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22. Admiral Dundas takes leave of the Black Sea fleet, and is succeeded by Admiral Lyons.
23. Terrible earthquake in Japan, by which the city of Ohasaca in Japan, and Simoda, in Niphon, were destroyed, and Jeddo was much injured. A Russian frigate, with Admiral Pontiaten on board, went down off Simodą on the 24th, in consequence of damages received in the violent eddies and convulsive motion of the sea during the earthquáke; all on board were saved in Japanese boats.
28. The Governor of Prussian Posen threatens stringent execution of the penal laws against agents for foreign enlistment. About this time offices were opened on the Continent for enlisting men for the British service.-A sharp shock of earthquake at Marseilles.
29. The French Chambers unanimously pass a Bill for a loan of 500,000,000 of francs.
1855. Jan. 1. More than half of Hamburg inundated by the Elbe, the waters of which were driven back by a violent north-west wind. 2. Omer Pasha embarks at Varna for the Crimea.
3. A commission appointed by the Archbishop of Canterbury sits at the Royal Hotel, Clevedon, to inquire into the charges made by the Vicar of South Brent against Archdeacon Denison for his sermons on the doctrine of the Real Presence in the Holy Eucharist.
6. Opening of the Vienna conferences between plenipotentiaries of Russia, Austria, England, and France.
10. Sardinia adheres to the Western Powers, and undertakes to send 15,000 men to the Crimea.-The " American Mail," published this day, announces that the United States had purchased of Ecuador, the sovereignty of the Gallipagos Islands: those islands contain guano.-The commissioners on the case of Archdeacon Denison return a verdict that the doctrines set forth by him in two sermons on the Holy Eucharist are contrary to the teaching of the Church of England.
12. Death of the Queen Dowager of Sardinia.
14. The subscription to the French loan of 500,000,000 of francs closes on the tenth day, and amounts to 2,175,000,000 of francs.
17. Mr. Cobden addresses his constituents at Leeds on the subject of the war with Russia. A resolution was carried against the speaker to prosecute the war with vigour.
20. Death of the Queen of Sardinia.
29. Mr. Roebuck's motion for a Committee on the State of the Army before Sebastopol carried in the House of Commons against the Aberdeen ministry by 305 to 148.
30. The Island of Aves taken possession of by the Americans.
31. The weekly returns of deaths in this month were 1404, 1466, 1549, and 1630. The average deaths for the corresponding weeks of the decennial period 1845-54 was 1102, or corrected for increase of population, 1212.
February 1. The Paraguayans fire upon a United States steamer exploring the River Paraguay.—The electors of Westminster present an address to General Evans on his return from the Crimea.
5. A monition, issued out of the Consistory Court of the Bishop of London, citing the Hon. and Rev. Robert Liddell, perpetual curate of St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, to show cause why a licence should not be granted to Charles Westerton, churchwarden, to remove the altar, cross, candles, credence-table, and certain cloths from said church.
6. At a dinner given by the Lord Mayor of London in the Mansion House, Sir C. Napier makes a statement of what he did in the Baltic, and the Earl of Cardigan recounts his services at Balaklava.-At a
meeting of convocation of the Church of England resolutions were carried for a modification of the services.
8. The Palmerston ministry sworn into office at a Privy Council held in Windsor Castle.
10. Death of the Duke of Genoa, brother to the King of Sardinia. 11. The France-et-Bretagne,' three-masted sailing-vessel, anchors in the Seine opposite the Louvre, in Paris, having made the voyage from Rio Janeiro. This was the first time that a ship which had crossed the Atlantic made her way to Paris. The event was celebrated by firing 101 guns.
12. An imperial ukase orders the organization and arming of all the militia of the Russian empire for the defence of the "orthodox faith.” 17. The Russians attack Eupatoria, and are repulsed by the Turks. 20. Lord J. Russell leaves London for the Vienna Conferences. 20. Death of Joseph Hume, Esq., M.P. for Montrose Burghs, at Burnley Hall, Norfolk. He was born in Montrose, in January, 1777. 22. Bread-riots in the east end of London, in which large numbers of people thrown out of employment by the long frost were concerned.
28. The city of Brussa, in Asia-Minor, destroyed by an earthquake. March 2. Death of the Emperor of Russia; he is succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander II.-The Emperor of the French visits the camp at Boulogne. The Sardinian Chamber of Deputies passes a Bill for the suppression of convents and ecclesiastical corporations by 117 votes against 36.
6. The Chinese rebels defeated by the imperialists at Canton, and Shanghai retaken from the insurgents. In both places frightful atrocities were committed by the victors, who put great numbers to death by cruel tortures.
10. Death of Don Carlos, Infante of Spain, at Trieste, in his 67th year.
13. The Earl of Carlisle installed as Lord-Lieutenant in Dublin Castle by his predecessor in office the Earl of St. Germains.
20. Cardinal Wiseman lectures on the war with Russia in St. Martin's Hall, Long Acre.
April 4. The British fleet sails from Spithead for the Baltic under command of Rear-Admiral Dundas.
