pulsory (except for the purpose of free transmission by the post) to print any newspaper on paper stamped for denoting the duties imposed by law on newspapers, and no person shall be subject or liable to any penalty or forfeiture for printing, publishing, selling, or having in his possession any unstamped newspaper." By § 2 it is enacted that periodical publications printed on stamps may be transmitted by post, free of postage, on the same terms and conditions, and under and subject to the like rules and regulations, as newspapers duly stamped are now entitled and subject to under any Act or Acts in force, but under and subject nevertheless to the terms and conditions in this Act contained. § 3 enacts that "every periodical publication to be entitled to any such privilege as aforesaid shall be printed and published at intervals not exceeding thirty-one days between any two consecutive parts or numbers of such publication, and shall be subject to the same limitations and restrictions with respect to the number of sheets or pieces of paper whereon the same shall be printed, and with respect to the superficies or dimensions of the letter-press thereof, as by any Act or Acts now in force are enacted or imposed with respect to newspapers and supplements thereto; and every such periodical publication shall be entitled to such privilege only on the terms and conditions following, that is to say, one of the sheets or pieces of paper on which the same shall be printed shall be stamped with an appropriate die, denoting the stamp duty imposed by law on a newspaper printed on the like number of sheets or pieces of paper, and of the like dimensions with respect to the superficies of the letter-press thereof; and on the top of every page of such publication there shall be printed the title thereof, and the date of publishing the same; and such periodical publication, at the time when the same shall be posted, shall be folded in such manner that the whole of the stamp denoting the said duty shall be exposed to view, and be distinctly visible on the outside thereof; also such periodical publication shall not be printed on pasteboard or cardboard, or on two or more pieces or thicknesses of paper pasted together, nor shall any pasteboard, cardboard, or such pasted paper be transmitted by post with any such periodical publication either as a back or cover thereto, or otherwise." The paper stamped for such periodical publications (§ 4) is to be stamped at the request of the prietor or printer, on payment of the duty, and discount is to be allowed on stamps in Ireland. All such periodical publications (§ 5) are to be posted within fifteen days after being published, Questions as to periodical publications (§ 6) are to be determined by the PostmasterGeneral. Newspapers (§ 7) may be registered at the General PostOffice to entitle the same to the privilege of transmission abroad under treaties with foreign powers, the registration fee to be 5s. Any printed newspapers (§ 8) (British, colonial, or foreign)" may be transmitted by the post between places in the United Kingdom and Her Majesty's colonies or foreign countries, or between any ports or places beyond the sea (whether through the United Kingdom or not), either free of postage or subject to such rates of postage not exceeding twopence for each newspaper, irrespective of any foreign or colonial postage, as the Commissioners of the Treasury, or the Postmaster-General, with their consent, shall from time to time think fit; and as a condition to any British newspaper being transmitted by the post to any place out of the United Kingdom, the same shall be printed on paper duly stamped with an appropriate die under the provisions of this Act; and the said lastmentioned Commissioners or the Postmaster-General may require such


newspaper to be registered at the General Post-Office in London in such form and with such particulars, and subject to the payment of such fees, as in the last preceding section mentioned." Power is given (§ 9) to the Postmaster-General, with consent of Treasury, to make regulations for carrying the Act into effect. All periodical publications sent by post (§ 10), not in conformity with this Act, are to be charged letter rates of postage. The London Gazette (§ 11) is to be received as evidence of the issuing of warrants or orders. "The term 'periodical publication,' used in this Act (§ 13), shall be construed to mean and include a newspaper as defined by the Acts in force relating to the stamp duties on newspapers, and every printed literary work or paper, printed and published periodically, or in parts or numbers, at intervals not exceeding thirty-one days between any two consecutive papers, parts, or numbers of such literary work or paper; and for all the purposes of this Act the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, and the Isle of Man shall respectively be deemed to be part of the United Kingdom."


[18 Victoriæ, cap. 34.—June 26, 1855.]

An Act to provide for the Education of Children in the Receipt of

Out-door Relief.

After declaring that "means should be taken to provide education for the young children of poor persons who are relieved out of the workhouse," the Act (§ 1) provides that the Poor Law guardians may grant relief to poor persons to procure education for any of their children between the ages of four and sixteen, at any school approved of by the said guardians; and the Poor Law Board (§ 2) may regulate the proceedings of the guardians with reference to the mode, time, and place in or at which such relief shall be given or such education received; but (§ 3) in granting relief, the condition shall not be imposed that such education must be received. The cost of such relief (§ 4) to be charged as any other relief, or it may be advanced as a loan, recoverable in the usual way. Orphans and deserted children (§ 5) relieved out of the workhouse may also have relief granted for the purpose of procuring education in any such school as aforesaid.


