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learned to trust him, and brought him the no fear of those in authority, and to care best they could obtain. As king he had more for the poor than the rich. He was hunters of his own constantly employed a man who could have governed the Souin the chase of elephants, lions, leopards, dan for that reason, that he cared for the antelopes, the rhinoceros - to whose horn poor. But two things misled him; he the tradition current in Marco Polo's days imagined that every one was as good as still attaches, that no poison can be drunk himself, and acted often rashly, from the from it unperceived, and which is in con- heart trusting those who were unworthy; sequence extremely valuable --- live gi- also, he did not speak the language well, raffes, ostriches, and all other wild animals and was therefore liable to be both deprized either for tusk, or feathers, or skin. ceived and distrusted.” As concerned the There was a great deal of iron in the coun- stories about himself, Zebehr maintained try, and he had copper mines which he that Gordon had been deceived as he worked. While on the one hand materiai was with regard to the young Suleiman – flowed in to him plentifully, the results of in great part purposely, by those whose his general policy made themselves felt interest it was, notably by a man of the and gave him the market for it which name of Idris Abtar, of whom there is he needed. The reports of quiet roads more presently to relate, and by a nephew brought constantly increasing numbers of of Zebehr's called Said Wat Hussein, one caravans, who paid in European goods and of the mauvais sujets who exist in every money for the raw commodities they took family, and who was subsequently found away.
out and executed by Gordon's orders for It was upon entering into these com- perjury. " You may well imagine,” the mercial questions that we first spoke freely pasha said, “ that in Mandugba, as every: about the slave-trade. The pasha abso- where else, there were evil-doers who had lutely denies that participation in it with to be punished; these evil-doers hated which he is usually accredited. I spared me; and there were others of the Egyp: him none of the reports generally spread tians who came down to me dissatisfied about him on the subject. “I am not a with what I had done for them, or jealous baby, and I thank you for being honest of my success. It is not necessary that I with me," was his answer to an apology should name them. No man rises to greatwith which I prefaced the reading of the ness without enemies, and all these were hard passages which refer to him in Gor- glad to speak evil of me. Many, too, who don's early letters and diaries, and I met seemed friendly in order that they might him with absolute candor on that ground. rise themselves while I was great, were It was a subject on which it was useless ready to slander the fallen. What you to speak unless we spoke frankly. He have read was written while Gordon still was already to some extent familiar wlth knew me only by report. Before he went Gordon's statements. Many of them had up to Khartoum the last time, we met in been translated into Arabic. With regard Sir Evelyn Baring's presence, and had a to them he had to answer generally that full personal explanation. At the end of they were based partly upon false reports it we shook hands and were friends, and and partly upon misconception, which you know that Gordon wanted the governGordon himself afterwards recognized, ment to send me up to him at Khartoum. and that a very different tone would be I count it as a great personal misfortune perceived in what Gordon said of him that he was killed. Had he lived, I should during the last four months of his life.* have had a very valuable friend." Zebehr himself estimated Gordon as one On the general question of slavery of those men of whom there are few in Zebehr's mind appeared to be in the atti. every age and nation : “ A character which tude which was taken by the ordinary En. is the character we reverence in the saints glish mind in the second decade of this of our religion, as no doubt you reverence century, when we had carried through sucit in yours; one whom I found by all re- cessful negotiations with Spain and Porport and by my knowledge of him to have tugal for putting down the slave-trade, and I think this may be considered to be borne out big of slavery in our colonies. He argued that
