your people, and clear the ground of its and said : " Then make a market in your weeds; for the rains are coming, and own country, and let others travel to you." seeds must be sown in the open places.” Thus by degrees markets were established Processes of cultivation had been till then right through the country, and notions of unknown.

The natives had gathered peace were spread side by side with noenough to eat from seed scattered anyhow tions of trade. I asked if any attempt was amongst the brambles. When they saw made to establish market dues. The the difference in their crops after sowing pasha smiled at my ignorance. “I did in ground wbich had been properly cleared, not want to prevent trade,” he said ; “I

1 they were filled with astonishment. It wanted to encourage it.”. The only taxes appears to have been done the less neces- that he imposed were paid in the produce sary to send soldiers every year to see the which happened to be most plentiful in work done; otherwise excuses used to the district - usually corn, tainarinds, or come that the people were out hunting, honey. The tribute was very small and or busy, or that they forgot. Zebehr after- not regularly exacted. In good years it wards adopted the principle of making was paid ; in bad years he did not insist every chief responsible for his own dis- upon it. Some tribute was necessary, or trict, and lent soldiers as a favor to help the people would not have believed themin the work, causing nearly all taxes to be selves governed; but regularity of paypaid in corn. Fertile as the country was, ment in bad seasons would have been it was of course subject to the irregulari-alike out of their power, and beyond their ties of uncultivated districts, and to steady comprehension. “ The governor,” the the supply of food was one of the first pasha frequently said, “ must understand necessities of progress.

To further this those he governs. Laws good for one end he himself gave some study to agri- people are bad for another. That is why culture, and made himself acquainted with the Turks will never hold the Soudan. the natural products of the soil. By the They do not know the Soudanese, and time he left his people he considered that they treat then as though they were the they were best to be described as a nation inhabitants of Cairo or Constantinople.” of farmers.

“ But if you imposed no regular taxes, With regard to trade, he described with how did you pay the expenses of governa smile how he had with his own hands ment?' “That was by my own trade ; arranged many and many a market. He you will understand, when I come to used to talk with the chiefs, explaining speak of it. I was a merchant working that instead of being enemies they were for myself — not an official paid by the indeed the brothers of their neighbors, people. It was to my advantage and their and useful one to another as the sons of advantage to have the country in good a house. “When you fight, both are order.” hurt, both lose the dead and wounded, the Much as Zebehr desired peace, he young men of both are made prisoners; found war forced upon him. To those but when you trade, both are richer, for earlier years of his government belong each gives that which has no value to him, various campaigns against the native and receives that which he wants. Come chiefs lying to the south and east. One now, make a market; buy and sell with of the most important appears to have your brothers." So he reasoned with been a campaign against Moto, king of them till some said: “A market! Show Indagu. Some years before, while Zeus what it is." And he took soldiers, behr was still at Dyoum, his cousin Manand arranged the natives in rows with sour had led a disastrous expedition their goods, saying, as if they were chil. southward towards the territory of Indagu. dren, “Sit there and sell ;” and sent sol. Moto had surprised the camp in the night, diers out into the country to tell the people and massacred Mansour and his followers. that they could come and exchange that Zebehr had at the time collected a few which they had for that which they wanted. soldiers, and marched down to avenge his Then he persuaded them to do the same cousin; but his force was too small, and every week, on the same day of the week, he had been obliged to retreat without in order that all might know when to effecting anything decisive. There was come. Little by little the convenience of therefore an old-standing grudge between it was understood, and people came from him and Moto, and one of his first opposuch distances that chiefs who lived far nents when he was established in Manoff complained that they spent all their dugba was this formidable chief. Moto time in travelling to and fro. Wlienever annoyed him by many attacks upon his this happened Zebehr took his opportunity frontier, but, warned by experience, Ze

