinary feelings of humanity. See how he was doing this charitable act: “for,” said speaks of comedy in the very age which he, “ I think it is so noble that I cannot saw the triumphs of Molière. “ Tous les suffer it to remain in obscurity.” Such grands divertissements sont dangereux an act is worth a good many “ Pensées.” pour la vie chrétienne; mais entre tous
W. L. COURTNEY. ceux que le monde a inventés, il n'y en a point qui soit plus à craindre que la comédie. C'est une représentation si naturelle et si délicate des passions, qu'elle les
From Chambers' Journal. émeut et les fait naître dans notre cæur,
RICHARD CABLE, et surtout celle de l'amour.” How far we seem to be from Aristotle's appreciation of tragedy; how far, indeed, from Pascal's
MEHALAH, JOHN HERRING," own discourse on love! But worse remains. He tells his married sister, Gilberte Périer, that sbe ought not to caress her own children or suffer them to caress her. When the question was raised of A CURIOUS sight it was to see Cable marrying one of his nieces, he even ven- breaking stones on an early summer day, tures to say that "the m2.rried state is no with his children about him, sitting on the better than paganism in tue eyes of God; heap, playing in the road, crouching into to contrive this poor child's marriage is a the hedge, and at noon clustering round kind of homicide, nay, Deicide, in her him whilst he divided among them the cold person.” He will try even to exclude all potato pasty that constituted the family human affection. “Le vrai et unique dinner. But it was on Saturday only that vertu,” he cries," est donc de se haïr. 11 this little conclave assembled, when there est injuste qu'on s'attache à moi, quoi. was no school. On all other days the qu'on le fasse avec plaisir et volontaire- elder children were learning their letters ment. Je tromperois ceux à qui j'en verois and the art of sewing in the national naître le désir; car je ne suis la fin de school. The winter had passed hardly personne, et n'ai pas de quoi les satis- for Richard Cable, and for his mother, faire."
who had become infirm with age and Yet the great heart of humanity is trouble. She did not complain; but her greater than that of Pascal ; and, despite face was paler and more sharp in feature, his disapproval, it can find in him some- her movements were less rapid, her hair thing to love. Vigor, enthusiasm, devo- had become grayer. A tree ill bears transtion, such qualities we can admire; but plantation, and Bessie had been uprooted there is enough in him of the common froin a comfortable home, from associawarmth of human feeling even to win our tions sad, painful, and yet cherished as tears. Madame Périer tells us that as he associations, and carried away to a strange was returning one day from mass at St. corner of Britain, where she was subjected Sulpice, he was met by a young girl about to hardships to which she was unaccusfifteen years of age and very beautiful, tomed. The work Richard got was not who asked an alms. He was touched to such as to bring in much pay, and it was see the girl exposed to such obvious dan- not work for an able-bodied man. Someger, and asked her who she was. Hving times he sät on the side of the road against learned that her father was dead and that the hedge and broke stones with a long her mother had been taken to the Hôtel hammer; at others he hobbled about the Dieu that very day, he thought that God (road scraping it and cleaning the waterhad sent her to him as soon as she was in runlets. He got very wet over his work, want; so without delay he took her to the and then rheumatism made itself felt in seminary, and put her into the hands of his weak thigh. a good priest, to whom he gave money,
One consideration troubled Richard and whom he begged to take care of her Cable night and day, and the trouble grew and to place her in some situation where, as the children oldened. How could the on account of her youth, she might have cottage be made to accommodate them all good advice and be safe. And to assist when they were grown up? How could him in his care, he said that he would his scanty earnings be made to sustain send next day a woman to buy clothes for the whole family when the children were her, and all that might be necessary to young women and exacted more of him?
Would he be constrained to send his self a new house. Why should he be daughters into service ? The notion capable of adding three new rooms to his galled him. He racked his brains to dis. dwelling, and he, Dicky Cable, be unable cover what situations would be suitable for to enlarge his cob cottage without enthem, and how they could be guarded from croaching on his garden? harm when in them, away from their Then his mind turned back to Hanford. grandmother's watchful eye and his pro- He thought of the Hall that might have tecting arm. He could not endure the been his, had Gabriel Gotham behaved thought of his darlings separated from rightly to his mother. He knew that.house himself and from one another, dispersed well now, and he took a grim pleasure in among farmhouses, surrounded by coarse considering how he would have disposed associates, hearing loose talk, seeing un. of the rooms for the accommodation of his becoming sights. He dreamed of his dear ones. The little rose room, that Mary or his Martha or Effie in such asso- would have done for the twins; and Mary, ciations, and woke, Ainging his arms sweet Mary, should have had the blue about, crying out, leaping from his bed to room looking out on the terrace, with the throttle those who thus offended his little window over the door. The yellow room
would have gone to his mother and baby As he sat breaking stones, sometimes Bessie. Lettice and Susie could have the mica in the stones glittered in the sun; revelled in the lavender room, so called he wondered whether he should chance on because it always smelt of lavender. How a nugget of gold or a thread of silver, and happy the children would have been there ! so inake his fortune. But such an idea, How sweet would have been the sound of when it rose, embittered him the more. their voices as they played among the No; there was no chance of his finding bushes of laburnum and syringa! The gold thus; for that, he must go to Cali- idea was enticing; but Richard never for fornia, and that he could not do, because a moment regretted having refused the he might not leave his helpless children. offer made him. Silver! If he lit on a vein, what would it His brief life in the Hall had left an profit him? Others would enter in and indelible mark on him other than that quarry the precious metal; the mining which has been mentioned. In spite of captain, the men, the lord of the manor, himself, he had been forced to contrast the shareholders, would reap the silver; the habits of the cultured with those of not a coin minted out of it would come to the class to which he belonged; and his his pocket who discovered the lode. clear good sense showed him that there
