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at 31,6387.; while the expenditure has been 31,9487., including the salaries, &c., of officers, 10,440l., nearly one-third of the whole. Reports are given of 206 out of the 264 discharged on licence, of which 189 are satisfactory, 10 unsatisfactory, and 7 doubtful.
The Hulks are at Woolwich and Gosport; three vessels at Woolwich and two at Gosport. The number on board on Jan. 1, 1854, was 1,291; the number received in the year, 848. Of the total, 2,139, 54 were sent to the public works in Western Australia and Gibraltar, 121 were transferred to other prisons, 5 removed to a lunatic asylum, 2 discharged pardoned, 544 discharged on licence, and 1 on expiration of sentence, 2 escaped, 54 died, and 783 remained. The conduct on the whole is stated as good. Cholera had prevailed in the autumn, which rendered the rate of mortality high. The estimated value of labour was 19,7367.; the net expenses, 43,545/., including 13,8961. for salaries, &c., of the officers.
The Brixton Prison is for females only. The number remaining on Jan. 1, 1854, was 75 only, as the prison was not prepared for their reception; the number received in the year was 589; total, 664. Of these, 9 were discharged by licence, 4 on medical grounds, 2 pardoned, 2 removed to lunatic asylums, 4 died, and 643 remained on Dec. 31. The Report states, that the great majority improve, but a few are utterly irreclaimable. The gross expenditure for the year was 13,9177. less 1,7917. the value of productive labour and sundry receipts. The cost of management in salaries, &c., was 3,8881., or more than a third of the whole.
METROPOLITAN POLICE.-In the year 1854 the total cost of the Metropolitan Police was 392,703/. 12s. The total number of persons belonging to it was 5,731. The amount received from the various parishes, at 6d. in the pound on the rental, was 263,6717., on a computed rental of 10,546,8741.
CONSTABULARY FORCE, IRELAND.-On Jan. 1, 1855, the total effective force was as follows:-Inspector-general, deputy and assistant inspectors, &c., 9; county inspectors, 35; sub-inspectors, 246; head constables, 329; constables, 2,066; sub-constables, 9,422; total, 12,107. At the above date there were 649 vacancies. There were 353 horses for the service of the force. The total expense for the year was 596,7591.; of which 24,2481. was borne by counties, cities, and towns; the remainder was a charge on the Consolidated Fund. The number of stipendiary magistrates was 71, at salaries varying from 3007. to 500l. a-year.
COUNTY COURTS.-In 1854, the number of plaints was 526,718; causes tried, &c., 282,220; amount of plaints, 1,544,650l.; amount for which judgment was obtained, 751,0997.; paid into court before judgment, 111,2071.; amount of fees, 271,0791. The plaints and causes tried had increased above 40,000. The gross sum received to the credit of suitors was 607,824/. and the amount paid was 601,1857. The number of causes tried by a jury was 715, in 362 of which the party requiring a jury gained a verdict.
CORONERS' INQUESTS.-In England and Wales, in the year 1853, according to a recent return, which, however, is not quite complete, there were 18,671 inquests held. Of the jurymen attending these inquests at least twelve in every case-11,336, unable to write, have a mark opposite their names.
V.--Poor Laws, &c.
AMOUNT of MONEY EXPENDED for IN-MAINTENANCE and OUT-DOOR RELIEF in 623 UNIONS and SINGLE PARISHES in ENGLAND and WALES during the Half-year ended at Lady-day, 1855.
Totals of England 579 13,117 487,455 1,414,101 1,901,556 116,027 9,544
The above expenditure applies to 623 unions and parishes under the Poor Law Amendment Act, but does not include parishes under Local Acts, Gilbert's Act, and the 43rd of Elizabeth (excepting those acting under the Accounts Order of the Poor Law Commissioners), the total expenditure for in-maintenance and out-relief of which for the halfyear ended Lady-day, 1855, may be stated at about 181,800. The cost of maintaining irremovable poor is included in the above return. The total population of England and Wales, according to the Census of 1851, was 17,927,609.
The number of paupers in receipt of relief in the above unions on July 1, 1854, in-door and out-door, was 796,081; on July 1, 1855, it was 810,983. Of these, in 1854, there were 15,297 in-door, and 109,970 out-door, adult able-bodied paupers, 48,389 of the out-door recipients being widows. On July 1, 1855, the number of adult able-bodied paupers in-door was 15,891, out-door 116,158, of whom 51,351 were widows. At the earlier date 1,265 wives of soldiers and sailors were in the receipt of relief, at the latter there were 2,206.
POOR LAW RELIEF.-The total number of Paupers in receipt of relief on Jan. 1, 1855, in 620 unions and parishes, was 840,720, an increase of upwards of 20,000 over the preceding year. Of adult able-bodied paupers relieved, exclusive of vagrants, there were 142,656, of which number upwards of 49,300 were widows. Of the gross number 22,425 were in the receipt of in-door relief.
POOR RELIEF, IRELAND.-In the year 1854 the total number of Paupers relieved in 167 unions was 326,274; of these 7,954 were relieved out of the house, and 318,320 in the house. The total expenditure for the year was 746,4077. 10s., of which 466,5031. 5s. was expended in in-door maintenance, and only 3,7261. 17s. on out-door relief, inclusive of medical aid and lodging.
WORKHOUSE FARMS, IRELAND.-In 1854 there were 1,288 acres in cultivation by the inmates of workhouses. The total cost for the year had been 6,5147; the total value returned, estimating what was consumed in the workhouse, was 12,8067.; the value of stock on the farms at the close of 1853 was 7,934/., at the end of 1854 it was 8,7431. The WORKHOUSE MANUFACTURE Account showed a value return of 39,6021. against an expenditure of 26,663l., with an increase of stock on hand of 17,6761. against 17,3217. at the close of the preceding year, or a profit of 13,3841.
POOR RELIEF, SCOTLAND.-A return is given of minute details, consisting of 23 pages of tables, without a summary. The amount is very small.
NATIONAL VACCINE BOARD.-In 1854 there were distributed by the Board 222,532 charges of lymph; the number having fallen back to the average after the large increase of last year. The number of persons reported as having been vaccinated by the stationary vaccinators in the metropolis was 9,198, and 153,510 by other practitioners, the latter number, however, being only a small portion of the total number of cases, as the returns, being quite voluntary, are more frequently omitted than made, though the Board urgently request a return. The demands of lymph for the public service had been great, supplies having been sent to the fleets in the Black Sea and the Baltic, to 260 emigrant ships, to the depots of regiments at home and abroad, and to the militia force. Supplies of lymph had also been sent to France, Belgium, Prussia, Holland, Hanover, Spain, and Portugal, the Azores, Madeira, St. Helena, Sierra Leone, Persia, East Indies, Ceylon, Manilla, China, Nova Scotia, Martinique, Newfoundland, Bahia, and other places. Small-pox had prevailed with great severity in several parts of great Britain, and the Board regret to state that vaccination is still in many cases imperfectly performed, and while that continues no hope can be entertained of the small-pox being extirpated.
PUBLIC WORKS AND BUILDINGS.--Sums granted for such objects in the
years 1854 and 1855.