China. According to a tradition pre- their origin from the Babylonian captivity served among them, they were descended for, according to a tradition still possessed from a tribe of Jews who had quitted Pal- amongst them, their ancestors settled in estine on the destruction of the second Persia in the time of Nebuchadnezzar, and temple. From their long residence in did not.respond to the appeal of Ezra to Cochin they had become completely return to Palestine. Their mode of life bronzed. These are not the same as the resembles that of the Persians in general. Malabar Jews. The Jewish traveller Ben- They hold the beard in high esteem, and jamin, sometimes called Benjamin the wear long flowing robes. They have sevSecond, discovered a colony of Jews, evi-eral synagognes, and obtain scrolls of the dently of Persian origin, in Hindostan. law from Bagdad. The celebrated AfriThey were known as Babylonian Jews, can traveller, Mungo Park, found a colony on account of their having migrated from of Jewish families in the heart of Africa, Babylonia. They observed the essential about eight hundred miles from the coast. rites of Judaism, and strictly avoided in. It is no doubt this peculiarity of the Jewtermarriage with other sects. In the be-ish race which induced a French writer ginning of the seventeenth century, a on medical geography to express the Jewish colony settled in Cayenne, in the opinion that it is questionable whether West Indies, one of the most inhospitable the crossing of human varieties confers climates in South America. Cayenne was on the issue constant advantages in relasubsequently conquered by the French, tion to the species; for the Jewish race who made it a penal settlement, and the seems in a wonderful manner capable of Jewish colony was forced to retire to Su- adapting itself to every change of climate, rinam. Notwithstanding frequent perse. while others are scarcely able to bear the cutions, Jews are still found in Persia, least change. The Jew is found in every more especially to the south of the Cas- part of the world ; in Europe, from Norpian Sea, where the soil is very fertile, way to Gibraltar; in Africa, from Algiers but the climate very unhealthy. The prin- to the Cape of Good Hope ; in Asia, from cipal city is Balprosh, where about one Cochin to the Caucasus; from Jaffa to hundred and fifty Jewish families reside Pekin. He has peopled Australia, and in almost complete isolation. They trade has given proofs of his powers of accliwith their brethren in Great Tartary, and matization under the tropics, where people are engaged in the wool and silk trade or of European origin have constantly failed in the sale of citrons. They, too, trace I to perpetuate themselves."


FASHION V. SCIENCE AND HUMANITY. privilege of his lordly position. When, howFrom a very remote, we may even say a pre- ever, we find him, at the bidding of a mere historic, period, it has been the custom of fashion, persecuting the life of some harmless human beings to provide themselves with gar- and to him otherwise useless race of animals, ments at the expense of the lower creation. and this even to the extent of extermination, From a time almost if not quite as early, ani- we blush for the cruel heart of our so-called mals have been slain to furnish food for man. civilization. When, for instance, little birds, In our own day, also, both practices exist in whose only fault is their beauty, are sacrificed operation side by side. While, however, the by thousands in a year, in order that their necessity for flesh as an article of diet is gen- feathers or their bodies should adorn the erally admitted, provided that it be used in “softer sex ” of our species in hours of enjoymoderation and combined with vegetable food, ment, we are bound in creature kindness to the need for taking the life of animals in order those helpless members of the world's great to clothe the body, it must be allowed, has family, to condemn the barbaric fancy which been to a great extent obviated by the prog- is so heedless in its self-esteem. Artificial ress of textile industry, which gives us as substitutes can be found for ornaments of this woollen fabrics most of what we require for kind, and the counterfeit is not by any means daily wear without depriving a living creature a despicable imitation. The desire for their of one drop of blood. Fancy, taste, luxury, more general adoption is not, we are sure, utility - one or all of these — it is true, still limited to ourselves, nor is the hope that other order the destruction of countless fur-bearing governments will copy the recent practice of and feathered beings of a lower grade than our own by restricting the indiscriminate ourselves; and we are not prepared to say slaughter which has already lost to the world that in obeying the mandate, at all events of not a few interesting and beautiful forms of the last-named authority, man exceeds the animal life.




No. 2260.- October 22, 1887.

From Beginning,


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Blackwood's Magazine,
Part XXII.,

Chambers' Journal,
IV. MAJOR LAWRENCE, F.L.S. Part XII., Murray's Magazine,

Temple Bar,

Contemporary Review,

Nineteenth Century,

All The Year Round, .


St. James's Gazette,

National Review,


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187 189

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGB will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

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Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.



SUNSET. A BRIGHT, clear streak of sunset gold

Tingeth each cloud, Though darkly they the sun enfold

As with a shroud.

