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of 1854. The total number of emigrants for all foreign ports in the quarter ending June 30 was 43,880, against 84,330 in the corresponding quarter of 1854. The decrease is general, and is marked alike in the emigration to the United States as well as to the Australian colonies, while the diminution is equally perceptible in the German as in the British and Irish sections of the returns. The steerage passengers in the three months included 10,066 English, 2,055 Scotch, 25,356 Irish, and 2,677 Germans.
COLONIAL BISHOPS.-The following is a list of the colonial bishops and their salaries, viz. :-George Jehoshaphat Mountain, Bishop of Quebec, 1,990l.; J. Strachan, Bishop of Toronto, 1,250l.; F. Fulford, Bishop of Montreal, 8007.; Hibbert Binney, Bishop of Nova Scotia, 7001.; J. Medley, Bishop of Fredericton, 1,000l.; E. Feild, Bishop of Newfoundland, 1,2007.; D. Anderson, Bishop of Rupert's-land, 700l.; Aubrey G. Spenser, Bishop of Jamaica, 3,000l. Thomas Parry, Bishop of Barbadoes, 2,500l.,; D. Gateward Davis, Bishop of Antigua, 2,0007.; W. P. Austin, Bishop of Guiana, 2,000l.; F. Barker, Bishop of Sydney, 1,500l.; C. Perry, Bishop of Melbourne, 1,3331.; W. Tyrrell, Bishop of Newcastle, 8331.; A. Short, Bishop of Adelaide, 8007.; F. Russell Nixon, Bishop of Tasmania, 1,250l.; G. A. Selwyn, Bishop of New Zealand, 600l.; R. Gray, Bishop of Cape Town, 8001.; J. Chapman, Bishop of Colombo, 2,000l.; G. Smith, Bishop of Victoria, 1,0007.; G. Tomlinson, Bishop of Gibraltar, 1,2007.; J. W. Weeks, Bishop of Sierra Leone, 900l.; V. W. Ryan, Bishop of Mauritius, 8507.; J. Armstrong, Bishop of Graham's Town, 800l.; J. W. Colenso, Bishop of Natal, 8001.; and F. T. M'Dougall, Bishop of Labuan, 500l. These salaries are derived partly from Parliamentary votes, and partly from colonial funds and the Colonial Bishoprics' Fund.
AGRICULTURE, ENGLAND.-The statistics of the agriculture of the following English counties for 1854 have been published. They are not quite complete, as many persons refused to make returns. The counties were selected in order to give a notion of the average of the whole kingdom, and were Hampshire, Wiltshire, Leicestershire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Berks, Worcestershire, Brecknockshire, Shropshire, Denbighshire, and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The general summary gives the following results :-the total statute acres is 7,743,850; of which 790,019 were under wheat, 553,487 barley, 270,290 oats, 15,297 rye, 144,854 beans and peas, 45,343 vetches, 470,379 turnips, 36,777 mangold, 2,622 carrots, 39,894 potatoes, 2,107 flax, 3,937 hops, 224 oziers; other crops, such as cabbages, &c., 20,194, bare fallow 185,888; a total of 2,581,312 acres of arable land. Under grass there were 585,083 acres of clover, lucerne, and other artificial grasses; 1,841,297 permanent pasture, 268,121 irrigated meadows, 461,595 sheep walks and downs; total 3,156,096. By houses, gardens, roads, fences, &c., 202,533 acres were occupied; waste, but attached to farms, 163,209; commons, belonging to parish, 401,906; holdings of less than two acres from which no return was required, 95,322; in wood or plantation, 352,154; unaccounted for, 791,318. The amount of stock was 218,083 horses, 53,544 colts, 285,629 milch cows, 146,722 calves, 277,860 other cattle, including working oxen; 50,645 tups, 1,514,523 ewes, 1,449,806 lambs, 862,891 other sheep, and 490,405 swine. A rough estimate is gained for the whole of England by multiplying by 5, or more exactly by the proportion of 7,743,850 acres here given, to 37,324,915 acres, the total of England.
AGRICULTURE, SCOTLAND.-The agricultural returns for the year 1854, though not quite perfect, partly from some omissions and partly from inaccurate lists, give the following results for the 32 counties of Scotland. The total number of acres are stated as 12,613,345. Of the acres in tillage 168,216 were in wheat, 207,507 barley, 932,994 oats, 3,809 rye, 18,118 bere or bigg, 37,702 beans, 6,169 peas, 13,442 vetches, 433,916 turnips, 143,042 potatoes, 1,947 mangold wurzle, 1,218 carrots, 1,395 cabbage, 6,671 flax, 1,429 turnip seed, 26, 129 bare fallow. In grass there were 1,427,791 acres in rotation, 1,207,101 in permanent pasture, 69,256 of irrigated meadow, and 6,530,843 in sheep-walks. Houses, roads, fences, &c., occupied 130,539 acres, 413,391 were under wood, and 830,730 were waste. The stock amounted to 156,595 horses, 292,365 milch cows, 438,334 other cattle, 205, 172 calves, 4,787,235 sheep, and 163,683 swine. The gross arable produce was 4,848,499 bushels of wheat, 7,639,601 bushels of barley, 33,854,319 bushels of oats, 537,250 bushels of bigg, 1,080,921 bushels of beans, 6,372,189 tons of turnips, and 523,383 tons of potatoes. The highest average produce of wheat per acre was in Caithness, 36 bushel, the lowest in Wigton, 22 bushels; the highest average of oats was shown in Haddingtonshire, 48 bushels, the lowest in Inverness, 32 bushels. Of turnips the highest average is shown by Roxburghshire, 22 tons 15 cwts.; the lowest by Nairnshire, 10 tons.
