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6. MEASURE OF TIME 60 Seconds

= 1 Minute 60 Minutes

= 1 Hour 24 Hours

- 1 Day 7 Days

= 1 Week 28 Days

= 1 Lunar Month 28, 29, 30, or 31 Days - 1 Calendar Month 12 Calendar Months = 1 Year 365 Days

= 1 Common Year 366 Days

=1 Leap Year In 400 Years, 97 are leap years, and 303 common,

These are the denominations of Troy Weight when used for weighing gold, silver, and precious stones (except diamonds). But Troy Weight is also used by Apothe. caries in compounding medicines, and by them the ounce is divided into 8 drams, and the dram into 3 scruples, so that the scruple is equal to 20 grains.

For scientific purposes the grain only is used; and sets of weights are constructed in decimal progression, from 10,000 grains downwards to L of a grain.

The carat, used for weighing diamonds, is 33 grains. The term, however, when used to express the fineness of gold, has a relative meaning only. Every mass of alloyed gold is supposed to be divided into 24 equal parts; thus the standard for coin is 22 carats fine, that is, it consists of 22 parts of pure gold, and 2 parts of alloy.

5. ANGULAR MEASURE;

OR, DIVISIONS OF THE CIRCLE. 60 Seconds

=1 Minute 60 Minutes

= 1 Degree 30 Degrees

= 1 Sign 90 Degrees

=1 Quadrant 360 Degrees, or 12 Signs=1 Circumference.

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MEMORANDA FOR NEXT YEAR, 1857. N.B. As towards the end of each year, or even earlier, information concerning the ensuing year is often wanted, we add to the current Almanac a synopsis of that which is to succeed it, as follows:

1.- Beginnings of the Months and Sundays. Jan. 1, Thursday, April 12, Sunday. July 12, Sunday. Oct. 11, Sunday. , 4, Sunday. , 19, 2

26, , 18,

May 1, Friday, Aug. 1, Saturday. Nov
3, Sunday.

2, Sunday.

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Dec. 1, Tuesday,

March 1,

Pune 7, Sunday.

1, Monday.

Tuesday.

Sunday.

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28, April 1, Wednesday, July 1, Wedneday. Oct. 1, Thursday. , 5, Sunday 1, 5, Sunday. I, 4, Sunday.

11.- Moveable Feasts. Septuagesima Sunday ........... Feb. 8 Low Sunday .................... Apr. 19 Quinquagesima, Shrove Sunday .. , 22 Rogation Sunday ................ May 17 Ash Wednesday .......

Ascension Day- Holy Thursday .. , 21 Quadragesima, 1st Sunday in Lent. Mar. 1 Whit Sunday.................... , 31 Palm Sunday .................. Apr. 5 Trinity Sunday ................ June 7 Good Friday ....

.... , 10 Corpus Christi .... Easter Sunday .................. 12 First Sunday in Advent .......... Nov. 29

III. Moon's Phases.
h. m.
h. m.

h. m.
Jan. 10, Full 9 8 moru. May 23, New 2 48 aft. Oct. 3, Full 3 9 aft.
,, 25, New 11 26 aft. June 7, Full 5 23 aft.

17, New 9 38 aft. Feb. 8 Full 11 53 aft.

21, New 10 3 aft. Nov. 2. Full 0 57 morn. , 24, New 11 58 morn. July 7, Full 6 44 morn. 16, New 3 54 aft. Mar. 10, Full 4 17 aft.

21, New 6 12 morn. Dec. 1, Full 10 57 morn. , 25, New 10 28 aft. Aug. 5, Full 6 28 aft.

16, New 11 l morn. Apr. 9, Full 9 28 morn. , 19, New 4 26 aft.

, 30, Full 9 33 aft. ,, 24, New 7 14 morn. Sept. 4, Full 5 7 morn. May 9, Full 2 11 morn. l ,, 18New 5 33 morn.

LONDON: PRINTED BY W. CLOWBS AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

Companion to the Almanac;

OR,
YEAR-BOOK

OR,

ОР

GENERAL INFORMATION

FOR

185 6.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON SUBJECTS OF MATHEMATICS, NATURAL HISTORY, AND PHILOSOPHY,

CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, &c.