[18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 44.-July 2, 1855.]

An Act to amend an Act of last Session, to provide for the Establishment of a National Gallery of Paintings, Sculpture, and the Fine Arts, for the Care of a Public Library, and the Erection of a Public Museum, in Dublin.

The amendments on the previous Act consist chiefly in enacting that donors to the amount of not less than 10l., and donors whose joint subscriptions, where amounting to not less than 107. for each, shall have votes in the election of the governors of the Museum; five is to be a quorum of governors. Public bodies are empowered to lend statues, paintings, and works of art to the Muscum for a definite time; and there is an alteration in the mode of the retiring governors, who are to be eligible for re-election after an interval of five years.


[18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 53.-July 16, 1855.]

An Act to relieve the East India Company from the obligation to maintain the College at Haileybury.

The title defines the object of the Act. From January 31, 1858, the College is to be discontinued and closed. No student to be admitted after January 25, 1856, but students certified as qualified in other respects, at the examination in 1857, may be admitted to the service of the Company, although they may not have been four terms at the College. Power is given to sell the College, the land, and any other property connected with it, and compensation is to be granted to the officers and servants, the charge to be defrayed out of the revenues of India.


[18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 54.-July 16, 1855.]

An Act to enable her Majesty to assent to a Bill, as amended, of the Legislature of New South Wales, "to confer a Constitution on New South Wales, and to grant a Civil List to her Majesty."

[18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 55.-July 16, 1855.]

An Act to enable her Majesty to assent to a Bill, as amended, of the Legislature of Victoria, to establish a Constitution in and for the Colony of Victoria.

These two Acts are alike in substances. They both give up the rights of the Crown in disposing of the waste lands of the colonies, and vest them in the respective legislatures, but the right is reserved of separating certain portions of each, and of forming them into distinct governments. To both the Acts a schedule is appended of the Acts of the local legislatures, by which the constitution of the two colonies is framed. They are based on that of England, and render the colonies self-governing in the fullest sense of the world; the restrictions are only to prevent them from legislating directly against the mothercountry.


[18 and 19 Victoria, cap. 61.-July 23, 1855.]

An Act to authorise the Inclosure of certain Lands, in pursuance of a Special Report of the Inclosure Commissioners for England and Wales.

This is the second general Act for Commons' Inclosure, and includes the following twenty-six places :-Bedfordshire-Streatley. Berkshire -Frilsham. Brecknockshire-Henallt; Llanganten; and Migarth Hill. Buckinghamshire-Bollenden Hill; and Lee. Cumberland-Kirkandrews; and Skirwith. Derbyshire-Bamford. Devonshire-Loddiswell. Essex-Northweald Bassett; Nazeing; and Roydon. Gloucestershire Huntley. Hampshire - Petersfield Heath; and Skeet. Herefordshire-Volca Common Meadow. Lincolnshire-Marshchapel and Grainthorpe. Montgomeryshire-Bryn Postig Hill. Oxfordshire Caversham. Rutlandshire-Seaton. Sussex-Pithington Marsh. Westmoreland-Maulds Meaburn. Worcestershire-Berrow. Yorkshire Conisbrough Open Fields.


[18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 63.-July 23, 1855.]

An Act to consolidate and amend the Law relating to Friendly Societies.

By $1 the whole or such parts of eighteen Acts as relate to Friendly Societies, enumerated in a schedule, are repealed, providing by §§ 2 to 4 that Societies under former Acts are to continue, their rules to remain in force, their enrolments to be sent to the registrar, and all their contracts, and all bonds, &c. to them to continue in force. All such subsisting societies who shall not hereafter (§ 5) effect insurances to any person of any sum exceeding 2001., or any annuity exceeding 301. per annum, are to enjoy all the exemption and privileges conferred by this Act on societies established under the provisions of this Act. Three registrars are appointed (§ 6) to hold their offices during the pleasure of the Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt, one for England and one for Ireland, both to be barristers, and one advocate for Scotland, all to be of not less than seven years' standing; the salary (§ 7) for the present registrar for England to be the same as for the last three years, but not to be less than 1,000l., the other two not exceeding 8007. per annum, besides (§ 8) the expenses of their office. Any number of persons (§ 9) are empowered under this Act to establish a Friendly Society, by subscriptions or donations,

"1. For insuring a sum of money to be paid on the birth of a member's child, or on the death of a member, or for the funeral expenses of the wife or child of a member:

"2. For the relief or maintenance of the members, their husbands, wives, children, brothers or sisters, nephews or nieces, in old age, sickness, or widowhood, or the endowment of members or nominees of members at any age:

"3. For any purpose which shall be authorised by one of her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, or in Scotland by the Lord Advocate, as a purpose to which the powers and facilities of this Act ought to be extended:"

But no member to subscribe or contract for an annuity exceeding 301. per annum, or a sum payable on death, or on any other contingency, exceeding 2007.

