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was Arctedius ; yet they were glad to wear He was Dean Celsius, a man of wider cast-off clothes; and it was during this views than his colleagues, whose return winter that the shoe-mending took place, from a long absence Linnæus had been to which, in his installation speech, in earnestly expecting, intending to lay be1741, when he had blossomed out as pro- fore him the ideas on system-making fessor, Linnæus thus referred :

which were already simmering in his "I put cards and pasteboard into the brain. Now, however, it was not encourworn-out shoes given me by my comrades, agement in his theories, but actual bread and mended them carefully with birch that he wanted. bark; for boots cost nine copper dollars, “ And what do you know about plants, and strong shoes five, and my purse was young would-be thief?” asked the dean. empty.”

" And what sort of a herbarium have you His special trouble was that in the win- got?” ter in Sweden you want a reading-lamp in Linnæus named, according to Tournethe daytime, and he could buy.neither oil fort, the latest authority, the plants which nor candles. For warmth, he sat by the Celsius pointed out, and astonished that stoke-hole fire of the winter plant-house, dignitary by saying he had over six hun. munching his rye biscuit, which in the dred Swedish plants in his collection. more genial months had been seasoned “Come and see mine, then," said the with some of the fish that Arctedius dean, astonished at the lad's wide knowl. caught.

edge and glowing enthusiasm, and struck At last the winter was over, and the at the same time with the hungry look and Scandinavian summer came in all at once. threadbare clothes of one whose graceful But you must eat even in fine weather bearing and exquisite personal cleanliness when the day lasts nearly twenty-one stamped him as a gentleman. “Soap hours; and there is a limit to the lodging costs little and water nothing in Sweden, letter's patience. Linnæus begged for the and manners come by nature,” is Mrs. post of under-gardener to the university. Caddy's comment. “All the rags in Up

. Professor Rudbeck, who had slighted him sala could not disguise the refinement of before, said,

this young man, refined by loving all “No; but I think you deserve a higher things lovely."

Before long Linnæus was an inmate of Just then came the bitterest humiliation Celsius's house, teaching his younger of all, when Rosen, his rival at Lund, children, and helping him in his great who some time before had been appointed work, “ Hierobotanicon: the Plants menadjunctus (assistant lecturer) in the faculty tioned in Scripture." This work made of medicine, and was now going abroad Linnæus ambitious of himself becoming (according to the Swedish rule) to travel an author. He knew Tournefort, who and take his doctor's degree, left him a classified plants by form; but in Celsius's suit of clothes as a parting gift.

library, he met Vaillant's little treatise on “ I would rather die than put them on,” the sexes of plants (the book that set the cried Linnæus in a rage; though Rosen elder Darwin writing “The Loves of the meant kindly, for the Swedes are so polite Flowers ”), and to this doubtless was due that no one dreamed of sneering at him his arrangement according to the numbers because of his shabby coats or birch-bark of stamens and pistils. Those Frenchboots. For a while he lost heart, and men !- we seldom give them the credit would have gone home and settled to a they deserve. They were generally in trade, only he was so deeply in debt that those days first in everything. Thus in he could not leave Upsala.

this case, Vaillant, Lewis the Fourteenth's Just now, however, it seemed as if he botanist, gave the first inkling of the Linmust run away; but first he must take a næan system; Linnæus perfected that last look at his favorite Botanic Gardens, system, and then the French invented and there, walking round, he saw a plant that “natural system,” which has now in flower that he had never yet seen in pretty well driven out the Linnæan. blossom.

The idea was in the air. Nuptiæ “I'll cut it as a last specimen for my Arborum,” was the title of a disputation herbarium, and then I'll go," he solilo- held before Bishop Wahlin. “ De Nuptiis quized.