AGRICULTURE, IRELAND.-The statistical returns of Ireland for the year 1854 show a total decrease of 91,233 acres of cereal crops; there being a decrease of 175,760 acres of oats, barley, rye, &c., and an increase of 87,527 acres of wheat. Of green crops there is an increase of potatoes of 90,702 acres, but a decrease in turnips and other green crops of 91,402 acres. In flax there is a decrease of 23,607 acres, and of meadow and clover of 13,025 acres. The crops of 1854 was as follows in the whole of Ireland-wheat, 411,453 acres; oats, 2,043,466 acres; barley, bere, rye, beans, and peas, 287,265 acres; potatoes, 989,435 acres; turnips, 329,106 acres; other green crops, 98,992 acres; flax, 150,972 acres; meadow and clover, 1,257,717 acres: total extent under crops, 5,568,376 acres. The total decrease of land under crops is 125,575 acres.
LOAN SOCIETIES.-According to a return for the year 1854 there were 304 registered Loan Societies in England and Wales, in which the amount advanced and paid by depositors and shareholders was 178,0117. The sums in borrower's hands on Dec. 31, 1854, was 312,2997.; the amount lent in the year had been 686,4831. The number of applications for loans had been 160,647; the number granted 133,860. The amount paid for interest by borrowers or sureties in the year was 28,1157., besides 9,6627. for forms of application, inquiry, &c. The interest paid to depositors and shareholders was 18,985l.; the cost of management 14,0741. There had been 8,461 summonses issued, and 375 distress warrants in the year.
PRIVATE BILLS.-The amount of Capital proposed to be raised under the provisions of Private Bills, and the amount authorised by acts, in the following years, was:
Proposed by Bill.
SCOTCH LANDED PROPRIETORS.-The total number of Landed Proprietors standing on the valuation rolls of the various Scotch counties in 1854, was:-in Aberdeen, 341; Argyll, 181; Ayr, 456; Banff, 45; Berwick, 306; Bute, 9; Caithness, 37; Clackmannan, 35; Dumbarton, 263; Dumfries, 510; Edinburgh, 562; Elgin, 55; Fife, 686; Forfar, 358; Haddington, 124; Inverness, 120; Kincardine, 92; Kinross, 164; Kirkcudbright, 413; Linlithgow, 164; Nairn, 15; Orkney, 329; Peebles, 88; Perth, 696; Ross, 69; Roxburgh, 429; Selkirk, 43; Stirling, 615; Sutherland, 8; and Wigton, 60. Five hundred and ninety-four of these estates were valued at between 500l. and 1,000l., 387 at between 1,000l. and 2,000l., 274 at between 2,000l. and 5,000l., 76 at between 5,000l. and 10,000l., and 32 at upwards of 10,0007.
TITHE COMMISSION.-In 1854 Tithes were commuted, either by agreement or award, in four districts, and 50 distinct mergers of tithes or rent-charges had been confirmed.
METROPOLITAN COMMISSION OF SEWERS.-The amount expended by the Commissioners in the year 1854 was 475,6931., the money received was 565,4501. The amount expended on works was 276,434l., for management 22,2491.
ARMY COMMISSIONS.-From Jan. 1, 1853, to March 16, 1855, the number of gentlemen appointed to Commissions by Purchase was 815.
The number sold on account of government from the same date to Jan. 16, 1855, was 125, and the total amount realised was 62,970l. number of cadets from the Royal Military College appointed to ensigncies without purchase within the like period was 46. The number of gentlemen appointed to commissions, from Jan., 1853, to March 16, 1855, was 694; and the number of non-commissioned officers appointed to commissions without purchase was 95.
THE MILITIA.-The total strength of the Militia Regiments in England and Wales on the 30th of April, 1855, was 1,813 officers, 5,420 non-commissioned officers, and 28,474 privates (all present); while 275 officers, 268 non-commissioned officers, and 8,392 privates were absent on leave. The total number of all ranks effective in the United Kingdom on the 15th of April, 1855, was as follows:-viz., 94 colonels, 135 lieutenant-colonels, 165 majors, 1,054 captains, 961 lieutenants, 681 ensigns, 147 adjutants, 140 surgeous, 97 assistant surgeons, 75 quartermasters, 144 serjeant-majors, 3,265 sergeants, 2,397 corporals, 1,094 drummers, and 51,312 privates. Of the privates, 32,449 were serving in England, 4,786 in Scotland, and 14,077 in Ireland. The total number of Volunteers serving in the United Kingdom on the 1st of March, 1855, was 68,266, and on the 15th of April, 52,835.
