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the owners; and in cases of dispute, where the charge does not exceed 201., the cause to be decided summarily, as in case of seamen's wages not exceeding 501. The copy under seal (§ 13) of the regulations of the Board of Health to be evidence in all proceedings, and any wilful obstruction or violation of the regulations (S 14) subjects the offender to a penalty not exceeding 51. for every offence. The provisions of the • Nuisance Act,' ($ 15) as to the serving of notices, &c., are to apply to this Act.
SALE OF BEER. [18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 113.- August 14, 1855.] An Act to repeal the Act 17 and 18 Vict., cap. 79, for further regulating
the Sale of Beer and other Liquors on the Lord's Day, and to substitute other Provisions in lieu thereof.
The Act 17 and 18 Vict., cap. 79, is repealed, and by SS 2 and 3 licensed victuallers and persons licensed to sell beer by retail, whether to be drunk on the premises or not, as also others selling wine by retail to be drunk on the premises, or keeping any house or place of public resort, in England or Wales, shall not "open or keep open his house for the sale of or to sell beer, wine, spirits, or any other fermented or distilled liquor, between the hours of three and five o'clock in the afternoon, nor after eleven o'clock in the afternoon on Sunday, or on Christmas-day, or Good Friday, or any day appointed a public fast or thanksgiving, or before four o'clock in the morning of the day following such Sunday, Christmas-day, Good Friday, or such days of public fast or thanksgiving, except to a traveller or to a lodger therein.” Power is given ($ 4) to any constable to enter any house of public resort in England or Wales, licensed for the sale by retail of beer, wine, or spirits, at any time; and persons refusing them admittance or obstructing them are to be deemed guilty of an offence against this Act, and every offence ($ 5) is to be punished by a penalty not exceeding 51., on conviction before a magistrate.
PASSENGERS' ACT AMENDMENT.
(18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 119.—August 14, 1855.] An Act to amend the Law relating to the Carriage of Passengers by Sea.
This Act repeals the Act of 15 and 16 Vict., cap. 42, but embodies most of its provisions. (See Comp. to Alm. for 1853,' p. 118, et seq.] The chief alterations are making more stringent provisions for allowing somewhat more room to passengers, only one passenger to be taken for every two tons of register; for providing more boats to ships of more than 1,200 tons burthen; and for facilitating the enforcement of contracts with passengers; with penalties for the infraction of any of the regulations.
METROPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT.
(18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 120.- August 14, 1855.] An Act for the better Local Management of the Metropolis. Of this enormously long Act (it contains 251 clauses, besides a quantity of schedules, occupying upwards of 100 large 8vo. pages) it is impossible, within our limits, to present an analysis in the usual form,
and we therefore prefer giving an outline of its objects. An edition of the Act itself, with notes and explanatory introduction, is published by James J. Scott, Esq., Barrister-at-Law, Chief Clerk to the General Board of Health,
The Bill begins by repealing the Act of 1 and 2 Wm. IV., cap. 60, • For the better regulation of Vestries' as far as regards the metropolitan parishes. In those parishes, which are enumerated in two schedules, the vestry shall consist of a certain number of qualified vestrymen, at the rate of 18 vestrymen for every parish in which the number of rated householders shall not exceed 1,000; 24 in which the number is above 1,000, and 12 additional vestrymen for every additional 1,000 rated householders; always provided that in no case shall the whole number of vestrymen exceed 120, and that the incumbent and church wardens shall constitute a part of the vestry. Parishes which contain more than 2,000ʻrated householders are to be divided into wards. The qualification for a vestryman is to be a rating for the relief of the poor of not less than 40l. per annum, except in places where the poor-rate assessments of 401. do not exceed in number onesixth of the whole number of assessments, in which case the qualification is reduced to 25l. The first election of vestrymen is to be held between the 5th and 21st of November after the passing of the Act, and the next election in the month of May, 1857. In parishes where the Select Vestries Act is in force the elections will not take place till next May. Auditors of accounts are to be elected in the same manner as vestrymen. The mode of election is that of ballot.
In certain great parishes, such as Marylebone, the vestry is to form a body corporate, but divided into wards. The minor parishes are to be united into district boards, each also forming a body corporate, with power to hold land. The number of vestries so constituted is 23, and the number of district boards 13; but, as a great centralised authority, there is to be a Metropolitan Board of Works, consisting of 45 members. Three members of this board are to be elected by the common council for the City, two members by each of the six larger parishes, one member by each of the 17 smaller parishes, and one member by each of the 13 districts. A chairman of this board, with a salary of not less than 1,5001. a-year, and not more than 2,0001., is to be appointed; three persons for this office are to be nominated by the Metropolitan Board, out of which the Secretary of State shall select one.
We now proceed to the duties which these authorities are to be entrusted with. First, all sewers, except main sewers, are vested in the - vestries and district boards, with powers to repair and to construct new oues, and to compel every needful measure of private drainage. All powers of paving, lighting, watering, cleansing, or improving any parish are also vested in the same authorities, with the additional powers of surveyors of highways. A very needful provision is that they may appoint crossing-sweepers; and another, that they may construct those public accommodations whose want has been long a reproach to London.
But, beyond duties which have heretofore been performed by various authorities, the vestries and district boards have a most important trust committed to them, with reference to the public health. Every vestry and district board is to appoint one or more legally qualified medical practitioners of skill and experience, to be called “ medical officers of health,” to inspect and report upon the sanitary state of the parish or district; to ascertain the existence of diseases, and especially of epidemics; to point out the most efficient mode of preventing their
spreading; and to have regard to the ventilation of churches, chapels, schools, lodging-houses, and other public buildings. Further, every vestry and district board shall appoint such number of persons to be “ inspectors of nuisances” as may be thought fit.
