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We might give notes of many other buildings of [the 'sanitary class, but such as we happen to have met with have no features of special importance now. We may, however, mention the construction of a swimming-bath at Banbury, where, the circular form being adopted, the dressing-boxes are placed in the centre, access being gained by a bridge. The arrangement was thought to afford greater privacy, and arose out of a suggestion in "The Builder." In this periodical we meet with a view of a new conduit at Cambridge, of Gothic character, designed by Mr. G. M. Hills.
8.-BUILDINGS FOR BUSINESS PURPOSES.
As we stated, some of the most meritorious of recent works belong to this head. At Messrs. Calvert's brewery, the second of two new wings has been erected, apparently preparatory to a more extensive remodelling of the portion next the river. The work is, so far, an improvement to the appearance of the river side. The upper story of the wings is composed of square piers, with the intermediate spaces filled with louvres, and is terminated by a cornice. Mr. E. L'Anson made the first drawings.-On the site of the old Excise Office, in Broad-street, a pile of business chambers has been erected, now passing under the name of Gresham House. There is an entrance from Bishopsgate-street, as well as from the principal front, the ground covered extending all but the whole distance. In other directions, the building area is so extensive as to include a large number of chambers lighted from several open courts. The principal elevation in Broad-street consists of a centre and wings executed in stone, and with a fair amount of decoration. The lower story has rusticated pilasters, and archheaded windows with archivolts and imposts, and small consoles. Corinthian pilasters occupy the height of two stories above, where the windows have segmental heads and plain dressings. The slightness of the projection of the pilasters much reduces the designed effect. The entablature of the order has the mouldings richly decorated with ornament of the Roman character. The entrance-way is a little wanting in importance. The centre window of the front has a balcony. There is a balustrade to the wings and an attic over the centre portion. A great amount of structural contrivance in the interior entitles the architect, Mr. E. N. Clifton, to much credit. Some important works have been executed at the block of buildings between Lombard-street and Cornhill, near the western angle. The premises, No. 78, Lombard-street, occupied by the County Fire Office and Provident Life Office, are very simple in their elements of design, but may be advantageously contrasted with the more ornate attempt next door. In the one case the front is all stone-as we are glad to find is the case in most of the recent City buildings-in the other case the ornaments are done in cement. An architect will generally make his best design when stone instead of the imitation of it is to be used The building, No. 78, has a narrow frontage, with a lower story of three arches for door and windows, and a Venetian window to each of the three stories above. The principal window has a cornice and trusses and a light stone and iron-work
balcony. The centre portion of the front forms a slight projection carried through a good plain cornice,—a seated figure of Britannia being at the top. The Colonial Life Office (Nos. 80 and 81), by Mr. I'Anson, now in progress, has a lower story of three lofty arches for the admission of light; the entrance door, of smaller dimensions, being as it were fitted in between, and supporting a figure of Atlas. The windows of the several stories are squareheaded, with plain enrichments and narrow piers of division. The piers in the upper range, have capitals supporting a deep cornice of the building, upon which is a light iron railing. To the principal floor, there is a balcony with railing. The lower story is faced with polished Aberdeen granite, and a frieze immediately above, in which will be oval windows, with serpentine. Mr. I'Anson is one whose works in the City display such skill in contrivance as we alluded to in a former place, and especially as to admission of light.— The County Fire Office, by Mr. Alfred Beaumont, is five stories in height, with two cleverly-designed fronts in Cornhill. The ground story has some good ornament, and characteristic effect is derived from the size of the first-floor windows.-Messrs. Waterlow and Sons have completed new premises in Birchin Lane, in which the ground story has piers of grey granite, supporting a frieze of polished red granite. The windows of the first floor are arranged as an arcade. The interior of the shop, and the rooms above, deserve inspection, the fittings being in the best taste. Polished mahogany and wainscot are used throughout. Mr. Frederick Leake was the architect. The premises, 150, Leadenhall Street (Bull Chambers), though faced with imitative cement decoration, are not without merit, and there is a good doorway with coupled columns and segmental pediment. A staircase here, like one at Gresham House, displays the superior effect of whole slabs of glass in coffers. There is, however, much difficulty about cracking, by which, in many cases, the intended effect becomes entirely spoilt. Mr. Corbett was the architect of the Leadenhall Street Chambers. -The lofty place of business erected in Cheapside (No. 50) has also a good doorway, with semicircular light-over it and the side lights. The front of No. 2, Wood Street, is worthy of notice, for the filling in of shafts and mullion work, and entablatures in iron, which form the structural and decorative arrangement in the three lower stories. The perforated ornamental work in certain parts, and the panels filled with coloured cement, exemplify the right principles in the use of materials. The Imperial Insurance Office, Threadneedle Street, has received the addition of a parapet, with piers supporting the globe of the regalia, and having the panels filled in with ornament of intersecting circles. We question the advantage of the addition to the really excellent design of the building. The South Sea House and the Hall of Commerce are being much remodelled, being taken by different banking houses.