MILITIA, IRELAND.-On July 1, 1855, the effective force of the Militia in Ireland was 16,299, the regimental quota and establishment being 31,349. The quota expected from the various regiments as volunteers into regiments of the line was 4,533, the number given was 3,457.
LAND FORCES, INDIA.-In 1854 the Land Forces under the disposition of the governor-general amounted to 281,940 men, of whom 26,826 were Queen's troops, 14,649 were the Company's European troops, and 240,465 were the Company's native troops. There were also, in addition, 31,000 of subsidiary troops and contingents from native states.
BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES.-In the year 1853 there were registered in England 612,391 Births, of which 313,756 were males, and 298,635 females; of these 20,333 males and 19,430 females, about one-fifteenth of the whole, were illegitimate. There were registered, in the same period, 164,520 Marriages; of which 138,042 were according to the rites of the established church, 8,375 in Roman catholic registered chapels, 10,149 at other Christian denominations, 68 at Quaker meetings, 288 Jewish, and 598 at superintending registrar's offices; 9,131 men and 29,359 women were not of full age, and 49,983 men and 72,204 women signed the marriage register with marks; in 37,345 cases the register was so signed by both parties. Of Deaths there were 421,104; 214,727 males, and 206,377 females.
MARRIAGES, IRELAND.-In 1854 the number of Marriages registered in Ireland was 9,426; 5,188 in the established church, 2,701 in presbyterian meeting-houses, 1,477 in the registrar's office, 66 in registered buildings, and 11 of quakers. Of the total number, 473 men, and 1,647 women were under age; and 2,457 men, and 4,105 women signed with marks. This is the smallest number of marriages of any year since 1848, except 1851, when they were 9,339. But these returns are necessarily imperfect, as Roman catholic marriages are exempt from registration,
POPULATION. In addition to the results of the Annual Report of the Registrar General, the return of the Births and Deaths during the summer quarter that ended on the 30th September, 1855, and of the Marriages in the quarter that ended on the 30th June, furnish some interesting particulars. 38,454 marriages were registered in the quarter that ended on June 30, or less by 1,935 than the number in the corresponding quarter of the previous year, when the number of marriages was considerably above the average. 154,834 births and 87,934 deaths were registered. The natural increase of the population of England and Wales in the three months is therefore 66,900. Of the number of immigrants from Scotland, Ireland, and foreign countries, no record is kept. The emigrants from the ports of the United Kingdom at which there are Government emigration officers amounted to 44,698; of whom 13,486 were ascertained to be of English; 3,534 of Scotch, 18,701 of Irish, 3,093 of foreign origin; the origin of 5,884 emigrants was not distinguished. After taking a due proportion of the latter class, the English emigrants will amount to 15,530; nearly half of whom sailed to Australia, and the rest to our North-American colonies and the United States. The number of emigrants from the United Kingdom, which was 109,236 in the summer quarter of 1852, has fallen to 44,698, which is nearly the same number as emigrated in the summer quarter of 1847.
PUBLIC HEALTH.-87,934 deaths were registered in the quarter that ended on the last day of September, and the annual rate of mortality in the quarter was 18.54 deaths to 1,000 living, while the average rate of the summer quarter in the previous 10 years was 21.91. The annual rate of the summer quarter of the year 1854 was 24-25, and the deaths in that year were 113,939; the excess being due in a considerable measure to the epidemic of cholera and diarrhoea which broke out at Newcastle and other places in 1853, and was exceedingly fatal in London and several districts in the summer quarter of 1854. In 117 districts, comprising the chief towns, 44,169 were registered; while in the 511 districts comprising the small towns and the country parishes the deaths were 43,765; the annual rate of mortality was 16:43 in the latter districts, and 21.65 in the town districts, to every 1,000 of the population; or 5-22 more in the towns than in the open country. The health of the towns exhibits some improvement, for the mortality-rate to 1,000 living has fallen from 26.33 in the 10 summer quarters (1845-54) to 21.65 in the summer quarter of 1855; but the great incentive to exertion remains, that the mortality is certainly not inevitably at a higher rate than 16-43 in the summer quarter, as that rate only was actually experienced on the area of 511 districts. The Registrar General adds these observations to his Quarterly Return :"Various causes in operation undoubtedly contributed to this happy result-that if all the deaths of British soldiers in the Crimea during the last three months were added to the deaths in England, the sum would be less by some 20,000 than the deaths registered in England during the three summer months of 1854. More lives may be saved by sanitary arrangements at home every year than have ever perished abroad in the years of our greatest losses in war.”