All at once Richard Cable left the parish were vulgarities and roughnesses that church of St. Kerian and attended the might be sloughed away with advantage ; Wesleyan meeting-house. What was his that there were merits as well as demerits reason? It was no other than this: The in civilization. Involuntarily, his mind rector had a large family, growing up; was caught by these points, and hung on they sat in a pew near the beautiful old them, and he began to correct in himself carved and gilt oak screen; and Cable little uncouthnesses, and to insist on atcould not endure to see them there on tention to these matters in his children. Sunday, and to listen to the voice of a In Bessie Cable there had ever been a repastor who was able to retain his eldest finement and grace of manner above her daughter, aged twenty-three, in the par. position, due to her early association with sonage ; also his second, aged twenty; and Gabriei and the rest of the Gotham fam. his third, aged eighteen. Why should the ily; but Richard had not regarded this or rector be thus privileged, and he himself sought to acquire it. Now he appreciated be without the means of making a home it, and was painfully anxious that his chil. for his children when they were grown up?dren should acquire it. Indeed, with them The ways of Providence were not equal. there was no difficulty ; they had instinc. He gave up going to chapel after a few tive delicacy and refinement. They had months, because he was at war with Prov- the look of little ladies, with their transidence, after which the chapel was named. parent skins, fine bones, and graceful He beat the stones to pieces with a vin- shapes. dictive hate, as though he were breaking “You're swelling out of your clothes,” up the social order and reducing all men said Farmer Tregurtha one day as he to one size and ruggedness. The farmer came on Richard sitting on the bench at who was principal shareholder and main. his cottage door, looking at his children. stay of Providence Chapel had built him. “What do you mean?” asked Cable.
“So proud," answered Tregurtha, laugh- | made such an impression on his mind that ing, “proud wi' contemplating them seven he was unable to shake it off. Only one little mites."
point puzzled him — the arrangement of " And I've a cause,” said Richard, hold- the windows. How were they set in front ing up his head.
of the house so that there should be seven He could not get over his difficulty windows? If he had two on the right and about housing the little girls as they grew two above, also two on the left and two older. He could not raise the roof and above, and one over the door, that would add a story, as the clay walls would not make nine. If he had four on one side bear the superstructure; and to add to and two on the other, and one above the the cottage laterally was to rob his gar- door, that indeed would be seven; but the den.
house would be lopsided. He tried to One night, after Cable had been fuming recall how the windows were at Hanford, in mind over this trouble all day, he had and was unable to recollect. All day he a remarkable dream. From his bedroom puzzled over the problem. As he went he could look through a tiny window away through the village, he met the mason. to a green sloping hillside, which had it's “ Mr. Spry,” said he, “how could I head clothed with dense oak coppice. He build a house on Summerleaze with seven had often looked out at this hill and red windows in the front and a door?" thought nothing of the prospect. This “ Summerleaze !” exclaimed the mason. night, however, he dreamed that, as he “Why, sure, that belongs to Farmer Trelay in bed, he was gazing through the gurtha. You're surely not a-going to build window; and although it was night, he there? saw the whole of that slope and the wood, “Never mind about that,” said Cable and the granite tors and the moor clothed hastily. “All I ask is, how can I have in heather and gorse behind it, bathed in seven red windows in the front of a house, glorious sunlight. But what was new and with a door to go in at?" remarkable in the landscape was that, on “You about to build !” exclaimed Spry. the slope, where now lay a grass field, “Wonders will never cease! Where is standing with its back to the coppice stood the money to come from? Show me that, Hanford Hall. There was no mistaking and I'll consider the question how to build the ous with its white walls, and win-with it." dows painted Indian-red, and the great “I want to know how there could be door opening on to the terrace. There it seven red windows in the front of a house, stood, with its flight of stone steps down as well as a door, and the front of the the slope in three stages. Moreover, he house not look crooked and queer?” saw himself standing in the doorway, and “ What be the good of puzzling over one of his children's heads peeping out of that, when the land ain't yourn, nor the each window. There was Mary looking money itself to build with.” Then he from the blue room, and Effie from the pushed on his way, and left Cable unrose room, and Susie from the lavender answered. room, and Martha from the yellow room. That same day Cable was seated by the Only he could not make out whether little roadside. He had broken his pasty into Bessie were there, and from which win- eight pieces; but little Lettice had cried dow her dear innocent little face, with its for more, and he had given her his por. look of pain ever on it, was visible. The tion, contenting himself with the crumbs. house had an air of comfort about it, and He was hungry and irritable, teased with a freshness, such as Hanford Hall lacked. his dream, and angry at the mason for the It had lawn and flower-garden before it, contemptuous way in which he bad left and gravelled walks; and a summer-house him with his problem unsolved. All at where at Hanford stood the windstrew, a once he heard a voice above him, and summer-house with a conical roof and a looking up, saw Farmer Tregurtha standgilt ball at the top. This was the only ing in his field behind the hedge, gazing completely novel feature in the scene. down on him and on the little shining He knew the St. Kerian landscape. He heads on which the sun was blazing. knew the front of the house at Hanford, “ Hulloh ! Dick,” shouted the farmer, and of course his children's faces were what's the meaning of this I hear? Spry familiar to him. Why, then, was a per- has been talking all over the village that fectly new feature introduced, and how you are about to buy my land of me was it that such a jumble of disconnected whether I want to sell or no. I did not objects and scenery should occur to him ? know you were flush of money and wished
When Richard awoke, the dream had I to extend your acres !” Tregurtha had