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rison, is important as an instance of the economic use of a local material, viz., the slag from furnaces. This refuse accumulates in the iron districts in vast heaps, spoils the face of the country, and hitherto has been treated as nearly useless. At Oakengates, it was gladly got rid of by the manufacturers as a gift. There would at present be some difficulty in insuring good construction with materials of such irregular form; but if it should be worth while to run the refuse into blocks, this material might become really valuable. But since the erection of the church, a company has been formed for the conversion of the slag into various shapes; and it is found that it can receive a high polish. Considering that, in the manufacture of iron, the refuse is in the proportion of from one to three tons for each ton of iron produced, whilst in the case of lead and copper the proportion is even greater, the matter is one of some public interest.
We have heretofore perceived that much importance was to be attached to the peculiarities of the Dissenting chapels. There are, indeed, two distinct schools of architects in the case of church and chapel building. In one case, many of the purposes of the church are, as we conceive, held subordinate to the idea of a particular traditional effect; in the other case, the understood purposes are as much considered as in any other class of buildings. As to the importance of the association from tradition, we will offer no opinion : but will merely express the doubt whether, if churches Protestant or Catholic, had to be designed de novo, they would take the form which is at present held indispensable. It is contended by the architects in relation with the Incorporated Society, that churches are better for hearing in, and may be more readily ventilated, when they have the usual arrangement of nave and aisles; also that with this, and the clerestory, the proportions of the interior are more satisfactory. But the discussion of such points as restriction in the sizes of pillars, and adoption of the mediæval hall roofs, within the doors of the Incorporated Society, goes towards testifying that the system carried out in the congregational churches, is not altogether unwarranted. It testifies to the importance of preaching as a part of the religious ministration in branches of the Reformed Church, but it lends grounds to the assumption, in which we venture to coincide, that seeing the preacher has some connection with the ability to hear and understand him. In short what is necessary in a lecture-room, can hardly be unimportant, wherever else persons have to listen to an address. It is however very far from our province, and even from our ability, to decide this great question in art; our duty being 10 indicate the growth of changes as they arise. We concede that the impediment of the pillars of churches is by no means so great as represented ; and we do much more: whilst the beauty of proportion and detail in the works of the principal modern church architects is very different in its results from uncouthness, which is not uncommon in the architecture of Dissenting chapels. We conclude that a latent dissatisfaction with the present practice is being nurtured ; and we believe we shall yet see the real genius which belongs to the architects of the present mediæval school, if not a reserve of strength which haply, may exist in the style itself. One thing is clear, it
beseems a class of artists to think out these questions for themselves, rather than to strain to satisfy themselves that they are using their own judgment when they are only in accord with others. 'Not long since it was contended that churches need have no provision for warming in the depth of winter; now, the means of warming are much inquired into. There are some sounding theories now, which will go through the like transformation. Further, there is the question which we noticed last year, as to galleries. We find them constantly, in new churches, and in all cases they are the bétes noires of architects. Why not accept the circumstances of the case, as good architects should do, and conceive the design on the assumption that they are not to involve excrescences ? But the result would be a building, far indeed from the features of those old models, which we have yet to learn to use.—Messrs. Poulton and Woodman have lately built an Independent chapel, at St. Helier, Jersey, which reproduces the more important features of that at Winchester, noticed last year. The plans of some of the chapels of the Congregationalists have given rise to ingenuity in contrivance. The Percy Chapel, Bath, has the general plan wedge-shaped. Columns are arranged in the centre on a decagonal plan, for the support of a lantern. The Lombard style is here followed. - The old “ Diorama” building in the Regent's Park, is now altered into a Baptist chapel. As the original arrangement was for the exhibition of two pictures, the spectators were placed in a room which turned on a pivot, at the intersection of the axes of vision, so that each picture was seen in succession. The outside walls, which are preserved, therefore define a plan of general triangular form--which, even after what we have been saying, strikes the attention as very peculiar. A style is adopted in this case, somewhat similar to that of the last-named structure. The entrance vestibule, with piers and arches, glazed top light, and stairs branching up at the sides, is effective. Mr. John Thomas was the architect; and the purchase of the building and its conversion were made by the present Sir S. M. Peto.
Thus, whatever success attends the new adoption of art in the chapels of those classes of Dissenters, who formerly appeared apprehensive of art, the change continues to be important and gratifying Decoration in colour, is by no means eschewed.
Amongst the Catholic chapels, one at Rainhill, near Liverpool, has been described as adopting a method of roof-lighting, first suggested by Mr. Fergusson, as a means of explaining the difficulty about the Grecian hypäthral temples.