still refused to contemplate the abolition what refers to Zebehr in Gordon's last diary, by his naming one of the Khartoum steamers Zebehr, and by no order is possible in a country where the request for Zebehr's presence, which so surprised slave-hunting is permitted. He considered the public at the time. Gordon to consider the whole question carefully, and free circulation as necessary to a nation's to state in one telegram what he recommended, Gor: health as the circulation of the blood to don telegraphed: The combination of Zebehr and the health of the body, and pointed out myself is an absolute necessity for success. good we must be together, and that without delay." that it is perfectly incompatible with the
practice of slave-hunting. That a country as a necessary institution, permitted by cannot be great without trade nor trade the Koran ; that he had a perfectly logical exist with unsafe roads, appeared to weigh appreciation of the fact that the continumore with him as an argument than any ance of slavery entailed the continuance humane considerations of suffering caused of the slave-trade, and consequently of to individuals, These considerations, slave-hunting; that he deplored the latter however, were not wanting. “I cannot as being inconsistent with political order explain to you how impossible it would and advancement, and contrary to the have been to me to sell my people,” he dictates of humanity, but was prepared said, “ unless you realize that a king is acquiesce in it as an unavoidable evil, so indeed the father of his people. I happen long as it did not take place within the to be fond of children, and often when I limits of territory for which civilized rulers have been in the villages I have carried are responsible. The only branch of the the babies in my arms. If I had sold the slave-trade for which he had no toleration young men and women I should have had was that which provides the harems with the mothers hanging upon my skirts, and attendants. Of this he spoke in strong weeping, saying, Give me back my son, terms as forbidden by the Koran ; by far give me back my daughter that you have the most cruel, and at the same time, unsold.' My steps everywhere would have fortunately, the most profitable, departbeen accompanied by tears. Life would ment of human traffic. He condemned it not have been endurable.” Yet he still without reserve, while he pointed out that defended the present continuance of slav- the law of supply and demand, acting ery in Egypt, and absolutely denying that upon it, would ensure its continuance so he had sold, he stated without apology long as the possession of these attendants that he had bought upwards of twenty remained legal. To abolish the slavethousand slaves while he was at Man- trade while you permit the holding of dugba. "In those countries," he said, slaves is, he said, impossible. So long as "especially as you get farther from cen- slaves are bought in Cairo and Constantres of civilization, the natives have not tinople they will be sent down from the learned the use of steam or water, and sources of their supply. I asked if he everything is done by means of slaves. considered it possible to abolish slaveThe only motive power is slave-power. If hunting in the countries between the you cut off slave-power, the result would White Nile and the equator, and thus to be the same as the cutting off of steam dry up the sources of supply. “How can and water from England. All industries you,” he said, “ do anything in countries would be ruined, and this with young which have no government? You have countries means that they are re-plunged no one with whom you can treat. The nainto barbarism.” He did not consider the tives in those countries have hunted each state of things to be necessarily perma. other from time immemorial. All that nent, but looked forward to a time whon they do not sell they eat. Why do you the natives of Egypt and the Soudan might suppose that they will change their cuscome to understand liberty in the same toms so long as they have no one to teach sense as the peoples of Western countries them better? The only method is grad
that is, as liberty for each man to work ually to conquer and civilize. That was for individual and national profit. They what I was doing in my province; but would then be fit for emancipation. He everything I did has been undone – it has could only say with regard to the present gone now again to waste.” time, that when the Mussulmans of Cairo The great slave-markets lay to the south and Constantinople spoke with Western of him, in the country which has already statesmen of the entire abolition of slav- been mentioned as Urihamo's country; ery in those countries, they spoke of what Gabo, Kara, Kutuma-Banga, Benghieh, they knew in their hearts to be impossi- Sakara, Abudinga, were among the places ble. They are well aware that the country that he named. At Sakara and Benghieh is not yet prepared for it.
