« ElőzőTovább »
Abingdon, Berks; and in Nant-y-glo district, Aberystruth, Monmouthshire ; in St. Paul's, in the city of Bristol ; Chatham, Kent; and at Sandford, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire; St. James's, Hatcham, St. Paul, Deptford ; at Blackheath, parish of Greenwich, and at Lee Park, parish of Lee, Kent; at Maescaled, Holyhead, Anglesey ; in St. George's, Truro, Kenwyn, Cornwall ; at North Brixton district, parish of Brixton, Lambeth, Surrey; and Nutford Place, district parish of St. Mary's, Bryanstone Square, St. Marylebone, Middlesex; in Sutton-on-Plym, King Charles-the-Martyr, Plymouth, Devonshire; at Ringley, Prestwich, Lancashire; in Wellington, Stoke-upon-Trent; and in St. Stephen's, Willenhall, and the Holy Trinity, Willenhall, Wolverhampton, Staffordshire; in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire ; at Idridgebay, Wirksworth, Derbyshire; and Ashley Place, St. Margaret's, Westminster ; in The Groves, St. Olave's, City of York; and at Mount Pellon, Halifax ; in Burmantofts, Leeds; Carver-street, and Moorfields, Sheffield ; Eastwood, Keighley; and in St. Mary's, Wakefield, ali in the West Riding of Yorkshire. In these 27 churches, accommodation had been provided for 18,375 persons, including 11,774 free seats.
Mr. Parris has now nearly completed his restoration of the paintings in St. Paul's. Mr. Ġ. G. Scott has crowned his judicious restoration of Ely Cathedral by the completion of the altar reredos : the centre portion, of which the cost has been defrayed by Mr. J. D. Gardner, is executed in alabaster, enriched with mosaic. The canopies are supported by shafts, single and clustered, twisted and carved, and set with pieces of cut cornelian and marble mosaic. The same kind of decoration extends to the heads of the canopies, where it is relieved by gold. The backs of the canopies have alto-relievos, also in alabaster; the subjects preserving the mediæval character, whilst they are works of original merit. The reredos, generally, is enriched with foliated ornament and emblems, all admirably designed, and the whole work is one of the most elaborate and successful prodictions in Gothic architecture and ornamental art.-Amongst other restorations, some at the cathedrals of Wells, and Glasgow, are about being completed, and appear to be of great importance. The latter building is one of the finest examples of the Early English style in existence; but had suffered much from violence, and from intermeddling even in very recent days. Certain works at the old cathedrals of Scotland, under the Board of Works, have been so conducted as to call forth remonstrance,—though, in the case of Fortrose Cathedral, the statements are contradicted.
Under the head of new buildings, we may mention the church at Trefnant, near St. Asaph, by Mr. Scott, because the interior affords an example of what may be done with local materials-in this case the Anglesey and other coloured marbles—towards realising the chromatic effect, desirable, but which in many cases has been sought for through means and appliances not structural, and therefore less æsthetically correct. Without much ornament, the slight differences of colour here produce a result more satisfactory than the gaudiness of the ordinarily-practised. “ polychromy.” Mr. Scott is disposed at all times to maintain the value of the mediæval system; and we have said that to results of late researches, the architecture of the future—whatever it may be—will unquestionably owe much. But we are glad that one who does so much, appears to recognise the necessity of an active principle of Art. It may be taken as indicative of merit in the new church at Harrogate, that we are unable to class it with any of the known styles of Gothic—though the combination of severe Early English for the chief members, with the later character of the ornament used, involves difficult questions as to consistent treatinent. The richness of the details has made the cost reach to between 90001. and 10,0001. In St. Andrew's Church, Ashley-place, Mr. Scott has substituted, for low aisles and the usual clerestory, aisles of greater height, with the window arches carried up under gables which break with the main aisle roof. Doncaster Church, by the same architect, although not yet roofed in, is so far important as an exemplification of what is accomplished in church architecture, that we give a view of the interior, as it will be when finished. The outlay upon this building will exceed 30,0001.—Mr. l'errey, since our last mention of his works, has completed several, equally marked by the meritorious qualities which, it may be conceded, are not wanting in the works of the more experienced architects who follow the medieval school. His church at Denshanger, in the diocese of Peterborough, is in the Early English style, and consists of nave, chancel, north aisle, vestry, porch, and a triple bell turret. The turret is carried partly by a recessed arch, springing from square angle buttresses. The porch is of open timbered work. The building is a good example of a small church. It contains 420 sittings, all which except 20 are free, and the cost was 21001.—One of the most recent London churches has been erected in the Bayswater-road. The “decorated” style is employed, with some richness of detail. The grouping of the tower, surmounted by a crocketed spire, is successful. The church will accommodate 1600 adults and children, and will have cost about 14,0001. Messrs. Francis were the architects. The church of All Saints, Kensington Park, by Mr. W. White, is another example of progress to right principles in the use of materials. Stone of various colours, Devonshire marble, and different-coloured tiles and brickwork, aid in the external and internal effect. In the clerestory, part of each window-head, instead of being pierced, is filled with mosaic-work. We may again suggest, though the remark may have no reference to this church, that in all cases, great care should be taken to avoid a party-coloured effect. The differences in colour or shade should be much less than they are generally made. The chief result is to be expressed by the masonry, or relievo-work-in short by form ; and anything that should go to the extent of making colour as prominent as it is in some old works, may for a while tickle antiquarian taste, but will not permanently please-if indeed it ever please—the public. A slight modification of the effect, by colour, on the other hand, tells as a variation on the formal design. This church also displays the innovation of large squares of stained glass, in place of the ordinary perishable quarry lights.-A church at Oakengates, in Shropshire, by Mr. J. P. IIar
rison, is important as an instance of the economic use of a local material, viz., the slag from furnaces. This refuse accumulates in the iron districts in vast heaps, spoils the face of the country, and hitherto has been treated as nearly useless. At Oakengates, it was gladly got rid of by the manufacturers as a gift. There would at present be some difficulty in insuring good construction with materials of such irregular form; but if it should be worth while to run the refuse into blocks, this material might become really valuable. But since the erection of the church, a company has been formed for the conversion of the slag into various shapes; and it is found that it can receive a high polish. Considering that, in the manufacture of iron, the refuse is in the proportion of from one to three tons for each ton of iron produced, whilst in the case of lead and copper the proportion is even greater, the matter is one of some public interest.