LOVE met me on a day,
And Love was weeping:
'Why weep, sweet Love?I said:
He drooped his golden head,
Saying: For love's decay.
For hearts that are cold and dead,
Ill worth the keeping.
But while he spoke I spied
A wicked arrow peeping
From a quiver at his side,
And when I stooped to kiss him,
Before I could caress him,
He seized the tiny dart,
And threw it at my heart;
Then, like a lark in May,
Fluttered and flew away.

He is gone down to death a king;

In state he lies;
Royal the pall, his covering

Of stormy skies.
From that low cloud it is they gleam

Over the sky,
The glory-shafts that, far flashed, beam

Piercing on high.
So, mortal, from the open grave

Of dear Hope lost
The rays surge up in golden wave

O'er darkness tost.

Still thou thy heart! The hidden light

But seeks the niorn, Thy Hope fares on through veiling night

To rise new-born. Chambers' Journal.

C. G.

II. Love met us on a day, And Love was gay: “Well met, sweet Love," we said He tossed his golden head Like a little child in play: He said, “ O happy day! For not all hearts are dead, Not all are old and cold; Smart cancels smart When heart to heart My silver chains enfold. I wept,” he said, “ for loves not true, I smile," he said, “ for you and you Then lisping out some tender word, And looking up and laughing low, He snatched the bowstring from his bow, And bound us with the silver cord; Nor ever shall the sad fates sever The twain that Love made one forever.

Modern Truth.


TO H. F. BROWN. I sit and wait a pair of oars On cis-Elysian river-shores. Where the immortal dead have sate 'Tis mine to sit and meditate; To reascend life's rivulet, Without remorse, without regret; And sing my Alma Genetrix Among the willows of the Styx. And lo, as my serener soul Did these unhappy shores patrol, And wait with an attentive ear The coming of the gondolier, Your fire-surviving roll I took Your spirited and happy book; Whereon, despite my frowning fate, It did my soul so recreate That all my fancies fled away On a Venetian holiday. Now, thanks to your triumphant care, Your pages clear as April air, The sails, the bells, the birds I know, And the far-off Friulan snow; The land and sea, the sun and shade, And the blue even lamp inlaid, For this, for these, for all, O friend, For your whole book from end to end For Paron Piero's mutton ham I your defaulting debtor am. Perchance, reviving, yet may I To your sea-paven city hie, And in a felze some day yet Light at your pipe my cigarette.



1887. AGAIN within these walls, again alone! A long, long tract of fateful years between

The day I knelt, to rise a crowned queen, Vowed thenceforth to be all my people's

own, And this, when, with an empire wider grown,

Again I kneel, before high Heaven to lay My thanks for all, which since that earlier

day Has blessed my goings, and upheld my throne. God! in this hour I think of him, who made My young life sweet, who lightened every

care, In sorest straits my judgment rightly swayed, Lived, thought for me, all times and every

where; For him I thank thee chief, who by his aid

Nerved me the burden of a crown to bear!

Life on the Lagoons.


From Blackwood's Magazine. so strongly marked as it is in the characTHE COUNTRY PARSON AS HE WAS, AND ters of the clergy and the better class of

tenant farmers. The squire has changed, In his notes to “Waverley," Sir Walter | but not so much. What he may become Scott remarks of certain changes which in a few years' time, it is hazardous to had taken place in Scotland between 1745 conjecture; but at the present moment and the end of the eighteenth century, the average English country gentleman of that they had made the Scotland of his four or five thousand a year is in all essenown day as unlike what it was sixty years tial respects pretty nearly what he has before as the England of sixty years be- been any time since the death of George fore was to the England of Elizabeth. I IV. Of the peasantry and smaller farmhave not sufficient knowledge of the coun- ers the habits and ways of thought are try to say whether the further changes comparatively little altered. If they have which have taken place since Sir Walter picked up some wild political crotchets wrote have created as wide a gap between from men like Arch and Collings, they are the Scotland of 1886 and of 1806 as ex- only skin-deep. The spark would go out isted between the Scotland of Sir Arthur directly if it were not constantly fanned. Wardour and the Scotland of Baron Brad- The beginnings of a great change are wardine. But of this I am sure, that were undoubtedly perceptible, which in the any one to write a story of English rural course of another generation, when board life, entitled “'Tis Sixty Years since," he schools and agrarian agitation shall have would have to depict a state of manners done their work, may complete that transalmost as unfamiliar to the present genera- formation in the character of the peasantry tion as the manners drawn by Fielding which has taken place in the classes just and Richardson. George Eliot's earlier above them. But at present we see only novels, “ Adam Bede,"