5. Mr. Layard installed Rector of Marischal College, Aberdeen. 9. Bombardment of Sebastopol commenced.
13. The laying down of 300 miles of submarine electric telegraph cable from Cape Kalakria, in Bulgaria, to the monastery of St. George, in the Crimea, completed.
17. The Emperor and Empress of the French arrive at Windsor Castle on a visit to her Majesty the Queen of England.-The Prefect of the Seine, accompanied by members of the University of Paris, visits the Lord Mayor of London.-Interview between the chief members of the London money-market and the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the subject of a loan of 16,000,000l.
19. The Russian garrison of Petropaulovski escapes to the Amoor in two ships of war, accompanied by three American whalers, which conveyed their stores and a part of the troops.
19. The Emperor and Empress of the French go in state to Guildhall, London, where they are addressed and fêted by the Corporation.--The Baltic coast of Russia blockaded by the British fleet.
20. Queen Victoria and her illustrious guests the Emperor and Empress of the French visit the Crystal Palace at Sydenham.-The Government loan of 16,000,000l. subscribed for by the firm of Rothschild.
21. The Emperor and Empress of the French take leave of Queen Victoria, and, accompanied by Prince Albert, return to Dover en route for Paris.-The Vienna Conferences terminate.
23. The Lord Mayor of London raised to the baronetcy as Sir Francis Graham Moon.-Lord J. Russell leaves Vienna for London.
28. An imperial decree postpones the opening of the Paris Universal Exhibition from May 1 to May 15.-The Emperor Napoleon III. whilst riding in the Champs Elysées, near the Château des Fleurs was attacked by a well-dressed assassin (Pianori) who fired two shots at his Majesty without effect.-The bombardment of Sebastopol suspended after continuing from the 9th without much important effect.
May 1. Mount Vesuvius in a state of violent eruption for three weeks from this day.
6. Great meeting for Administrative Reform, held in the London Tavern: a supplemental meeting held at the same time in the Guildhall.-Captain Collinson returns in the Enterprise' from the Arctic Regions.
14. The assassin Pianori suffers death by the guillotine.
15. The Paris Universal Exhibition of Industry opened by the Emperor and Empress of the French. The Emperor in his address, said, In inviting all nations hither, I have desired to open a Temple
16. General Canrobert resigns the chief command of the Crimean army to General Pelissier, but continues to serve as a general of division.
18. Queen Victoria distributes the Crimean Medal to a number of soldiers and seamen on the St. James's Parade.-The Governor of Gibraltar issues a proclamation against "unlicensed printing," within his jurisdiction.
20. The King of Hanover issues a decree annulling the constitution of September 5, 1848; and also the provincial electoral law of August 1, 1850, thereby diminishing the popular rights to the measure of the constitution of the late King Ernest. This measure was adopted in obedience to a degree of the Federal Diet (April 12, 1855) requiring the governments of Germany to bring the State Constitutions more in harmony with the monarchic principle.
22. A British force, sent from Sierra Leone to enforce payment of some 1000 dollars indemnity from the King of Mallaghea, is repulsed with great loss, more than half the party sent being slain.
24. Kertch occupied by the Allies, and the Sea of Azof swept by the Anglo-French fleet. Yenikali was captured on the same day, is fortified, and garrisoned by the Allies.
31. Since the Allied Squadron entered the Sea of Azof, four Russian war-steamers and 240 sailing-vessels carrying supplies to the enemy had been destroyed.
June 3-6. Taganrog, Mariapol, and Gheisk bombarded by the Allies, and the public buildings, government magazines, and provision stores in them destroyed.
4. The Lord Mayor of London leaves London for Paris on the invitation of the Prefect of the Seine.
7. The French before Sebastopol capture the Mamelon, two redoubts, and 62 guns, and take 130 officers and 400 men prisoners.
8. Advices from Mexico of this date announce a decrce of Santa
Anna, suspending payments of all kinds in Mexico.
11. Old Smithfield Market, London, closed as a market for cattle, horses, and sheep.
13. The new cattle market and slaughter-houses in Copenhagen Fields, North London, opened.
14. The town of Kertch destroyed by fire.
15. The " Know-Nothing" Council in the United States issues its "Platform of Principles," which document contains a broad avowal in favour of slavery, and an expression of decided hostility to the Roman Catholic Church.
18. The Allies before Sebastopol attack the Malakoff Tower and Redan, and are repulsed by the Russians with considerable loss. 20. Austria reduces her army.
24. A demonstration against Lord R. Grosvenor's Sunday-Trading Bill takes place in Hyde Park; many thousands of persons of the working and middle classes assembled along the "Drive," shouting and jeering the fashionable and titled promenaders, in carriages or on horseback.
25. The King of Portugal, after visiting the French Emperor in Paris, leaves Toulon for Civita- Vecchia and Rome.
28. Death of Field Marshal Lord Raglan at Sebastopol from cholera. He was born Sept. 30, 1788.- A marauding expedition against Nicaragua, under the American Filibuster Walker, put to total rout by the Nicaragua troops near San Juan del Sur.-At a full attendance of Convocation of the province of Canterbury, an address was carried praying the Crown to grant powers for enforcing discipline among the clergy, for a modification of the Liturgy, and the reform of the representation of the clergy in synod.