Plantarum was a treatise published by “ You will do no such thing. Don't the bishop's son, librarian of the univertouch the flower,” cried the divinity pro- sity. Linnæus at once wrote his first fessor, who had been listening behind a tract, proposing their sexual arrangements hedge.

as the basis of classification for plants;



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and at last Dr. Rudbeck - whom its once he was in such straits that some patronage by the Wahlins, father and son, Lapps, sore pressed themselves, gave

bim had forced to recognize the importance of a cheese, “lest he should die in their coun. the subject — was graciously pleased to try.” Bedding was plentiful, find that Linnæus showed genius. hair-moss makes not only mattress, but

Rudbeck was an original thinker. After coverlet. reading Linnæus's treatise, he was struck At Piteä, the parson was Solander, with its originality, and invited the young whose son by-and-by came to England and naturalist to read his lectures for him (he sailed with "Captain Cook. In the Lapwas seventy, and almost confined to the land Alps, under the peak of Sulitelma, house). All Upsala flocked to hear Lin. he found all the Arctic plants which linger næus ; and pupils came, and with them on English mountains, — the ladies' manmoney enough not only for food, but to tle, the Sibbaldia, the mealy primrose, buy the fine dress to which the handsome etc. youth was by no means indifferent.

From Vallivari, he saw all Norway The Wrede Exhibition, too, though stretched out below like a garden, and only worth five pounds a year, was a help descending, met the pastor of Torfiorden, as well as an honor; and in 1732, he was “to whom I must write hereafter; for, by sent by the Swedish Academy of Sciences his account, he never expected to see an to study the natural history of Lapland. honest Swede." He first paid a long visit to the old par- The heavy air of the lowlands, however, sonage, where as a boy he had studied the told upon him. In the Lapland mountains ants of which Sweden has five kinds - he could walk four times his usual disand the butterflies; and made his museum tance, and his two Lapp guides - one of live insects, finding out what each fed over seventy -- were so agile that they upon; and studied botany in his father's would frisk about while he rested; one of garden, where almost every tree and the reasons he gives for this agility is flower that would bear the climate had that “they wear wheels to their boots.” been planted.

With dwarf birch and creeping willow He also saw his old school at Wexio, for the only trees; with reindeer milk so where as Newton was at Cambridge luscious that, when his bread supply gave he had been given up as a hopeless dunce out, he could not drink it; with villagers till Dr. Rothman put him to Pliny and the so wild that when they saw strangers Georgics, and soon found his “ inaptitude coming they ran away; with his eyes baffor Latin” vanish when the subject mat. fed by the midnight sun's slanting shadter became congenial. Rothman did even ows, which, “ forming dense blue bands better; he gave young Linnæus a course around a crimson world,” made everyof Boerhaave's physiology, and in his thing look so strange that he even mistook library the boy got hold of Tournefort's well-known plants, -\he must have had a book, which taught him the beauty of sys- strange journey. Onfe he fell into a tem and the value of arrangement. The crevasse, and was kept a prisoner till his testimonial they gave him, when from guide got a rope and pulled him out. Wexio he went to Lund University, is Önce, when he got back to the land of curious: “Youths at school, like shrubs trees, he was almost caught by a forest in a garden, will sometimes elude all the fire. At Tornea, where he found the reingardener's care, but, if transplanted, may deer dying by scores, he was able to prove become fruitful trees.” This was not that it was through eating water-hemlock, very encouraging, still it must have been which the natives did not seem to be aware pleasant to see the old place where his is deadly poison. masters said that though he seldom When he got back to Upsala, the aca lejoined in the sports, he contrived wonder- micians were so pleased that they f iid fully well to be idle without them.” him one hundred and twelve silver dol irs

Lapland was then almost an unknown for his expenses. It is curious that 1 yey country; and travelling in that never-end. should not have preserved his Lap ind ing day was trying even to his hardy diary, which he called “ Lachesis La Doframe. He travelled four thousand mile's nica.” It was bought from his widow, ith in five months, over thinly peopled wastes, the rest of his collections, by our bota ast, where those whom he met, when they Sir J. E. Smith. could speak Swedish, would say, 6 O thou But a man cannot live on fame; nd, poor man, what hard fate could have while he was travelling his readershiy nad brought thee hither to a place unvisited been filled up and his pupils had go by any one before?" Food often failed ; l others. He began to suspect tha the

