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BRITISILLA

OF

THE SOCIETY "NOWLEDGE,

THE DIFFUSYON OF USEFUL

FOR THE YEAR OF OUR LORD

185 6,

BEING BISSEXTILE, OR LEAP YEAR.

Page
PRELIMINARY NOTES.

Esplanatory Notices . 2
Correspondence of Eras
with 1856

2
Table for finding Sun-

rising and Sun-setting 3, 4
High Water at Outports . 3
Heights of High Water at

the London Docks for
1856.

.6, 7
Occuliations of Stars

..8,9
Table of Duration of
Moonlight

10
Notes for the Year.... 11
Eclipses in 1856.

11
The Four Quarters of the
Year

11
Terms and Returns ... 11
Transfer Days

12
Holidays at Public Offices 12

Quarter-Sessions ..... 13
THE CALENDAR ... 14-37
Hebrew and Mohamme-

dan Calendars ... 14--36
MISCELLANEOUS REGIS-

TER.
The Royal Family

38
Chief Officers of the

Queen's Household 38
Prince Albert's Household 38
Prince of Wales's do. 39
Duchess of Kent's do. 39

The Ministry. ... 39
List of House of Peers .. 40
List of House of Commons . 44
Alphabetical List of Members 49

.

LONDON:
KNIGHT AND CO., 90, FLEET STREET.

Page
Foundation Schools .... 69
Scotch Universities

70
Dublin University

71
Queen's University and
Colleges .....

71
Maynooth College..... 72
Belfast Institution ..... 72
Inns of Court ..... 72
Scientific Institutions ... 72

Page
English Bishops and Deans 31
Courts of Law.. .... 51
Lords Lieutenant

54
Foreign Ministers in Eng.

land, and Queen's Minis-
ters abroad.

54
Lord Mayor and Aldernen of
London ...

55
SCOTLAND

56
IRELAND

57
COLONIES

.60
COMMERCE.
Bank Directors

62
Branch Banks.

62
East India Directors 62
Bankers in London

62
Army Agents .

63
Navy Agents

63
EDUCATION.
University of Oxford 63

Cambridge . 65

London ... 65
University College, London 66
King's College... .. 67
New College, London .. 68
College of Preceptors .. 68
Owen's Coll., Manchester. . 68
Manchester New College, . 68
Queen's Coll., Birmingham 68
Durham University
St. David's College.... 69
St. Augustine's College .. 69
Royal Mil. Coll.,Sandhurst 69
Royal Mil. Acad. Woolwich 69
Royal Naval Coll., Ports-

mouth.
East India Coll., Hajleybury 69
Royal Veterinary College 69

MISCELLANEOUS INFOR-

MATION.
Table of Kings and Queens 76
Circuits of the Judges .. 76
Central Criminal Court . 76
Law and other Public
Offices ..

.77
Iron-Masters' Quarterly
Meetings,

.. 79
Hackney Carriage Fares 79
Allowance to witnesses . . 80
Metropolitan WaterComps. 80

Gas do... 80
Fire-Engine Stations ... 80
General and Twopenny

Pos Office ..... 80--83
Mail Routes.

83--87
Principal Club Houses . . 87
Fire and Life Insurance
Companies

88--90
Exhibitions, &c., open to

the Public gratuitously. 90
Cost of Licenses
Stamps :
Assessed Taxes ...
Ruleforcalculating interest 95
Table to calculate Wages. 95
Weights and Measures . . 95
Weight of English Coins . 96
Memoranda for 1837. . . . 96

.... 68

....SO
..... 92

..94

.. 69

Price One Shilling, stitched in a wrapper; or, bound in cloth with the Companion to

the Almanac, Four Shillings,

LONDON : PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

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EXPLANATORY NOTICES.

Explanation of the column headed Thermometrical Register." The Thermometrical Register commences with Nov. 1854, and closes with Oct, 1855, inclusive. These registers have been carefully copied from those made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and which are also deposited with the Royal Society. They show the highest and lowest ranges within each twenty-four hours, from twelve different readings. Each month is placed with its corresponding month, as affording the most ready and advantageous means of comparison, although by this arrangement the register of the last two months of 1854 follows the ten months of 1855, which are all we can give up to the day of publication. Erplanation of the columns headed Length of day," Day's increase or decrease,”

Day breaks,and Twilight ends." The column headed “Length of day” contains the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and sunset. The column headed “Day's increase expresses the number of hours and minutes which the day has increased since the shortest day; and, where the column is headed “Day's decrease,” it expresses the number of hours and minutes which the day has decreased since the longest day; for example, the length of the longest day in 1856 is put down in the column “Length of day" at 16h. 34m, ; and on the 6th of July following we find that the length of the day, or the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and sunset, is set down at 16h. 23m.; hence the day has decreased 10m. since the longest day, and, accordingly, in the column “Day's decrease,” we find opposite July the 6th Oh. 11m.