there were tribes of natives as white as He listened with interest to the English Europeans, having oval faces and silky piew, and said more than once that had hair. Cannibalism and man-hunting prehe lived in intercourse with English peo- vailed over the whole territory. At all ple, it was probable that his own ideas these places human markets were held might have been modified. As it was, I with the same 'regularity as the cattlethink that I state with tolerable accuracy markets of Europe. The young and the position he claimed for himself when healthy of both sexes were sold for slaves ; I say that he looked upon slavery in Egypt I the old, and especially the fat, were re
served for eating. Caravans went down, never was a slave-trader. I might have taking European goods and beads, and been, but I was not. I have tried to make returned charged with slaves. What these you understand that in the position I held unfortunate creatures suffered on the road it would have been impossible. It is not is too well known to need description or a question of whether I think the slave repetition. To reach Urihamo's country trade right or wrong, or of whether I am the greater number of the caravans passed speaking the truth or not. It is a ques. through Mandugba, and used Zebehr's tion of common sense and profit, whic name for their protection. They returned any one who has governed will underof course also through Mandugba, and stand; it would have ruined me to trade again covered themselves with Žebehr's in slaves. I was at the head of a varied name, to obtain a safe passage through and extensive commerce, of which I have the disturbed district on his northern already mentioned to you the principal frontier. He gave his protection to slave branches. The success of it depended caravans exactly as he gave it to others. entirely upon the maintenance of order in “My object,” he explained," was to main, the surrounding districts, and my prostain communication with the civilized perity and native prosperity were one. world. If I had opposed the passage of Natives who had been hunted or feared slave caravans it could only have been by to be sold would not have traded with me, force ; for simply to have forbidden them and if they did not trade with me I could to use my name would have been to give not trade with the caravans. You can permission to the natives to attack them. judge of the truth of this by what hapAs a consequence there would have been pened afterwards, when I went to Darfour bloodshed on the roads; the report would and left Idris Abtar at Mandugba. He have spread that my country was unsafe. permitted slave-hunting, and the whole I should have lost my trade. You cannot business fell away. There is nothing now expect that I should have undermined in in those countries which can compare such a manner the result of my whole with my trade. When I first went down policy.
with Ali Imouri, although slaves were “More than this, I have told you that never a principal object of our trade, we it was my practice to buy slaves. After did occasionally buy and sell a few if the my army was organized I recruited it natives brought them with other things. almost entirely by slaves bought for the Since I left him I have never had anyo purpose. When the caravans passed thing to do with slaves; and as I had no through Mandugba on their return to percentage on his profits, I may say with Egypt I examined the slaves they brought, truth that I have never sold a slave. I and I took all the best and healthiest to had nothing to do with the trade in Urimake soldiers. I trained them in the use hamo's country, except that I bought of arms, dressed them well, fed them, and slaves, and the caravans passed through kept them always in my service. One my country and used my name. As for thing will horrify you that I permitted. my having thirty slave stations, as you Most of them came to me of course as say, it is absolutely untrue. I never sent cannibals. They were absolutely forbid. a slave down to Cairo or Constantinople den to touch human flesh in times of in my
life.” peace, but on active service they were Of all the statements with regard to his allowed to eat all they killed. When I slave-trading which I repeated or read to came to fight in Darfour this struck more the pasha none seemed to vex or wound terror into the enemy than all my disci- him so much as Dr. Schweinfurth's catepline and arms. I am telling you this goric assertion that he had sent down fact because we have agreed that you are about eighteen hundred slaves in the year to know the truth. Whatever you think between 1870 and 1871. “Schweinfurth of it, I will ask you to remember that the saw many people going down,” he said, ways of such a country as Mandugba can- "and assumed that they were my slaves; not be like the ways of England. My but why did he not ask me, and I would soldiers never left me till they died, and have explained to him truthfully, as I did the service was so popular that the report about all else? There were caravans of of it spread into the distant corners of slaves, that year as always, with which I Nyam-Nyam, and young men came from had nothing to do. There were also that far to offer themselves to me.
year many of the families of Balali's dis“What I want you to understand with contented soldiers.