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behr waited to have his army organized over it for eight years, till he died; and before he marched out against him. When he gave Zebehr no more trouble, but after he judged himself ready he declared war, three years paid tribute as was required. and the result of the campaign was Moto's It was Zebehr's habit in all these little entire defeat. All his followers fell away wars to give a conquered people three from him, and his neighbors were so much years in which to recover, before he eximpressed by the terrible force of Zebehr's acted tribute. He estimated that they disciplined troops, armed with European required that length of time, for in the weapons, that, far from allying themselves year of war their crops were usually dewith him, they refused to receive him after stroyed; in the second year they needed, his defeat. He fled from chief to chief, after their miseries, to sow and reap for but none would take pity upon him; none themselves; in the third year it was time would hide him from Zebehr; none would enough for them to give him some share even give him food. His own country of the harvest. By observing this rule was ruined with war, and in the hands of he secured a double purpose: making the enemy. In his extremity, he came himself popular, and surrounding himself with his two sons and his brother, and by flourishing villages, with which he entered Zebehr's camp. Zebehr doubted could trade, instead of desolate and ruined at first, and said, “Is this Moto ?He people who, driven by distress, must have replied, “I am Moto.” “What! you of- given him trouble by perpetual raids. In fend me and make war upon me, and then dwelling upon this part of his policy he you come like this, without guards, into claimed no admiration for leniency, but my camp?Moto replied : “ Î know what described it as being, what he constantly I do, and I have my reasons. Of my maintained that all profitable relations befriends none will receive me. They were tween the governed and the governing friends only while I was great. Now they must be," their advantage and my advanall fear before you. My country is ruined. tage." My people have fled from me. I care no After the campaign with Moto he more for my life, and I have come to give marched through some portions of the myself up without condition. Do as you Nyam-Nyam country,* his object being, will with me and mine." He spoke at however, not to fight, but to negotiate, and more length in the same strain, and when he made friendly alliances with chiefs of he had finished Zebehr said: Moto, you Urihaimo, Sabanga, Abdinga, and other are a king. You are not a slave. I will territories lying to the south. He dwelt do none of these things." He sent him constantly in his narrative upon the useto a tent, and sent food and clothes to him lessness of fighting with the natives : and to his sons, and ordered that he should " There is nothing to gain by war. You be treated as a king. After two days he only desolate the country and frighten the caused him to be brought into his pres. people, so that they will trade no more. ence again, and said, “ Moto, you killed Everything is done by wit, nothing by Mansour?" And Moto said, “Yes.” force'; in those regions the strong are the “ And you have made war upon me and wise.” The latter places that have been annoyed my people?” And Moto said, named are the great slaving districts, and “I have done it." Very well; now these it was at this point that he made his first things are avenged, and you are pardoned, statement with regard to a subject which and we will be at peace together. I will was of course often in iny mind : “People not take your life; I will not send your say of me that I have been a slave-trader. sons into slavery; but you shall go back It is most untrue. I have never sold and be king in your own country, and slaves. Those who say it do not undergreat in the eyes of your people. Only, I stand what my position was."

We were require of

you three things: that you shall interrupted at the moment, and when I rule your people no more by the spear, next saw the pasha he resumed the order but by wisdom; that you shall keep your of his narrative, which I did not break. roads safe and open to travellers; and that if

like you

* The geographical limits of this unexplored territory treatment of you, you my

will no doubt before long be defined upon the south as will be friend." Moto asked, “What they are towards the north. my

I asked the pasha if it tribute ? He said: “ Go, gather your extended as far south as the Congo. He was unac people; teach them to plant, and to buy, quainted with the Congo, but consulted with the young

Nyam-Nyam who had already given information about and to sell ; and when all is in order, after cannibalism, and repeated from his lips the statement three years, you shall pay a tribute of that the southern boundary of Nyam-Nyam is an im

mense river called the Gungua. Whether this repreSo Moto's people gathered again, sents Congo or Mobangi, or some other river unmarked and he returned to his country and reigned on our maps, it is not for me to give an opinion.