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Lapland tour had been a device of his large mountain seemed to take fire, with rival Rosen to get him out of the way. crackling reports, and hissing of red-hot So he began to lecture on assaying, which stones folling into the pools. Later on, art he had learnt during his tour. Rosen Linnæus went out alone; and found that at once threatened to stop him; no one it was petroleum, which, during a long without a degree (which had to be taken drought, had welled up among the peat, abroad, and therefore needed money) be- and had been set on fire by the lightning: ing allowed to lecture. He was summoned It is interesting to compare both this and before the Senate, and offered to lecture the Lapland tour with Du Chaillu's acprivately; but this, too, was against the count of the same country; for the disstatutes. So he got in a towering Berserk coverer of the gorilla has also been over rage, waited for Rosen outside, and would the same ground as Linnæus. have run him through the body had not Both note the abundance of insect life. the bystanders disarmed him.

Linnæus collected one thousand species By Dean Celsius's good offices, expul- of insects, one hundred and sixty-five of sion (the statutable penalty for such con. them flies; they are neatly pasted on paper duct) was commuted for a reprimand. in our Linnæan Society's museum for This outburst carried away with it his they were bought, like the rest, by Sir J. pent-up anger. He was horror-stricken at Smith. Both ask:“Why did Nature make the thought that he might have killed midges?” to which the wag of Linnæus's Rosen; and his “Diary,” in a chapter party replied: “For our collections, of “ Nemesis Divina," contains texts from course.” It was strange in some of the Scripture, from Seneca, and from his own Norwegian cottages, “perched among penitent heart.

crags where the Parthenon would look Rosen, however, refused make like a packing-case," to find old porcelain friends; and it was well for both that cups and plates heirlooms from days shortly after a letter came from Baron when plunder from all parts was swept Reuterholm, governor of Dalecarlia, in- into the homes of the vikings. viting him to take his sons round the Our Swedes found the Norwegians mines, and sending him the money for the dirty and grasping. An Oxford man, who journey

knew them well, says that the Sætersdale Besides the baron's sons, Linnæus chose folks are perhaps the dirtiest in the world; seven young naturalists out of a host of they wash on Christmas eve, sleeping in volunteers, so that the journey was in their clothes all the rest of the year. many ways a contrast to the lonely rambles Fair and false," is how the Norseman through Lapland. The seven divided describes his Swedish neighbors. among them the animal and mineral At Falun, Linnæus gave the lectures on kingdoms; and, moreover, one of them assaying which had led to his being boy, groomed the horses, another looked after cotted at Upsala ; there, too, he heard of the commissariat, etc.; the daily journal his mother's death, and while sorrowing being made up by contributions from each. for her, found comfort in the charms of Everywhere the air was sweet with the Sara, daughter of Dr. John Moræus, the perfume of the wild-thyme-leaved bell- town physician. This was not exactly flower, thenceforward christened Linnæa following the advice of a clerical friend, borealis. Everywhere they found some afterwards Bishop of Abo. thing to note in the plants, the minerals, “ You must travel for your degree," said or the habits of people; measuring the this wise counsellor. Harderwijk in time not by the waxing or waning light, Holland is the cheapest place; but even but by the songs of birds, for Linnæus there a degree costs money. Marry a rich had not yet constructed the floral clock, wife, and use her wealth to get your doc. which, moreover, requires the neighbor- tor's diploma." bood of a garden stocked with plants, Moræus was well-to-do for that half. some of them exotic.

starved country; but he would not hear of One of the seven was poetically inclined, his daughter, “the flower of Falun," who and began about forest nymphs.

had even refused a baron, marrying a man “Pooh! nymphs. We want no nymphs," with no prospects. cried the unromantic Linnæus ; " Mother “Wait three years,” he said, “and then Nature's beauty and beneficence are see if you're both of the same mind.” enough for us. Let us keep fast hold of Linnæus had saved thirty-six gold her apron-strings.”

ducats, worth nine shillings if single, eighOne night there was a thunderstorm, teen shillings if double ducats; Swedish and in the midst of it, the whole base of a leighteenth-century coinage is very puz