— The important pile of buildings at the corner of Chancery Lane and Fleet Street is one of the best works of the year. Its architect, Mr. Knowles, has publicly advocated the advantages of cement, as a material for decorative effect; yet he shows that he has a theory
about its application, very different to what may have prevailed with John Nash, and the copyists of masonic architecture. The general material, however, is good brickwork, cement being used for the principal decorations and mouldings. There is a bold and highly decorated cornice, partly in stone. The openings are all archheaded, and much novel ornament is introduced in the heads of the arches. and in the lower part of the opening, as well as in perforated panels which are placed between the windows, it would appear in connection with ventilating arrangements.-At No. 21, Fleet Street, Mr. John Shaw has completed a building for the London and Provincial Law Life Assurance Company. A residence being necessary, and the whole width being required on the ground floor for the office, it was determined to set the building back, and provide the entrance to the residence by a descent, and a way through the basement. The result has been a gain as to those "beauties" which Pope, in a letter to Lord Burlington, known to all architects, showed could
"Start e'en from difficulty; strike from chance."
The sides of the party walls are enriched with returns of the decorative masonry of the centre; the panels, corresponding in position with windows, being filled with coloured marbles. The ground story is lighted by a large arched window and side lights, and is of rusticated masonry, whilst the portion above is pilastraded in three superimposed orders. Novelty, elaboration, and good taste are not wanting in the ornaments and iron-work. There is a building on the opposite side of the street by Sir John Soane, where the returns were treated on a principle similar to that of the present case.Messrs. Smith and Son have erected a lofty pile in the Strand, at the corner of Arundel Street. Mr. Abraham is the architect. There are good Italian dressings to the windows, and it is gratifying to see the outlay of capital on art, in such a structure. The general design, though correct, perhaps would have been improved by novelty. If the openings to the cellar story are for light, the practice of the City architects might have been better for all results.
The premises occupied by Messrs. Heal, in Tottenham-court-road, by Mr. J. M. Lockyer, display much effective combination of inlaid tile and cement work. Chandos Chambers, Adelphi, by Mr. Gray, exhibit the combination in another form, with red brick-work and carved stone-work; whilst Mr. Edmeston, and Messrs. Ashpitel and Whichcord, in fronts over shops, in some of the provincial towns, have used a facing of glazed tiles for the whole or greater part of the height. Mr. Truefitt, in various works, was one of the first who combined iron-work and inlaid tiles with effect.
We should have mentioned the erection of two piles of chambers and an hotel, in a court leading from Wych-street. They have received the name of Danes' Chambers. They are built of stone, in a somewhat castellated style of architecture. Mr. Richard Bell was the architect. The central portion of Hungerford Market has now been transformed by Mr. T. H. Lewis, by a very economical, but effective contrivance, into a station for the London Advertisement
Hall and Registry. Recent shops in Regent-street continue the progress lately noticeable there in decoration.
At Bristol, we hear of a new bank, by Messrs. Gabriel and Hirst, after the style of Sansovino's buildings. It is designed to receive an unusual amount of sculpturesque enrichment; on which Mr. Thomas is employed.
Under the present somewhat comprehensive heading, we may perhaps allude to the erection of a few important farm-buildings. Those designed by Mr. George Lamb, for the Earl of Radnor, at Coleshill, Berks, are deserving of study; whilst on Mr. Proctor's farm at Wall's Court, near Bristol, Mr. Godwin has succedeed in combining, with advanced arrangements for the working of the establishment, much simple beauty of effect.
9.-BRIDGES, Docks, &c.
The progress of Westminster Bridge has been necessarily limited to the works of pile-driving and preparation. To notice a very moderate proportion of the engineering works during the year, would require more than the whole space we have given chiefly to art ; though we may take this opportunity to say that, however important in regard to magnitude and scientific constructive skill, are many of the recent bridges, like Mr. Brunel's over the Wye at Chepstow, they are many of them unfortunate in the other requisite-the art.