Balali's presence, regard to me is, that I was a trader, and about which I will presently tell you, crealso that I bought many slaves, but that I lated circumstances which a stranger would
not understand. Dr. Schweinfurth was would undertake to tax all caravans which not with me long enough to enter into passed through Mandugba, and pay the them by his own judgment; but if he had protecting tribes a regular percentage on asked me I would have told him. I re- the value of the goods carried through. ceived him well. We were very friendly, Small and frequent returns were, he as. and he asked me many interesting ques- sured them, better worth having than the tions. To all of these I gave truthful uncertain spoils of their present system, answers, and I would have willingly told and his reasoning, combined with all they him about the slave-trade. He never saw in Mandugba, wrought with them to spoke of it to me, and it astonishes me accept his terms. A treaty was drawn up, that so wise a man should write thus has- in which they undertook upon their side tily of what he did not know. You have to keep the road open for rich or poor, no means of testing the accuracy of what stranger or native, to pass without injury I tell you; but he, if it interested him, or molestation; and Zebehr undertook on might have inquired into it all upon the his side to tax the caravans and pay a spot, and this would have been a better yearly subsidy to the tribes. A solemn return for my hospitality than to have oath was sworn on both sides upon the spread a report which is not true." Koran, and the agreement took effect from
Shortly before the period of Dr. that day. This was in the year 1868, and Schweinfurth's visit Zebehr had succeeded the Arabs kept their engagement, as will in bringing to a successful issue negotia- be seen, for four years. Zebehr on his tions which have a considerable bearing side fulfilled his share, and the trade of upon this subject. Between Mandugba Mandugba flourished. Caravans arrived and Kordofan, at twenty days' distance three and four times a week, coming from from Mandugba, the country was infested Syria and Egypt, from Tripoli, Tunis, and with marauding and slave-hunting tribes Morocco. Žebehr traded also with Prusof Bedouins, who rendered the caravan sia, French, and Italian merchants. The roads quite unsafe. The most important expenses of government were considerof these tribes were the Rezigats. Of the able. Some of them may be inferred from long list mentioned by the pasha, the only the fact that he has been obliged at times other name which I could find upon a to pay as much as 6s. 8d. a pound for gunEuropean map was Tawaisha (N. lat. 12°, powder; but towards the end of these E. long. 279). As the commerce of Man- four years his profits began to mount to dugba increased, the necessity for new something like £12,000 a month. Greater roads made itself more and more felt, and conquests were before him, but he reckons Zebehr resolved to see what could be done this as the period of his most complete to clear a channel for trade through Kor- prosperity. dcfar. He accordingly sent an embassy
FLORA L. SHAW. to the chief of the Rezigats, bearing presents for the chiefs of all the tribes, and requesting them to come or to send delegates to Mandugba, that he might discuss
From The Spectator. the terms of a treaty with them. He made great preparations for this event, and received them with high honor. At the It is probable that no two human beings meeting which followed he spoke to them, heartily admire the same scenery, or see as he had done to his own chiefs, of the it in precisely the same light; but it is advantages of trade and open roads. He only probable. There ought to be masses told them that he was well acquainted with of evidence on the point, but there is very their habits, and knew that they were ac- little. Men are reticent about scenery, customed to enrich themselves by attract- not caring to talk to the unsympathizing, ing caravans, and stealing both the goods or to detail their impressions; they are in and the men of which they were composed. an extraordinary proportion inarticulate, But he pointed out to them that the result unable to describe their feelings, much had been only to desolate their own coun- less the causes of them; and they are, try, and to drive trade from their roads. also, in an extraordinary proportion, upon Caravans did not pass where they knew this subject untruthful. Thousands of they would be attacked, and prizes there- men who in most relations of life are infore were few and far between. The pro- dependent in judgment and truthful of posal he had to make was that they should speech, will lie with hardihood about their protect the roads and assure a safe pas impressions of scenery. They praise sage to travellers ; in return for which he scenes they care nothing for, or even dis
CHARACTER AND SCENERY.