The Metropolitan Board of Works has extensive duties and powers. This higher executive has the control of all the main sewers, which have been previously vested in Commissioners. “ Such board shall make such sewers and works as they may think necessary for preventing all or any part of the sewage within the metropolis from flowing or passing into the river Thames in or near the metropolis, and shall cause such works to be completed on or before the 31st December, 1860.” This board may declare district sewers to be made main sewers, and may make orders for controlling vestries and district boards in the construction of sewers. The Metropolitan Board may regulate the naming of streets and the number of houses, and may alter the name of any street. This is, indeed, a very needful power; for great is the perplexity with the Charlotte-streets and the George-streets of every quarter. The Metropolitan Board has also large powers to make improvements in widening streets, and facilitating the traffic of various parts of the capital.
The expenses to be incurred by the vestries and district boards under their various powers are to be levied by rate, distinguishing the three several heads of sewers rate, lighting rate, and general rate. The Metropolitan Board is to levy a rate upon the same principle as the county rate. There is a general power to district boards and vestries to borrow, upon the credit of the rates, any sums necessary for carrying on their works. Their accounts are to be balanced up to the end of each year, and they are to make annual reports, to be published at a very low price.
This Act may be extended, by order in council, to parishes adjoining the metropolis, not having less than 750 ratepayers.
The following schedules of the Bill exhibit the various parishes and districts of the metropolis that are to come under the provisions of the new law. (The' figures below indicate the number of vestrymen, as subsequently determined.)
SCHEDULE A. Part I.—Parishes each electing Two Members of the Metropolitan Board
of Works. Members.
Members, St. Marylebone
120 St. George, Hanover-square St. Pancras.
120 Islington, St. Mary Lambeth
120 Shoreditch, St. Leonard Part II.—Parishes each elccting One Member of the Metropolitan Board of Works,
72 St. George the Martyr, SouthSt. Matthew, Bethnal-green
wark St. Mary Newington, Surrey 72 Bermondsey
36 Camberwell, including Peckham84 St. George in the East . St. James, Westminster 48 St. Martin in the Fields St. James and St. John, Clerk- Hamlet of Mile End Old Town 84 enwell
72 Woolwich. Chelsea
60 Rotherhithe. Kensington, St. Mary Abbot 84 St. John, Hampstead. St. Luke.
108 120 120
SCHEDULE B.-PARISHES UNITED INTO DISTRICTS FOR THE PURPOSES
OF THE Act.
elected. Whitechapel :
Saffron Hill, Hatton Gar-
den, Ely Rents, and
49 Liberty of Norton Folgate 3
St. Giles in the Fields 27
St. George, Bloomsbury 21 Total 58
48 Westminster:St. Margaret
30 Strand :St. John the Evangelist. 27
St. Anne, Soho
18 St. Paul, Covent-garden. Total .
57 St. John the Baptist, SaGreenwich :
voy, or precinct of the St. Paul, Deptford, includ
Savoy ing Hatcham
21 St. Mary-le-Strand St. Nicholas, Deptford 6
St. Clement Danes
30 Liberty of the Rolls
St. Peter and St. Paul,
Holborn, St. George the
Part II.- Districts united for electing One Memler each of the Metropo
litan Bourd of Works. Name Members Name
Members of Parishes,
to le District. elected. District.
elected, St. Saviour's :
15 Charlton next Woolwich 9
12 Liberty of the Clink. 18 Eltham, including Mot
6 united Total .
NUISANCES REMOVAL AND DISEASES PREVENTION.
[18 and 19 Victoriæ, cap. 121.-August 14, 1855.] An Act to consolidate and amend the Nuisance Removal and Diseases
Prevention Acts, 1848 and 1819. The first and second clauses repeal the previous Acts (except as regards uncompleted proceedings), and define the interpretation of terms used in the Aet. It is then divided into three parts; the first relates to the constitution of the local authority, the expenses of its execution, the description of the nuisances that may be dealt with under it, and the powers of entry. Part II.
relates to the proceedings to be taken for the removal of nuisances. Part III. relates to the legal procedure under the Act, such as serving of notices, recovery of penalties, appeals to quarter-sessions, &c. Under Part I. § 3 enacts that the Local Board of Health, wherever one is established, shall be the local authority; but where there is none, the authority shall be vested in the following bodies, if any, in the order recited :-1. The corporation; 2. The commissioners under an improvement Act; 3. The trustees or commissioners of highways ; 4. A committee to be chosen by vestry, not more than twelve in number, and of which the surveyors of highways shall be members ex-officio; 5. The board of inspectors for lighting or watching; 6. The guardians and overseers of the poor, with the surveyors of highways. In the city of London the local authority is to be the Commissioners of Sewers, and in Oxford and Cambridge the Commissioners for Local Improvements. In cases of vacancy in any of the preceding boards ($ 4) the vestry is to fill up the vacancy by election, but the remaining members are empowered to act; and any of such boards may appoint (§ 5) a committee from their own body to carry this Act into effect, of whom two shall be a quorum. In extraparochial places having a population of not less than 200 ($ 6) a Nuisances Removal Committee is to be annually elected in some day in Easter week; where the population is under 200, they are to be attached to and form part of the adjacent place having the largest