5.-BUILDINGS FOR PUBLIC PURPOSES. During the past year, the range of buildings at the Palace at Westminster, filling the space between the south end of Westminster Hall and the Victoria Tower, has been so far completed that we are able to present an illustration of them. The size of the page wholly precludes our doing justice to the architect's work; and the Central Tower, seen to the best advantage on this side, groups even more effectively with the front than our view shows. The end of Westminster Hall appears at the left of the
vicw. The balconies for viewing the state procession are very ably managed; and the whole front, whilst it has perhaps the most elaborate workmanship of this claborate building, is certainly not inferior to any part in beauty. The Victoria Tower has reached within a very short distance of the intended battlements. The mode of terminating this tower is perhaps not finally decided upon ; but the design which we have seen, shows lofty open-work pinnacles and battlements; and within, an octagonal lantern or cage of metal-work, with tall bannerets and light flying buttresses, supporting the royal standard at a considerable elevation. In the main arch way are fixed a set of gates in wrought iron, and these are the best specimens of metal-work, both as regards beauty and propriety of design and workmanship, that we have seen in England. The whole of the iron and brass work throughout the building, we may say, is of this superior character: the crown of lights depending from the roof of the Central Hall is especially good, whilst elaborate. The Clock Tower is nearly completed, the iron framing of the double pyramidal capping being now in progress. The clock will far exceed any other in London in its capabilities. There has been some difficulty about the intended chimesbell-founders in England being considered at fault in that particular. With these buildings the great work would terminate, unless, indeed, on the removal of the houses in Bridge-street for the access to the extended width of the bridge, it should have been decided to run a further portion of the Palace building along that side of New Palace Yard, as the architect always contemplated. But a far inore extensive scheme has been broached. This comprises, in addition to buildings on the line of Bridge-street, the removal of the Law Courts; the erection—somewhat in advance of the present line-of a range of buildings with bay windows, and an arcade, now much needed in wet weather; of a grand gateway at the angle of New Palace Yard, thus enclosed; of the raising the roof of Westminster Hall; the removal of St. Margaret's Church to a fresh site, and of several houses in Old Palace Yard ; and some other works. Thus it is believed that the present disjointed and incongruous character of the whole would be remedied; that a proper entrance would be afforded, and that the general mass would group with the abbey ; that building, with the new portion of the Palace, forming two sides of a quadrangle. The new buildings would be chiefly used for Commissions, and similar purposes ; for which, as we remarked in a former year, enormous expense is now incurred. The cost of the Palace, with the works in progress or sanctioned, would come to 1,944,2261. (inclusive of what has been paid for houses and land), and if Sir Charles Barry's last proposals were accepted, it is believed that the total cost would be made up to 2,595,5111. A number of works of painting and sculpture have already been added to the building. The frescoes in the upper waiting-hall, descriptive of passages in the poets, have been some time complete; Mr. Maclise is painting the subject of his picture, " the Marriage of Strongbow and Eva," in fresco, in the Painted Chamber, or conference hall; and amongst the recent works of sculpture are bronze relievos in the Prince's Chamber by Theed, and statues of Selden by Foley, and Walpole by Bell, in St. Stephen's Hall.
The north wing of the Wellington-street front of Somerset House is now completed. Attached to it is a small porch of entrance, with Ionic columns having rusticated shafts. The backs of the houses of Somerset-place have been taken down, preparatory to the erection of the central portion of the new building.
A building for the office of the Duchy of Cornwall, by Mr. Pennethorne, has been erected at Buckingham Gate, at the obtuse angle of the new street and James'-street. The doorway, and the Italian details of window-dressings, and the cornice of the building with its enriched frieze, have merit; but the use of cement is scarcely creditable in such a case. The architect has got over the difficulties of the plan cleverly.
At the Tower of London an additional storehouse has lately been erected. The building is chiefly in plain brickwork with recesses, but shows effectively from the river.
Uxbridge House, in Burlington Gardens, lately inhabited by the Marquis of Anglesey, was built, under the architect Vardy, towards the end of the last century. The front was designed by Joseph Bonomi. It had the great defect of being obviously a mere facing of stone-work,---not being even the front of entrance. The house is now occupied as a branch by the Bank of England; and the formation of a new entrance with a large open porch has certainly effected an improvement.
The plan of the Carlton Club has been completed externally, the columns of polished Aberdeen granite appearing on each side. The smoking room is at the back, at the top of the house, with a projecting balcony. The interior arrangements seem excellent in plan, and perfect in their convenience. A flight of steps leads froni the entrance hall to the grand central hall, which is square in plan. It is surrounded at the level of the first floor, by a gallery octagonal on the plan, and is lighted from the top. A broad staircase ascends in front; the morning room is to the left, with the library over it, and to the right is the coffee room, in the portion of building completed some time since. The upper part of the central hall has coupled Corinthian columns, executed in scagliola, the walls being green stencilled. The whole of the joiners' work is executed in wainscot, or other expensive materials. In the decorations of the morning room the flat style of treatment is carried out with success. The library has the novelty, in England, of a sloping ceiling—that is, higher along the centre than at the sides. The space is divided by main and cross beams (the former springing from brackets) into a number of coffers, filled in with ornament. The colours are wainscot, with a pattern in dark brown, and with mouldings and bosses, or drops, gilded; and for the pattern of the coffers and panels, colours of a grey tone, with the scroll or interlaced pattern on a dark ground. Mr. Sydney Smirke is the architect.
The new building for the Junior United Service Club is being erected in the place of the old one, at the corner of Charles-street