like, in order not to be rude, or not to lent in the unaccustomed hardness of seem inappreciative, or out of half-con- every outline on which his eye is turned. scious self-distrust as to their own capac
The effect of shades of character upon ity for admiring in the right place. You the appreciation of scenery must be as cannot learn up the language of scenery strong as that of differences of sight. The as you can that of art. Very few have the Romans, who never thought of mountains courage, when asked to be charmed with except as obstacles, or of high moors exa landscape, to say they are not charmed, cept as deserts, involving much labor and or to avow that their taste for scenery has suffering to soldiers - and it was usually limitations special to themselves. They as a soldier that a Roman saw nature out will not admit that “liking” arising from of Italy - abhorred that mountain scencauses other than judgment, influences an ery of Switzerland which we now think so appreciation which they think should be beautiful, and regarded the Pyrenees much artistic. It is difficult, therefore, to get at as we should regard the mountain ridges the facts; and yet it is certain that choice of the moon, could we but closely apin scenery must be affected by every pe- proach them. Our perception of lunar culiarity of sight, and probable that it is beauty would he clouded by an inner horaffected by most peculiarities of character. ror. Englishmen of the eighteenth cenIt is impossible that the long-sighted and tury had, with rare exceptions, precisely the short-sighted should enjoy the same the Roman feeling, and traversed the Scotscenery in the same degree. The latter tish Highlands without apparently permust crave for large masses and bold out- ceiving their almost unapproachable lines, for great mountains and deep valleys, charm. They could not get rid of a confor broad shadows, for the sea, and for the sciousness of effort to be made when highly colored, or, still better, the white Nature presented herself in her wilder ascliff
, — in other words, for the things they pect, and loved soft scenery, still water, know they see. They enjoy, it is true, blue seas, villages nestling in rich greenthe things which half-conceal landscape, eries, just as the majority of English the haze, the mist, the light rain, the even- rustics at this moment do. These latter ing light, and, above all, moonlight, be- are what our great-grandfathers were in cause these accidents justify to themselves appreciation of the beautiful, and for the their own imperfect vision, and relieve same reason, namely, that wild scenery them of that faint resentment against na- wakes in them an unconscious repulsion ture of which no true myope is ever to that which exaggerates or renders more entirely devoid ; but they do not like in- severe “ life's endless toil and endeavor.' distinctnesses such as they find in any vast How enjoy the hillside which produces panorama except the ocean, - in a rich nothing, and doubles or trebles the labor plain, for example, seen from a low height, of all journeys? In the south country, or any other scene which presses upon the very name commonly used for the them the consciousness of misfortune. hillsides, “the steeps,” suggests painful Such a view taxes and strains their power effort, and with pain is no true enjoyment. of seeing, and with strain, enjoyment is We should doubt, if men would but speak incompatible. We think, though it may the truth, if grand mountain scenery ever be an error, that myopes derive special charmed those whom it frightened, or who pleasure from grand trees, because they felt unequal to an effort they might yet be see their forms in outline, undisturbed by called upon to make. The sea, of all obdetails whether of branch or leaf; and jects, charms the greatest number of eyes; they certainly have an acute appreciation but no Asiatic probably, if not a sailor, of still water, the most visible of all natu- ever found its aspect attractive, and there ral things. It is the long-sighted, who see are thousands even of Englishmen who clearly, and unconsciously expect to see enjoy seascape only when the waters are edges to everything, who are impressed like those of the Mediterranean, tranquil, with great plains, who enjoy perfection of glassy, and “deeply, darkly, beautifully detail, and who are not disturbed by any blue." They simply hate alike the mass kind of over-lucidity. We should set and the color of the true Atlantic. That down the artist who loved the East, and is an effect of character upon perception, the bewildering clearness with which its and would be avowed by perhaps one in dry atmosphere invests every object, as sixty of those who feel it. The majority, usually a long-sighted man, who is accus- even those among them who never lose tomed, because of his sight, to the ab- their sense of the hungriness of the ocean, sence of softening indistinctness. The its capacity and wish for destruction, will short-sighted man finds something repel- | declare with smooth faces that they love