11.

THE LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, AND CHRONICLE OF 1855.

LONDON:
KNIGHT AND CO, 90, FLEET STREET,

PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE; OR, FOUR SHILLINCH

POUND WITH THE BRITISH ALMANAC.

LONDON : PRINTED BY W, CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET AND CHIARING CROSS,

CONTENTS

PART 1. GENERAL INFORMATION ON SUBJECTS OF MATHEMATICS, NATURAL PHILO

SOPHY AND HISTORY, CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, &c.

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I. Notes on the History of the English Coinage . . . II. Schemes for obtaining Agricultural Statistics · · · III. Shipwrecks and Life-Boats . . . . . . . . IV. Reorganization of the Civil Service. . . . . .

V. Fluctuations of the Funds . . . . . . . . VI. Average Prices of Corn . . . . . . . . .

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PART II. TAE LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, ARCHITECTURE AND PUBLIC IMPROVE

MENTS, AND CHRONICLE OF 1854-5. VII. Abstracts of Important Public Acts passed in the Second Session of the Sixteenth Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland.

Page Enlistment of Foreigners. 81 Religious Worship ... 92 Fisheries (North America) . 81 Youthful Offenders . . . 93 Tea Duties. . . . .

82 Dwelling Houses (Scotland). 93 Commons Inclosure · · ·

Crown Suits . . . . .

95 Income Tax . . . . .

Excise Duties . . . . . Customs Duties . . .

Customs Laws . . Excise Duties on Spirits . . 83 Fisheries (British Islands and County Elections (Scotland). 84 France) . . . . . . 98 Newspaper Stamp Duties.. 84 Inspection of Coal Mines. . 98 Education of Poor Children . 86 Diseases Prevention . . . 99 National Gallery, &c. (Dublin) 86 Sale of Beer . . . . . 100 Hailey bury College . . . 87 | Passengers' Act Amendment 100 Australian Governments. .. 87 Metropolis Local Management 100 Commons Inclosure (No. 2): 87 Nuisances Removal and Diseases Friendly Societies . . 88 Prevention . . . . . 104 Bills of Exchange and Pro Metropolitan Buildings . 106

missory Notes . . . . 90 Criminal Justice . . . . 107 Burial Grounds (Scotland) 91 | Burials . . . . . . . 108 Public Libraries and Museums 91 Dwellings for Labouring Stage Carriage Duties, &c. . 91 Classes . . . . . . 109 Burial of Poor Persons . . 92 Limited Liability . . . . 110 Office of Speaker . . . . 92 ) Memorandum . . . . . 111

VIII. Abstracts of Parliamentary Documents :

Page

150

188

190

1. Finance . . . . .

116 2. Currency · · · · · · · · · ·

121

· 3. Trade .

122 4. Crime, Police, and Law . . . . . .

133 5. Poor Laws, &c. . . . . . . . . . . .

136 6. Miscellaneous . .

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. . . 138 IX. Chronicle of the Session of Parliament, 1854-5 . . . .

X. Private Bills of the Session of Parliament, 1854-5 . . . 177
XI. Public Petitions, 1854 5 . . . . . . . . . . .
XII. Architecture and Public Improvements :-

1. General Progress- Art and Buildings .
2. Sanitary Improvements-Sewerage—Water Supply-

Cemeteries, &c. . . . . . . . . . . 192 3. Street Architecture and Improvements-Parks, &c. . 199 4. Churches and Chapels . . . . . . . . . . 204 5. Buildings for Public Purposes . . . . . . . 209 6. Buildings-Educational, Scientific, &c. . . . . . 215 7. Miscellaneous Works, Sanitary, &c. . . . . . . 219 8. Buildings for Business Purposes . . . . . 220

9. Bridges-Docks, &c. . . . . . . . . . . 223 XIII. Chronicle of Occurrences, 1854-5 . . . . . . . . 221 XIV. Necrological Table of Literary Men, Artists, &c. ... 233 XV. The Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

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