Equation of Time. In this Almanac the calculations are all made for mean time (given by the clock), instead of apparent time (given the sun-dial), which latter had been used up to the year 1833. It must be obvious that, for all practical purposes, mean time is the most useful; and to obtain it from apparent time, the columns in the Almanac headed * Equation of Time” should be used. The column “ Equation of Time” ought, for exanıple, to be consulted when persons are desirous of setting their clock by a sun-dial. When clock after sun is written above the number of minutes and seconds opposite to the day, then the clock ought to be set so much slower than the sun-dial, and the contrary,

Moonlight. Tue Moon's age is set down in days and the nearest tenths of days from the time of change. Thus it is New Moon on the 7th of January at 11h. 17m. afternoon, and there. fore at noon on the 8th she is 12h. 43m, old, which is set down as five-tenths. The fraction of the day of course continues the same throughout the lunation.

LIST OF THE CORRESPONDENCE OF ERAS WITH THE YEAR 1856. [In those Eras which begin with the Christian year, the year alone is stated; in those

which begin at a different season, the month in which the 1st of January, 1856, occurs is also given.]

Correspondence Abbre.

with 1856. viations. Roman Year

2009 A.U.C. Year of the World (Constantinopolitan account)

7364 A.M. Const. Ditto (Alexandrian account)

7348 A.M. Alex. Ditto (Jewish account)..

23rd Thebet 5616 A.M. Era of Nabonassar

8th Pharmuti 2604 Ær. Nab. Egyptian

25th Cohiac 2602

A. Eg. Julian Period

6569 Jul. Per. Dioclesian, or of Martyrs

25th Cohiac 1572 Ær. Diocl. Seleucides, or Grecian

Audynæus 2167 Ær. Seleuc. Death of Alexander

3d month of 2179 A. Mor. Alex. Era of Tyre ..

......... Audynæus 1980 Ær. Tyr. Cæsarian of Antioch (Greek)

Audynæus 1904 Cæs. Ant.
Ditto (Syrian)

Canun II.

1903 Era of Abraham

4th month of 3871 Ær. Abr. Spanish, or of the Cæsars

1894 A. Cæs. Persian 'Era of Yezdegird III. (Parsee account)

1223 A. Pers. Armenian common year..

..5th Kaghots 1305 An, Arm. Ditto ecclesiastical year

12th Kaznots 1304 Hegira

..22nd Rabiu II. 1272 A.H. Kaliyug..

Poos or Margaly 4957

Cal. Salivahana

Ditto 1778 Saca. Vikramaditya ..

Ditto

1912 Samvat,

Correspondence Abbre.

with 1856. viations, Bengalee

Poos or Margaly 1262 Beng. Sen. Fuslee (Bengal account)

Ditto

1263 Fusl. Ditto (Telinga account)

Ditto

1265 Era of Collam

4th month of 1031 Collam. Grahaparivrithi 80th year of 21st cycle

Grah. Brihuspotee

1st year of 85th cycle

Cycl. Brih. Ditto

50th year of 83rd cycle Chinese Year

11th month of Yih-maou. AUXILIARY TABLE FOR FINDING THE TIME OF SUN.

RISING AND SETTING. The time of Sunrise and Sunset in the 'British Almanac' is adapted to the parallel of

latitude in which London is situated_viz. 510 30'. The following table has been constructed to show the variations of time through the United Kingdom-namely, between the latitude of 580 and 500 10' N. The times of sun-rising and sun-setting are computed for the instant that the sun's centre is even with the horizon of the sea. The number of minutes found in this table under the month-day, and in the required latitude, are to be applied to the time of sun-rising and setting found on that day in the Almanac; the result will be the time of his rising and setting at the place required. Ex. At what time will the sun rise and set on May 21 at Edinburgh? The time of sunrise and sunset on that day in the Almanac is 4h. 2m. A.m., and 7h. 52m. P. M. In the tables in parallel of 560, in which Edinburgh is found, and under May 21, are 23 minutes; which, subtracted from 4h. 2m., leaves 3h. 39m. for time of sunrise; and, added to 7h. 52m., gives 8h. 15m, for time of sun-setting.

The places which follow the different parallels are situate within 15 miles of latitude either north or south of it. Lat.