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About this time another war was under- great people, a nation of architects and taken in support of his father-in-law Tiki- stonecutters ?” he asked ; " or how else ma, who continued to live in very friendly | did you make what I see before me?" relations with him, and to send every They replied that they knew nothing of year caravan loads of honey and corn and it, except that long ago their fathers had ivory to the daughter Zebehr had married. found it

, and that they themselves had About two years after the campaign with lived and increased there for many generMoto, Zebebr received a message from ations. They did not, as Zebehr perTikima to say that he was being destroyed ceived, use the caves really for dwellings, by a people who came from under the but constructed little straw huts for habita. ground. He prayed Zebehr to come down tions within them. They lived chiefly quickly and save him. Zebehr marched upon corn, and beans, and lentils, which down with two thousand soldiers, and met grew in the neighborhood, and had not Tikima on the way. He was flying from hitherto molested or had any dealings with his home, and trembling with fear. Zebehr other races. They called themselves asked him from whom he fled, and Tikima Grundi. I did not inquire the cause of answered that he could not tell him — that their quarrel with Tikima, but they trouthis people who had attacked him were bled him no more, and Zebehr never heard like no other people. They came from of them again. under the ground, and fell upon him. A war which was of much more imporWhen he wished to take vengeance they tance to him was the conquest of HofratAed, and disappeared again into the en-Nahas, on his northern frontier, which ground; but none knew, except for this, I gave him possession of extensive copper whence they came nor whither they went. mines, and added considerably to his revAt one time he looked and saw crowds, at enue. I failed to fix the exact date and another time there were none, and he sequence of events in the earlier part of could no longer live in his kingdom for his rule, but it was at some period between fear of them. Zebehr said : “Very well ! the first wars and the conquest of HofratRise now and come with me, and show en-Nahas that he undertook the reform me when next they come.” Tikima led which he considered to be the most essenhim in the direction from which the at-tial of all that he effected. This was the tacks were usually made, and Zebehr saw opening and protection of all his roads; truly enough, as Tikiina had said, men an achievement which involved nothing coming up in swarms out of the ground. less than the suppression of man-hunting He said nothing, but searched in that throughout his territory. It was the first neighborhood, and found an entrance to decided step in the policy which afterextensive caves. The mystery became wards guided his whole career.

He spoke clear. He concealed his soldiers in the of it at times as being in fact his only brushwood round the mouth of the caves, policy. “ In the countries and among,

the allowed the cave-dwellers to pass unmo- peoples that I have described to you," he lested up to the attack, and cut off their said, “ one man can do little; but what he retreat, with the result which was to be can do is to open the door to civilization, expected. They were forced to surrender and civilization will do the rest.” without conditions. When they offered He had all an enlightened trader's faith their submission to Zebehr, and asked for in trade as a civilizing medium. He behis terms, he said that he wanted nothing lieved that where trade flowed unimpeded, from them except a promise to keep the peace, order, knowledge, and every blesspeace in the future, and that they should ing of organized society must follow in show him their homes, which had hitherto its train; and that which he spoke of most been kept hidden from all strangers' eyes. definitely, with a modest and yet contented Thus it came about that he saw the ex- self-respect as the achievement of a not traordinary caves in which they lived. altogether wasted life, was that he had They were probably, he imagined, partly opened new channels for the commerce natural, but they had been finished by the of the civilized world. “You will see, as hand of man, and presented the appear- I tell you of my history," he said, “ that ance of artificial constructions of surpris- every great war I undertook was for this ing beauty and extent. They were more end. This was the condition of every than fifty feet in height; light was ad- treaty with a native chief; for this Í mitted from above, and a little brook ran fought with the Rezigats, for this I conthrough them. He did not follow it to its quered Darfour. I had no other quarrel further end, but was filled with amaze- with the Arabs, I wanted nothing else ment by what he saw. “ Are you then a from the sultan of Darfour, than that they