No money (§ 10) is to be paid on the death of a child without a copy of the entry of the registrar of deaths, the amount not to exceed, whether from one society or more, 67. for a child under five years of age, or of 107. for a child between five and ten years of age; the registrar of deaths to be paid a shilling for the copy of the entry, and not to furnish more than one without an order from a justice of the peace. Benevolent Societies (§ 11), if their rules are transmitted to the registrar and found not to be inconsistent with this Act, are to receive a certificate, and be entitled to its privileges. The statutes (§ 13), as to unlawful oaths in Ireland, are not to extend to societies established under this Act. Societies (§ 13) may be dissolved by the votes of five-sixths in value of the then existing members called together at a special meeting, every member to be entitled to one vote, and an additional vote for every five years that he may have been a member; or (§ 14) two or more societies may unite, or one society may transfer its engagements to another on such terms as may be agreed upon by the major part of the trustees or the majority of members at a general meeting convened for the purpose. Minors may be elected (§ 15) members of the society, but not to hold office

during their minority. Trustees, if empowered by a majority of the members (§ 16), may purchase, build, or hire, or take a lease of any buildings, with lands not exceeding one acre, for the purpose of holding the meetings of the society; or with the like consent may sell, let, exchange, or mortgage the same; but the money is to be raised according to the rules of such society on such behalf invested. Trustees (817) are to be appointed by a majority of members present at a meeting of the society, and the property of the society (§ 18) is vested in them; they are authorised (§ 19) to maintain actions in any court of law or equity brought by or against them; but not to be liable (§ 20) for any deficiency of the funds of the society, but only for the moneys actually received by them on account of the society. The treasurer of every such society (§ 21) is required to give a bond in a form set forth in a schedule, with one sufficient surety, or the security of the Guarantee Society, in such sum as the committee of management may fix; and every such treasurer (§ 22) is to render an account whenever called upon by the trustees or by a majority of the members of the society, and if required shall deliver up all books, papers, and other property belonging to them of which he may be possessed, failing which the trustees may sue him. If any officer die (§ 23), become bankrupt, or insolvent, having in his hands by virtue of his office, moneys, or other property of the society, his executors, assignees, trustees, or the sheriff shall, upon a written demand from the trustees, deliver up the same; and frauds (§ 24) are punishable by fine or imprisonment. Before any friendly society is established under this Act (§ 25), the rules and regulations in a defined form are to be settled, such rules providing that all moneys received or paid for the various objects of the institution shall be entered into and kept in a separate account; and copies of the rules (§ 26) are to be sent to the registrar, and his certificate obtained, for which certificate no fee is to be payable, but a certificate of an actuary of five years' standing in some Life office must be sent with the copies in cases of tables of annuities being included. The rules (§ 27) may be altered, amended, or rescinded, subsequent to registration, but copies of them must be sent to the registrar, and his certificate obtained; and whenever the place of meeting is changed (§ 28), notice must be given to the registrar. The giving of false copies of the rules and regulations of a society (§ 29), or of any alterations that may have been made, is punishable as a misdemeanour. Copies of the rules and regulations (§30) signed by the registrar, are to be received as evidence in all courts without further proof. Any sum not exceeding 501. (§31) may be paid to the proper representative on the death of any member without taking out letters of administration in England or Ireland, and without confirmation in Scotland, but the trustees are indemnified, if, after having paid the sum due to the person appearing as the proper representative, any other claim should be made, but the action may lie against the persons so receiving the money. The funds of the society (§ 32 to 35) are to be invested, according to the decision of a majority, in savings' banks, the public funds, or with the Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt, or in such other securities as the majority shall direct, not being purchases of houses or land (save for the purpose of holding their meetings), nor shares in Joint Stock Companies, nor on personal security, except to members of a certain standing, to the amount of not more than half the amount of his life assurance. On the death of a trustee (§ 36) or the cessation of his office from any cause, the stock standing in his name may be

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