GREAT BRITAIN. 580 Oʻ-Dornoch, Tain, Dunrobin, Portenleik, Dunclaim. 570 30'—Peterhead, Fraserburg, Banff, Elgin, Cromarty, Inverness, Applecross. 570 0'- Aberdeen, Bervie, Braemar, Laggan, Cornock. 560 30'_ Forfar, Dundee, Perth, Comrie, Ardchattan. 5600'_Berwick, Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Kinross, Stirling, Dumbarton,

Glasgow. 550 30'_Embleton, Jedburgh, Selkirk, Sanquhar, Lanark, Irvine, Ayr. 550 0'- Newcastle, Morpeth, Carlisle, Annan, Dumfries, New Galloway, Wigtown. 540 30'--Scarborough, Whitby, Hartlepool, Stockton, Richmond, Appleby, Cocker.

mouth, Whitehaven, North part of Isle of Man. 540 0'_New Malton, York, Aldborough, Clitheroe, Lancaster, Preston. 530 30'—Grimsby, Kingston-upon-Hull, Pontefract, Manchester, Wigan, Liverpool,

Beaumaris, Holyhead. 53° 0'-Lynn Regis, Boston, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Stafford, Flint, Chester,

Denbigh, Caernarvon, Harlech. 520 30'— Yarmouth, Norwich, Thetford, Ely, Peterborough, Leicester, Coventry, Lich.

field, Shrewsbury, Ludlow, Montgomery, Aberystwith. 520 0'-Ipswich, Colchester, Cambridge, Hertford, Bedford, Buckingham, Oxford,

Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford, Monmouth, Brecon, Caermarthen, Car

digan, St. David's. 510 30'-- LONDON, 'Ramsgate, Canterbury, Rochester, Chelmsford, Windsor, Walling.

ford, Marlborough, Malmesbury, Bath, Bristol, Newport, Cardiff, Llandalf,

Pembroke. 510 0'-Dover, Winchelsea, Brighton, Guildford, Chichester, Winchester, Portsmouth,

Southampton, Salisbury, Shaftesbury, Wells, Ilchester, Taunton, Bridge.

water, Minehead, Barnstaple. 500 30'—Newport (I. W.), Poole, Weymouth, Exeter, Ashburton, Totnes, Plymouth,

Tavistock, Launceston, Bodmin, Camelford, Padstow. 500 10'_Truro, Falmouth, Helstone, Penzance.

IRELAND. 550 0ʻ_Carrickfergus, Antrim, Coleraine, Londonderry, Lifford, St. Johnstown. 540 30'—Belfast, Killyleagh, Downpatrick, Armagh, Charlemont, Dungaunon, Augher,

Donegal, Ballyshannon, Enniskillen, Sligo. 54° 0' _Carlingford, Newry, Dundalk, Drogheda, Kells, Cavan, Belturbet, Carrick,

Boyle, Castlebar, Killala. 530 30'—Dublin, Swords, Naas, Athboy, Mullingar, Philipstown, Kilbeggan, Athione,

Roscommon, Lanesboro', Tulsk, Tuam, Ballinrobe. 530 0'— Wicklow, Blessington, Baltinglass, Carlow, Athy, Kildare, Portarlington,

Maryborough, Ballynakill, Banagher, Galway, Ennis. 520 30'_Newborough, Enniscorthy, Wexford, Kilkenny, Cullen, Clonmell, Cashel,

Killmallock, Limerick, Askeyton. 520 O'Waterford, Dungarvon, Youghal, Tallagh, Lismore, Rathcormack, Cork,

Marlow, Killarney, Tralee, Ardfast, Dingle. 51° 30'-Kinsale, Bandor, Clonekelty, Baltimore.

B 2

January February 11121 | 111 21

March 11121

April 1 11 21

May 1121

June 1 11 21

11122

August September October November December 1 11 21 111 21 11121 1 11 21 1 11 21

Lat

m m m 12 6 0

m mm 6 12 17

m mm m m m 22 27 33 38 40 42

m m m 40 37 33

m m m 28 23 19

mm m 13 7 1

mm m 6 10 14

m m m 21 26 32

m m m 38 40 42

580 0'

24 19 15

6 11 16

11 6 0

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580 to 51° 30' add to time of Sun-rising. Subtract from

time of Suri-setting.

Subtract from time of Sun-rising.

Add to time of Sun-setting.

Add to time of Sun-rising. Subtract from time of Sun

setting.

m mm m mm 40 33 32 26 21 17

570 30

37 35 30

6 9 13

20 24 30

35 37 38

570 0'.

31 32 27

50° 30'

31 29 25
28 26 22

560 0
55° 30'
550 0'

25 23 20

22 20 17

19 17 15

54° 30'

540 0

16 14 12

53° 30'

530 0

520 30'

520 0'

51° 30'

5100'

50° 30'
500 10'

510 30' to 50° 10' subtract

from time of Sun-rising. Add to time of Sun-setting.

Add to time of Sun-rising. Subtract from time of Sun-setting.