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zling. He had, too, his Wrede Exhibition him to Boerhaave of Leyden - so famous of five pounds a year.

that a letter had reached him from the Miss Moræus had been brought up in a emperor of China, with no address save hard, sordid school. Nobody in Falun “ To Boerhaave, the famous physician in thought of anything but speculating in Europe.” Learning was power in Holcopper - go and stay at Redruth, and you land at that time, and Linnæus had a way will see how the mining fever takes hold of making friends with the right men. of people. Her father was as keen as The phlegmatic Dutchmen were delighted any of them; and later in life — when she with his lively talk and with the freshness made her husband's home wretched by of his views. Boerhaave sent him to Burher stingy ways -- she showed that money- mann, whom he charmed by pronouncing grubbing was in her blood. But, for a the cinnamon to be a kind of laurus, and time, she was dazzled by the apparition of who introduced him to Burgomaster Clifa very handsome youth, who cared noth- ford, a director of the Dutch East India ing for the two Falun deities cash and Company, whose gardens at Hartecamp comfort. As he was going away, she cost him twelve thousand florins a year. forced him to take her savings, a hundred With him Linnæus lived, as physician and dollars — probably in copper — and went botanist, at a salary of one thousand florins on saving all the more, because now she a year, making jokes (in Latin – that was had an object.

the worst, or Sara would have thought the On his way to Holland - 1735 — Lin- best, of it, for the gardens were the resort næus failed to discover the only lately of all the beauty and fashion of Amsteropened coal-fields of Qvidinge, near the dam and the Hague) and living “like a Kattegat; but at Hamburg he found that lapdog on a velvet cushion.” He was able the famous “seven-headed hydra,” brought to help Arctedius, who had spent all his from a church in Prague, was, like the money in England trying to study, and mermaids of our childhood, a made-up whom he met, almost a beggar, in the monster seven weasels' heads stitched streets of Leyden. He drove him, in Clif. on to a serpent's body. Andersson, a ford's coach and four, to a Dutchman who Hamburg merchant, to whom the thing was bringing out a book on fishes. Archad been pledged for ten thousand marks, tedius got work at once; and would have was furious, and insisted that Linnæus got fame, had he not fallen into a canal should prove his words, or suffer the pen- one dark night as he was walking home alty for libel ; but his friends Dr. Jänisch from his employer's. Linnæus persuaded and others, though he showed them he Clifford to pay the poor fellow's debts, and was right, persuaded him to slip away, himself finished, with a suitable preface, and leave the hydra master of the field. the book on fishes. “ A poor student has no chance in court Clifford's kindness was inexhaustible. against a rich merchant."

He noticed that his young friend's moun. At Harderwijk, one of “the dead cities tain-bred soul was pining in the relaxing of the Zuyder Zee,” he defended his thesis, Dutch air. “Go over to England, and tell

on the cause of intermittent fever, me what their North American gardens at paid his fee, and, like so many of his Oxford and Chelsea are like,” said he. countrymen, put on his doctor's hat of Boerhaave gave him a letter to Sir Hans green felt with red cockade - still to be Sloane, who was rather cool, not wholly seen in his house at Hamaark, near Up- understanding his Latin pronunciation. sala. The name means “Shepherd's Shel. On Putney Heath he saw the gorse. At ter," for when Lake Flevo was broadening Oxford Shaw and Martyn made much of out into the Zuyder Zee, the flocks and him, and pointed out that Vaillant's sexual their guardians were driven to higher classification of plants had been anticiground. The university, long extinct, pated by Millington, in 1670. dates from 1372. The neighborhood is When he got back to Holland he was as dismal as a land can be ; no wonder,” sorely tempted. They offered him the says Mrs. Caddy, “the Frisians came to botany, professorship at Utrecht, and England.” He was at ast a doctor Clifford urged him to stay and learn medicine, but he had only the small change Dutch, and marry a rich wife. But he of his last copper dollar in his pocket, as refused; lingered' half a year at Leyden, he tramped into Amsterdam.

to arrange their garden for them ; closed At Haarlem, Gronovius took kindly to Boerhaave's eyes (was admitted when the him, asked leave to print, at his own cost, doctors forbade even the relatives); and his “System of Nature," and introduced then had an attack of, fever, thanks to

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news that, the three years being over, his | the Cape to look for plants, they refused false friend, afterwards Bishop of Abo, leave. was persuading Sara to forget him.