At Upton-on-Severn, the new bridge is about 250 feet in length, in two spans of 60 feet each, and two of 45 feet. The piers are of stone, and the roadway is supported on the tubular-girder principle. One of the 45-feet spans being required to open for the passage of vessels, the engineer, Mr. Alfred Giles, has contrived means of effecting this, which may be of importance where space would not allow of swing bridges. The moveable portion includes the length of 45 feet, and the requisite counter-balance, in one length of about 100 feet. This moves on wheels, and can be run back horizontally under the roadway of approach, which it raises; the latter, on the closing of the bridge, again falling into its original position. The weight, which is moved by two men, amounts to 100 tons. The cost of the works was about 10,0007.-The Crumlin Viaduct, on the Western Valley Railway, about 12 miles distant from Newport, Monmouthshire, now in progress, is a work of considerable engineering importance. The piers are composed of tiers of iron columns, braced together with girders and diagonal bracing, the whole height being within a few feet of that of the London Monument. The length of the viaduct is about 1046 feet, divided into spans of 150 feet. The girders were to be formed according to the principle of Captain Warren's patent, -the ends have oblique abutments, for which a triangular casting is fixed. Part of the viaduct is curved on the plan. At Margate, a new pier has been constructed. The supports, at distances, consist of clusters of cast-iron piles, braced together.-A new dock at the Commercial Docks, at Rotherhithe, has been opened, and other works in connection with the docks and Timber Ponds were lately in progress, under the direction of Messrs. Walker, Burgess, and Cooper.
XIII. CHRONICLE OF OCCURRENCES.
From November, 1854, to November, 1855.
1854. Nov. 3. Desperate riot at Cambridge between the police and the undergraduates, who interrupted a lecture against the use of tobacco, given by a gentleman at the Town Hall.
5. Battle of Inkermann.
8. The Queen of Spain opens the constituent Cortes of the kingdom. -M. Soulé, a French refugee, and United States ambassador to Spain, obtains a permis-de-voyager through France for Calais, en route to Madrid. The French Government had previously refused him liberty of residence in France.
14. A dreadful hurricane in the Black Sea, during which above thirty ships belonging to the Allies were totally destroyed, and a great number of other vessels were seriously injured.
17. Lord Palmerston visits Paris.
20. Motion made in Court of Queen's Bench by Sir F. Thesiger for a prohibition to the Archbishop of Canterbury from proceeding in a case of alleged erroneous doctrine against Archdeacon Denison, who was charged with advocating in certain sermons the doctrine of the real presence in the Holy Eucharist.
21. Lord Raglan gazetted Field-Marshal of the British Army; his commission was dated from the Battle of Inkermann,
23. The Spanish, French, English, and Peruvian representatives at Quito, protest against the cession of the Gallipagos Islands by Ecuador to the United States.
27. Generals Espartero and O'Donnell elected President and VicePresident of the Spanish Constituent Cortes.
29. Meeting held in St. Martin's Hall, Long-acre, London, to commemorate the twenty-fourth anniversary of the Polish insurrection. Herr Kossuth was the principal orator.-The French government prohibit the exportation of corn and flour from France till July 31, 1855. -Fatal riots at the Ballarat gold diggings in Australia, in consequence of the miners refusing to renew their licenses.
30. The Viceroy of Egypt authorises M. Lesseps to form a company for constructing a navigable canal across the isthmus of Suez.
Dec. 1. The Constituent Cortes decides by 206 votes against 21, that the throne of Isabella II. and her dynasty, shall form the basis of the political edifice in Spain.
2. A treaty of alliance signed in Vienna by the representatives of Austria, England, and France.
5. The treaty of the United States with the Dominican Republic unanimously rejected by the Dominican Congress. The object of the treaty was to give to the United States a lodgment on the Bay of Samana.
6. Mr. Beattie, civil engineer, proceeds to the Crimea with a corps of miners, quarrymen, plate layers, smiths, and navvies, to construct a railway from Balaklava to the British camp before Sebastopol.
12. The Horse Guards issues a command from the Queen to Lord Raglan, to recommend one sergeant from every regiment under his command to a cornetcy or ensigncy; the commissions to date from the
Battle of Inkermann.
13. The Emperor Nicholas orders a new levy of 10 men out of every 1000 of the population of Russia.