Subtract from time of Sun

rising. Add to time of Suo-setting.

h. m.

HIGH WATER. The following List, showing the difference of Time, nearly, between London and the Out.

ports of the United Kingdom, as well as a few foreign Ports, is derived from Local Tide Tables, and the best books on Navigation.

h. m. Aberdeen sub. 0 55 Helleroet Sluys

add 0 7 Alderney Picr add 4 39 Holyhead Harbour

sub. 3 42 Antwerp.. 3 36 Horn Point

2 16 Ardrishaig sub. 2 7 Hull

add 4 22 Ayr Harbour. 2 41 Hythe

sub. 3 21 Bantry Bay

add 1 40
Ilfracombe.

add 3 39 Barnstaple Bar 3 45 Jersey (St. Aubyn)

4 4 Beachy Head.. sub. 1 48 King's Road

4 42 Berwick add o 12 Kingstown Harbour..

sub. 2 54 Blakeney Harbour - 3 54 Kinsale Harbour

1 54 Blexen sub. 0 56 Leith

add 0 10 Boulogne - 2 40 Lerwick Harbour..

sub. 4 6 Brest Harbour

add 1 40
Little Hampton

2 21 Brielle..

0 54
Liverpool

2 44 Brighton..

sub. 2 28 Lough Foyle (Londonderry) add 5 53 Bristol..

add 5 10
Margate..

sub. 2 2 Buchan-ness sub. 2 16 Milford Haven, entrance to ..

add 3 39 Calais 2 36 Montrose

sub. 0 38 Campbeltown 2 36 Morlaix

add 2 59 Cape Clear..

add 1 54
Mount's Bay

2 34 Cardigan Bar 4 39 Newhaven

sub. 2

15 Carmarthen Bay - 3 52 Newport (Isle of Wight)

3 10 Cherbourg -5 51 New Shoreham Harbour

2 17 Chichester Harbour sub. 2 9 Orfordness..

3 36 Christchurch Harbour.. 5 16 Ostend

1 56 Cork Harbour (Queenstown).. add 2 24 Peel Harbour, Isle of Man

3 46 Cowes

sub. 3 21 Pembroke Dock-Yard... add 4 5 Crinan.............

add 1 53
Port Glasgow

sub. 2 41 Cromarty sub. 2 2 Port Patrick

3 Cuxhaven 1 6 Portsmouth Harbour ...

2 26 Dartmouth Harbour

add 3 54 Ramsay Harbour, Isle of Man - 2 56 Devonport Dock-Yard 3 36 Ramsgate Harbour

2 26 Dieppe sub. 2 59 Rye Harbour..

3 40 Donegal Bar

add 2
59 Scarborough

add 2

9 Douglas Harbour, Isle of Man sub. 2 56 Scilly Islands..

2 24 Dover Harbour 2 55 Shannon Mouth

144 Dublin

54 Sligo Bay

- 3 53 Duncansby Head .. 5 51 Southampton..

sub. 3 26 Dundee add 0 29 Southend and Sheerness

1 27 Dunkerque sub. 2 26 Spurn Point, the

add 3 14 Exmouth Bar add 4 19 St. Ives

14 Eyder, Mouth of the sub. 2 26 St. Malo

3 34 Eyemouth 0 9 Stromness

sub. 5 6 Falmouth Harbour add 3 9 Sunderland..

add 1 15 Flushing (Walcheren).. sub. 0 46 Tay Bar ..

sub. 0 1 Folkestone 3 7 Texel Road

5 6 Fort George 2 6 Torbay

add 3

54 Galway

add 2
22 Tynemouth Bar

0 44 Glenluce Bay sub. 3 20 Waterford, Hook Point of..

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2

2

- 3

4 Gravelines 2 26 Wells Harbour..

- 3 54 Greenock

2 41 West Scheldt, entrance ...... sub. 1 31 Guernsey Pier add 4 24 Weymouth.

add 4 51 Hartlepool....

1 24
Whitby

1 24 Hastings.... sub. 3 14 Wigton Bay

sub. 3 26 Havre de Grace

-4 16
Wranger Oog

2 6 Heligoland...... - 2 22 Yarmouth Road

- 5 36

மமைல்

To find the time of High Water at the above Places, it will be necessary to add or subtract the numbers in the above Table, according to the directions here given, to or from the time of High Water at London, as given in the Calendar for the day required. For example:--On the 10th of January, the morning High Water at London Bridge

is 3h. 36m.; the High Water at Dover Harbour is 2h. 53m. earlier; subtract, according to the direction, 2h. 55m. from 3h. 36m., and the time of High Water at Dover Harbour on that day will be found to be at Oh. 41m, in the morning.

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