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should put down man-hunting on their for the repeal of which Zebehr pleaded roads, and allow the caravans to pass in was a duty of blood. The second half of peace.” The suppression of slave-hunt- his speech was devoted to practical measing was only incidental to the opening of ures. If the chiefs desired the advantages the roads, but it was absolutely necessary.* upon which he had dwelt, and if they It was not upon grounds of sentiment and cared for his friendship and support, they morality, but as a matter of political com- must become each one responsible for the pulsion, that Zebehr first treated the ques. roads of his own territory. There was to tion. Any statesman will understand, he be no more raiding one upon another for said, “ that to govern a country in which slaves, no more attacks upon travellers, slave-hunting is permitted is an impossi- no feeble excuses in which the fault was bility. You must put it down before you laid upon a neighbor; but a clear undercan have either order or industry.” standing that each kept order among his

What he effected at first in his own people, and became personally answerable country was done, as usual, by the friendly for the lives of travellers. If these condi. co-operation of the chiefs. He waited tions were accepted, Zebehr undertook on only to feel himself firmly established be- his part to give each one a certain number fore he called them to a great meeting at of soldiers to help him in the maintenance Mandugba. Every chief was requested of authority, to continue to them such to bring an interpreter, and before seeing presents as he had already given, to de. the chiefs Zebehr received the interpret- fend them in war, and to be their friend ers one by one. He obtained information in peace. The chiefs accepted his profrom each of the habits and wants of the posals, and from that time slave-hunting tribe he represented, and sent presents to began to be put down in the whole of his every chief of the goods described as be immediate dominions. It gave him a ing valuable to him. After this he re. great deal of trouble. There were comceived the chiefs collectively at a great plications into the narration of which time and formal meeting, in which he ad-forbade him to enter; but within four dressed them. The interpreters were years he was able to say that it was abolpresent, in order that his words might not ished in his country. Later, when he be lost, and he spoke for several hours. conquered Hofrat-en-Nahas, he applied The benefits of civilization, and the pos- the same system, with the same promise sibility of their attainment by means of of success, to the northern district, which foreign trade, formed the subject of the swarmed with slave-hunters. Events prefirst half of a speech which he had care- vented him from seeing the full developfully prepared. The lines of it appear to ment of the organization there. He never have been simple enough for even that touched, nor attempted to touch, the pracprimitive audience, yet they are not un- tice of slave-hunting farther south in Uri. familiar as the theme of more civilized hamo's country; but as his power spread eloquence : “Here you have ivory, and his name became a protection, and was feathers, and skins; and you want cloth, used even as far as the equatorial province. and beads, and knives. In the countries His treaties with the native chiefs proof other men they have cloth, and beads, vided always for the passage of caravans; and knives; and they want ivory, and, and those chiefs who had no treaty with feathers, and skins. Let them come him still feared to molest a traveller cov. amongst you, bringing those things which ered by his name. The word “ Zebehr" you want, and carrying away that which becamé the “ open sesame

" of wild disthey want; and thus all men are the tricts.' It was identical with safe-conduct, richer.” Liberty to produce and ex- and was used as a password by caravans change was, in fact, his aim. The work- which he had never seen nor heard of. lf ing of fear and prejudice, which fifty years asked from whom they came, all merago kept Englishmen starving while ship: chants answered, “From Zebehr.” Slave loads of corn lay ready in the harbors of caravans, as well as others, profited by the world for their use, was the same in the protection; and it is, the pasha asserts, the minds of the native chiefs as in the in this way that his wide reputation for minds of our landowners; but the duty slaving was built up.*

The opening of the roads in his country • When Gordon went down into the western Soudan drew with it naturally another reform the opening of communication and the suppression of slave-hunting were the two objects at which he was

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It was a curious experience . See, in “Gordon in Central Africa,” account of to hear Zebehr Pasha speak of these same things as the capture of a slave caravan, professing to belong to not only the ideal, but in some degree the accomplished Zebehr, which turned out to be the property of Gorwork of his lifetime.