,” “Silas Marner,” the germs, and there are still nooks and and “Scenes of Clerical Life," have to corners to be found where we do not even some extent done this. But they belong see these. But in the clergy the change to a still earlier period, the last ten years is very marked; and it is in the country of the eighteenth and the first ten years of villages that it is most conspicuous and the nineteenth century, when not a ripple most significant, and most closely conyet moved over the surface of rural society nected with other great changes — moral, to tell of a coming change of weather. political, and theological. The influence of the French Revolution The distinctive peculiarity of the counwas visible in the large towns long before try parson of the ancient régime was that it penetrated to the secluded agricultural he was part of a system. The village was villages buried among their woods and a miniature of the State. The three eslanes;

and when rumors of it did reach tates of the realm were represented by the them, the only effect was to intensify their parson, the farmers, and the laborers, and natural conservatism and make them cling over all was the squire. The little commore closely than ever to the old order of munity was, under the old parochial systhings. But my own reminiscences refer tem, self-contained and self-sufficing, with rather to a time when the old and the new a life of its own, and with its own tradiorder of ideas were just beginning to meet tions and idiosyncrasy. What the Church each other; when it was yet doubtful was to the nation the parson was to the whether railways would supersede or only parish, and this embodiment of Church supplement stage-coaches; and when the and State in every village the kingdom seniors, though they found themselves represented with perfect fidelity for nearly jostled here and there by strange theories a century and a half the preponderant of life and dress and government, did not public opinion of England. It embodied suspect a revolution, and were rather irri- the Revolution compromise, according tated than alarmed.

with the national repugnance to both The change in our rural society which Popery and Puritanism, which alone made has taken place since that time is nowhere I the Revolution a success. On the barrier against both presented by the Established | tions of the Methodists. Nor did they Church of England, the nation leaned as themselves wish to touch them. The on a rock. The private lives of the Dissenters, for many generations, shared clergy; the zeal or the indolence displayed in the popular conviction that the exist. by them in their special duties; the awak- ence of the Church of England as then ening or non-awakening character of their constituted was, upon the whole, for the Sunday discourses, were trifles not public good. As Englishmen they saw worth a moment's consideration alongside what their fellow-countrymen saw in the of the great truth to which the Church was Church of England. They desired greater a standing witness, and the safety of the liberties for themselves, but years went great fortress of which she was a corner. by before they were hostile to the Estabstone. The shafts of Dissent, few and far lishment. between as they were, glanced harmlessly It is easy to see that the clergy who off the solid wall which the Church then were brought up under this dispensation presented to their attacks. In fact, the must have possessed a quiet, undoubting position in which the clergy lay intrenched confidence in themselves and their own was scarcely touched by them. Bolts position, which would give free play to all aimed at doctrine or discipline flew wide of individual peculiarities, and relieve them the mark, when doctrine and discipline had almost entirely from any undue solicitude ceased to interest society, and when the about public opinion. Such a position in Church's strength lay in her national char- every walk of life has its advantages and acter, and the double front which she pre- disadvantages. Virtual irresponsibility sented against the two extremes of bigotry may lead to neglect of duty, to abuse of and hypocrisy, represented to the popular power, to selfishness and self-indulgence. intelligence by Popery and Dissent. It On the other hand, freedom from restraint, was an era in which her spiritual functions and from the perpetual haunting fear of were, owing to the force of circumstances, what the world will say, tends to make subordinated to her political and social men more natural, more spontaneous, and

Two hundred years of revolution, therefore more likely to be listened to, during which the nation had been tossed than when they are less at their ease. In to and fro between the conflicting ex- short, as a general rule, it makes the good tremes of religious intolerance, had made better and the bad worse ; and so it was it heartily weary of both. A decline of in the Church of England. There were what is called spiritual activity, not of in those old days, it is but too true, many real sober-minded piety, was the inevita- very bad clergymen, to whom what they ble consequence as soon as the combat- called “parsoning was a simple bore, ants were exhausted. The nation sank and who excused, though they could not back, as it were, into a kind of religious justify, the well-known saying of Sydney armchair, in which it slumbered peacefully Smith. But of the large majority I betill the beginning of the present century. lieve that at least two-thirds were benefiThe Church of England, therefore, not cial members of society, doing a great only represented the dominant political deal of good in their own way, and attachopinion of the Georgian era, but also the ing the people to the Church by stronger spirit of the age by which it was naturally ties than any which exist now. The accompanied the comfortable, easy way other third were probably as active and of taking things into which the English zealous parish priests as any to be found people settled down after the tumult of even in these days of ecclesiastical rethe Reformation and the Revolution had vivals. subsided. Wesley and Whitefield pro- Of the country parson, who was indi. duced a great commotion; but the inere genous to the kind of soil I have defact that the Church weathered it so easily, scribed, there were, of course, numerous proves the truth of what we say namely, varieties. Some, I think, are quite exthat the foundations upon which she then tinct. Some linger still “in sheltered rested were not touched by the declama. I situations.” But thirty years ago there


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