July 1. The exasperation of the Londoners against Lord R. Grcsvenor's Sunday-Trading Bill drew together a vast crowd, estimated at 100,000 persons, in Hyde Park on this day. Very few carriages appeared in the Drive. Several partial encounters took place between the police and the crowd. A meeting of above 10,000 persons met in Greenwich Park also to denounce the obnoxous measure.
2. Lord R. Grosvenor, in consequence of the monster assemblies in Hyde Park, withdraws his Sunday-Trading Bill in the House of Commons. An extraordinary session of the French Legislature opened by the Emperor Napoleon III.
3. The King of the Belgians, accompanied by the Princess Charlotte and the Count of Flanders, arrives at Buckingham Palace.
8. This, the third demonstration in Hyde Park against Sabbatarian legislation, terminates in indiscriminate attacks upon the windows of the houses in Belgrave Square, Eaton Square, and the adjoining streets.
9. The French legislature passes unanimously a bill authorising the government to raise a loan of 750,000,000 francs, and another bill for fixing the conscription for 1855 at 140,000 men.
10. The workmen on strike in Barcelona, with bands of peasants, encamp in the open fields near the town.
11. The 'Udine,' United States barque, 898 tons, Capt. R. Merryman, sails up the Elbe to Hamburg, after refusing to deliver up papers at Stade, or to pay the usual tolls.-News of the insurrection of the Santals in Rajmahal, arrives by the overland mail of this date.— Bombardment of Sweaborg by the allied fleets of France and England. 12. Revolt of the Arabs of Tripoli, who, headed by a chief named Gourmah, repulse a Turkish force sent against them, with a loss of 2,000 men, and all their guns.
13. Lord J. Russell resigns the office of Colonial Secretary.
16. The Mandingoes of Sabbagee in Gambia repulse with great loss a small British force sent to arrest a slave-dealer of that town, who had
sold a British subject. Governor O'Connor, aided by a French force from Goree, returned next day against Sabbagee, which was taken, razed to the ground, and about 1,500 Mandingoes slain.-The King of Portugal visits the city of Turin.
17. The Commission of Inquiry into the conduct of the police in the Hyde Park riots, commences its sittings in the Court of Exchequer.
20. Sir W. Molesworth appointed Colonial Secretary.
21. A statue of Sir R. Peel recently set up at the west end of Cheapside, London, uncovered. The statue, the work of Mr. Behnes, is 11 feet high, and stands on a pedestal of Peterhead granite 12 feet high.
24. The 'Caradoc' steamer arrives in Bristol Harbour with the body of Lord Raglan.
25. A smart shock of earthquake felt about 1 p.m. all along the east of France from Valence to Metz, and also in Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. At several places the oscillation was strong enough to shake windows, ring bells, and stop clocks; at several places in the department of Doubs, houses rocked, chimneys were thrown down, and walls cracked.
26. Renewed and more violent shocks of earthquake in the Valais, in Switzerland; the villages of St. Nicolas, Viège, and Stalden destroyed, and masses of rock rolled down from the hills.-Lord Raglan's remains deposited in the family vault in Badminton Park.-Allocution of Pope Pius IX. on the state of the Church in Sardinia, Spain, and Switzerland.
30. The returns, relative to the subscription for the French loan of 750,000,000 francs, give a total capital subscribed of 3,652,591,985 francs, or nearly five times the amount required by the Government. The total number of subscribers was 316,864, of whom 236,577 in the departments subscribed for 1,118,703,535 francs. The remaining 2,533,888,450 francs subscribed in Paris, included about 600,000,000 francs subscribed for in foreign countries. No less than 231,920,155 francs were made up of subscriptions of 50 francs and under. A tenth of the subscription (365,259,198 francs) deposited in the hands of Government, was temporarily withdrawn from the circulation of France.
31. The Emperor and Empress of the French arrive in Paris from Biarritz, a watering-place in the Basses-Pyrénées.-The launch of the 'Marlborough,' screw war ship of 131 guns, in Portsmouth Dockyard, in presence of the Royal Family.
August 1. Viscount Canning entertained at a public banquet at the London Tavern by the East India Company, on his appointment as Governor-General of India.
2. The inquiry into the Hyde Park disturbances terminates, but no report is issued.
5. A royal proclamation issued in Hanover reinstating the aristocracy in the rights which they possessed before 1848, in obedience to a decree of the Frankfort Diet of April 12, 1855.
6. The King of Portugal arrives in the 'Mendillo' war-steamer in Southampton Water, and visits Queen Victoria at Osborne.
9. The Foreign Legion reviewed by Queen Victoria at Shornecliffe.-Santa Anna abdicates the Dictatorship of Mexico.
16. Defeat of the Russians on the Tchernaya by the French and Sardinians.
18. General Canrobert created a senator of the French empire.-The Queen of England and Prince Albert arrive in Paris on a visit to the