However, he could afford to smile at Recovering, he showed either his trust their spite. He was a Von Linné, “ Knight in his betrothed or his preference for sci- of the Polar Star," as much about the ence by going home by way of Paris. court as if he had been one of the royal Here he was petted immensely, and made family, and, to his wife's delight, making a corresponding member of the Academy money by pupils and by the books -- such of Sciences; so that, no wonder, when in as “Pan and Pandora”. - which he was Sweden he met the usual fate of prophets constantly writing. The fly in his pot of in their own country, he got vexed, and ointment was his wife's meanness and her revenged himself by naming ugly plants cruelty to their son, to whom she grudged after his enemies.

even his clothes. Happily, the poor lad All the Swedish natural history pro- — who at one time seriously meditated fessorships were filled by his rivals; so suicide, at another would have gone as a he went to Stockholm and practised as a common soldier, had not the king prephysician. One of his patients, a privy vented him — outlived these troubles, and, councillor's wife, had a chronic cough. till his early death, inherited his fatber's He gave her a lozenge. Next time she renown. was playing cards with the queen, her Majesty noticed something in her mouth.

" What's that?"

“ A cough remedy; and I'm always better after using it.”.

From St. James's Gazette. Queen Ulrica had a cough, too; Lin- CONTEMPORARY DESPATCHES BY A FORnæus prescribed, relieved her, became EIGN MINISTER DURING THE EARLY court physician, and having at last got into the saddle, went ahead; was made In the year of Shakespeare's death, physician to the navy by Count Tessin; 1616, one Amerigo Salvetti was appointed wrote about diet and ventilation, and other Tuscan resident at the court of Whiteneglected su ects; helped to found the hall by Cosmo de Medici, grand duke of Swedish Academy of Sciences ; married Tuscany. His rightful name was Ales. in 1739, and became (his biographers say) sandro Antelminelli, and he came of a miserable ever after.

noble family of the little republic of Yet, however things might be at home, Lucca. His father and three brothers he had compensation enough outside. were first tortured and then executed on For, though his rival, Rosen, got the Up- a charge of high treason against the resala botany professorship when Rudbeck public, and he himself was summoned died, Linnæus rose higher and higher in home from Antwerp to stand his trial. court favor; and when, in 1742, he was As he did not obey, a price was put upon given the chair of anatomy in his old his head, and assassins were hired to kill university, Rosen and he exchanged, and him; but eventually he found safety in the dream of his life was fulfilled. Thence England, where he died in 1657, at the forth, he became “head gardener to Eu- age of eighty-five, being. buried in the rope,” corresponding with learned men of chancel of St. Bartholomew's Church. all countries, getting plants from all His despatches during the years 1625-28 climes, worrying himself to try to make have been translated from the Tuscan his tea-plants blossom, keeping down the dialect, and from cipher, by the late Mr. softening of the brain which ultimately Heath Wilson, of Florence, and the trans. conquered him, by country tours and diet lation has jnst been published as a special of wild strawberries. “ He found natural appendix to the eleventh report of the history - especially botany - a chaos; he Historical Manuscripts Commission. As left it a science."

the despatches deal with such events as He had his weaknesses ; vanity was the the death of James I. and accession of foible of the eighteenth century, and his Charles I., the impeachment of the Earl of “ Diary”is full of self-praise. But it was Bristol, the assassination of the Duke of well deserved. • Come to Spain and be Buckingham, the early conflicts of Charles king's botanist," wrote the Duke of Gri- with Parliament, the intended war against maldi. No; he was proud of being the Spain, the plague of 1625, and, in short, foremost man in Sweden. The Dutch all the principal political and social occur. were so mortified at his deserting them rences of the time, it will be understood that when he wanted to send a pupil to that they have an altogether exceptional

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