We have heretofore perceived that much importance was to be attached to the peculiarities of the Dissenting chapels. There are, indeed, two distinct schools of architects in the case of church and chapel building. In one case, many of the purposes of the church are, as we conceive, held subordinate to the idea of a particular traditional effect; in the other case, the understood purposes are as much considered as in any other class of buildings. As to the importance of the association from tradition, we will offer no opinion : but will merely express the doubt whether, if churches Protestant or Catholic, had to be designed de novo, they would take the form which is at present held indispensable. It is contended by the architects in relation with the Incorporated Society, that churches are better for hearing in, and may be more readily ventilated, when they have the usual arrangement of nave and aisles; also that with this, and the clerestory, the proportions of the interior are more satisfactory. But the discussion of such points as restriction in the sizes of pillars, and adoption of the mediæval hall roofs, within the doors of the Incorporated Society, goes towards testifying that the system carried out in the congregational churches, is not altogether unwarranted. It testifies to the importance of preaching as a part of the religious ministration in branches of the Reformed Church, but it lends grounds to the assumption, in which we venture to coincide, that seeing the preacher has some connection with the ability to hear and understand him. In short what is necessary in a lecture-room, can hardly be unimportant, wherever else persons have to listen to an address. It is however very far from our province, and even from our ability, to decide this great question in art; our duty being to indicate the growth of changes as they arise. We concede that the impediment of the pillars of churches is by no means so great as represented ; and we do much more: whilst the beauty of proportion and detail in the works of the principal modern church architects is very different in its results from uncouthness, which is not uncommon in the architecture of Dissenting chapels. We conclude that a latent dissatisfaction with the present practice is being nurtured ; and we believe we shall yet see the real genius which belongs to the architects of the present mediæval school, if not a reserve of strength which haply, may exist in the style itself. One thing is clear, it
beseems a class of artists to think out these questions for themselves, rather than to strain to satisfy themselves that they are using their own judgment when they are only in accord with others. Not long since it was contended that churches need have no provision for warming in the depth of winter; now, the means of warming are much inquired into. There are some sounding theories now, which will go through the like transformation. Further, there is the question which we noticed last year, as to galleries. We find them constantly, in new churches, and in all cases they are the bétes noires of architects. Why not accept the 'circumstances of the case, as good architects should do, and conceive the design on the assumption that they are not to involve excrescences ? But the result would be a building, far indeed from the features of those old models, which we have yet to learn to use.—Messrs. Poulton and Woodman have lately built an Independent chapel, at St. Helier, Jersey, which reproduces the more important features of that at Winchester, noticed last year. The plans of some of the chapels of the Congregationalists have given rise to ingenuity in contrivance. The Percy Chapel, Bath, has the general plan wedge-shaped. Columns are arranged in the centre on a decagonal plan, for the support of a lantern. The Lombard style is here followed. -- The old “Diorama” building in the Regent's Park, is now altered into a Baptist chapel. As the original arrangement was for the exhibition of two pictures, the spectators were placed in a room which turned on a pivot, at the intersection of the axes of vision, so that each picture was seen in succession. The outside walls, which are preserved, therefore define a plan of general triangular form—which, even after what we have been saying, strikes the attention as very peculiar. A style is adopted in this case, somewhat similar to that of the last-named structure. The entrance vestibule, with piers and arches, glazed top light, and stairs branching up at the sides, is effective. Mr. John Thomas was the architect; and the purchase of the building and its conversion were made by the present Sir S. M. Peto.
Thus, whatever success attends the new adoption of art in the chapels of those classes of Dissenters, who formerly appeared apprehensive of art, the change continues to be important, and gratifying. Decoration in colour, is by no means eschewed.
Amongst the Catholic chapels, one at Rainhill, near Liverpool, has been described as adopting a method of roof-lighting, first suggested by Mr. Fergusson, as a means of explaining the difficulty about the Grecian hypæthral temples.
5.-BUILDINGS FOR PUBLIC PURPOSES. During the past year, the range of buildings at the Palace at Westminster, filling the space between the south end of Westminster Hall and the Victoria Tower, has been so far completed that we are able to present an illustration of them. The size of the page wholly precludes our doing justice to the architect's work; and the Central Tower, seen to the best advantage on this side, groups even more effectively with the front than our view shows. The end of Westminster Hall appears at the left of the