don's own officers.

especially directed to aim.

namely, the substitution of some organized to him to be educated. “When we all system of justice for the native chaos of speak one language," he used to say to individual reprisals. Hitherto every man them, “we shall be one people.” He had avenged his own wrongs. So long as himself lived at this time in some state. this continued the chiefs were liable to He had seventy-five kings' sons in his perpetual feuds. “I had to persuade own bodyguard, and made a practice of them,” the pasha said, “ that my people's constantly speaking with them about the wrong was my wrong, and that I would things of civilization, thus preparing their avenge it." A certain number of soldiers minds for the reception of ideas concernwere told off as police. Courts of justice ing wisdom and religion. He was careful were established in all the principal mar- to explain to me that the teaching of the ket-towns, and the natives were instructed Koran was among the last things that he to carry complaints of wrong.doing to caused to be done, considering that it them. The object of these courts was could only be received when the mind of more especially to settle quarrels between the people was in some degree raised from one tribe and another, and thus to lessen the primitive condition of savage. the causes which led to a disturbed state of " I see your great steamships pass the the country. The laws were drawn up by straits,” the pasha said upon one occasion. a council of ten men learned in the Koran, “ If the ship is to make a prosperous voywho formed a superior court in the town age the captain must be constantiy watchof Mandugba itself. The minor courts ful. His eye must be open for every were composed of four members, also wind; he must think of everything. The learned in the Koran, but having only an ship has many parts, but he directs them administrative authority. These wise all. All depends on the brain of one man, men came from Egypt by Zebehr's invita- and his wisdom is of more importance tion, and he left the forming of his code than the wind and the sea. Now, a steam. entirely in the hands of the council of ten, ship is only of wood and iron, and a kingonly desiring that the laws should be dom is made up of men. A king has to based upon the Koran and giving such deal with all their tempers, changes, and information as his experience of the con- desires. It is more difficult. He must ditions of native life rendered valuable. watch for them as the captain watches for Judged from the Western point of view his ship. He must see from what quarter these laws were primitive enough. They the storm is coming. He must know did not pass beyond the old confusion of when to make progress. He must keep retaliation with justice, and “an eye for all in order. If he watches well and is an eye, a tooth for a tooth," seems to have wise, his kingdom prospers.' been the informing spirit. Still, they em- Zebehr's ship of state appears at this bodied the principle by which society is period to have been making, progress kept together, that wrong-doing is an of- through smooth seas with favoring winds. fence against the State; and barbarous As a trading venture his establishment at as they were, they were less cruel than Mandugba had proved a magnificent sucwere our own laws at the beginning of the cess. The natives traded with him confi. century. Murder alone was judged de- dently, bringing money, ostrich feathers, serving of death; theft on the third offence gum, tamarinds, honey, wax, and all other was punished by chopping off the hand; products of the country, in quantities, to slave-hunting by flogging and imprison- bis stations. His custom was always to ment. The last penalty was applicable to pay good prices, which was to his profit foreigners as well as to natives. Turks as well as theirs, and enabled him to oband Egyptians convicted of slave-hunting tain a constantly increasing stock. Other were Aogged and imprisoned, and the merchants, he said, failed to see that if Turks especially gave a great deal of they did business on a larger scale it trouble.

more than counterbalanced the smaller After the establishment of courts of profit. As he perceived this simple truth, justice, Zebehr introduced various other he found, according to his favorite formeasures tending to the union and pacifi- mula, his advantage and native advancation of the country. He prevailed with tage in liberal dealings. He had come to the tribes to abandon the custom of eating look upon his settlement in those coun. human fesh. He encouraged them to tries as permanert, and he neither cheated intermarry. He established schools of the natives nor lied to them, as one who Arabic in the towns, where the Mussul- thought never to see their faces again, but man religion was of course taught, and lived among them simply and honestly, as encouraged the chiefs to send their sons l among his fellows. Thus, he says, they


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