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THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL
THE SOCIETY POOWLEDGE,
FOR THE YEAR OF OUR LORD
KNIGHT AND CO., 90, FLEET STREET.
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LONDON: PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.
Explanation of the column headed "Thermometrical Register."
THE Thermometrical Register commences with Nov. 1854, and closes with Oct. 1855, inclusive. These registers have been carefully copied from those made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and which are also deposited with the Royal Society. They show the highest and lowest ranges within each twenty-four hours, from twelve different readings. Each month is placed with its corresponding month, as affording the most ready and advantageous means of comparison, although by this arrangement the register of the last two months of 1854 follows the ten months of 1855, which are all we can give up to the day of publication.
Explanation of the columns headed "Length of day," "Day's increase or decrease," Day breaks," and "Twilight ends."
THE column headed "Length of day" contains the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and sunset. The column headed "Day's increase' expresses the number of hours and minutes which the day has increased since the shortest day; and, where the column is headed "Day's decrease, it expresses the number of hours and minutes which the day has decreased since the longest day; for example, the length of the longest day in 1856 is put down in the column "Length of day" at 16h. 34m.; and on the 6th of July following we find that the length of the day, or the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and sunset, is set down at 16h. 23m.; hence the day has decreased 10m. since the longest day, and, accordingly, in the column "Day's decrease," we find opposite July the 6th Oh. 11m,
Equation of Time.
In this Almanac the calculations are all made for mean time (given by the clock), instead of apparent time (given by the sun-dial), which latter had been used up to the year 1833. It must be obvious that, for all practical purposes, mean time is the most useful; and to obtain it from apparent time, the columns in the Almanac headed "Equation of Time" should be used. The column "Equation of Time" ought, for example, to be consulted when persons are desirous of setting their clock by a sun-dial. When clock after sun is written above the number of minutes and seconds opposite to the day, then the clock ought to be set so much slower than the sun-dial, and the contrary.
THE Moon's age is set down in days and the nearest tenths of days from the time of change. Thus it is New Moon on the 7th of January at 11h. 17m. afternoon, and there. fore at noon on the 8th she is 12h. 43m. old, which is set down as five-tenths. The fraction of the day of course continues the same throughout the lunation.
LIST OF THE CORRESPONDENCE OF ERAS WITH THE YEAR 1856. [In those Eras which begin with the Christian year, the year alone is stated; in those which begin at a different season, the month in which the 1st of January, 1856, occurs is also given.]
AUXILIARY Table for finding the TIME OF SUNRISING AND SETTING.
The time of Sunrise and Sunset in the British Almanac' is adapted to the parallel of latitude in which London is situated-viz. 51° 30′.
THE following table has been constructed to show the variations of time through the United Kingdom-namely, between the latitude of 580 and 50° 10' N. The times of sun-rising and sun-setting are computed for the instant that the sun's centre is even with the horizon of the sea. The number of minutes found in this table under the month-day, and in the required latitude, are to be applied to the time of sun-rising and setting found on that day in the Almanac; the result will be the time of his rising and setting at the place required.-Ex. At what time will the sun rise and set on May 21 at Edinburgh? The time of sunrise and sunset on that day in the Almanac is 4h. 2m. A.M., and 7h. 52m. P.M. In the tables in parallel of 560, in which Edinburgh is found, and under May 21, are 23 minutes; which, subtracted from 4h. 2m., leaves 3h. 39m. for time of sunrise; and, added to 7h. 52m., gives 8h. 15m. for time of sun-setting.
The places which follow the different parallels are situate within 15 miles of latitude either north or south of it.
58° 0'-Dornoch, Tain, Dunrobin, Portenleik, Dunclaim.
57° 30'-Peterhead, Fraserburg, Banff, Elgin, Cromarty, Inverness, Applecross.
57° 0'-Aberdeen, Bervie, Braemar, Laggan, Cornock.
56° 30'-Forfar, Dundee, Perth, Comrie, Ardchattan.
56° 0'-Berwick, Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Kinross, Stirling, Dumbarton,
55° 30' Embleton, Jedburgh, Selkirk, Sanquhar, Lanark, Irvine, Ayr.
550 0'-Newcastle, Morpeth, Carlisle, Annan, Dumfries, New Galloway, Wigtown. 54° 30' Scarborough, Whitby, Hartlepool, Stockton, Richmond, Appleby, Cockermouth, Whitehaven, North part of Isle of Man.
54° 0'-New Malton, York, Aldborough, Clitheroe, Lancaster, Preston.
53° 30'-Grimsby, Kingston-upon-Hull, Pontefract, Manchester, Wigan, Liverpool, Beaumaris, Holyhead.
53° 0'-Lynn Regis, Boston, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Stafford, Flint, Chester, Denbigh, Caernarvon, Harlech.
520 30-Yarmouth, Norwich, Thetford, Ely, Peterborough, Leicester, Coventry, Lichfield, Shrewsbury, Ludlow, Montgomery, Aberystwith.
520 0'-Ipswich, Colchester, Cambridge, Hertford, Bedford, Buckingham, Oxford, Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford, Monmouth, Brecon, Caermarthen, Cardigan, St. David's.
51° 30'-LONDON, Ramsgate, Canterbury, Rochester, Chelmsford, Windsor, Wallingford, Marlborough, Malmesbury, Bath, Bristol, Newport, Cardiff, Llandaff, Pembroke. 51° 0'-Dover, Winchelsea, Brighton, Guildford, Chichester, Winchester, Portsmouth, Southampton, Salisbury, Shaftesbury, Wells, Ilchester, Taunton, Bridgewater, Minehead, Barnstaple.
50° 30'-Newport (I. W.), Poole, Weymouth, Exeter, Ashburton, Totnes, Plymouth, Tavistock, Launceston, Bodmin, Camelford, Padstow.
500 10'-Truro, Falmouth, Helstone, Penzance.
0'-Carrickfergus, Antrim, Coleraine, Londonderry, Lifford, St. Johnstown. 54° 30'-Belfast, Killyleagh, Downpatrick, Armagh, Charlemont, Dungannon, Augher, Donegal, Ballyshannon, Enniskillen, Sligo.
540 0'-Carlingford, Newry, Dundalk, Drogheda, Kells, Cavan, Belturbet, Carrick, Boyle, Castlebar, Killala.
530 30'-Dublin, Swords, Naas, Athboy, Mullingar, Philipstown, Kilbeggan, Athione, Roscommon, Lanesboro', Tulsk, Tuam, Ballinrobe.
0'-Wicklow, Blessington, Baltinglass, Carlow, Athy, Kildare, Portarlington, Maryborough, Ballynakill, Banagher, Galway, Ennis.
520 30'-Newborough, Enniscorthy, Wexford, Kilkenny, Cullen, Clonmell, Cashel, Killmallock, Limerick, Askeyton.
52° 0'-Waterford, Dungarvon, Youghal, Tallagh, Lismore, Rathcormack, Cork, Marlow, Killarney, Tralee, Ardfast, Dingle.
51° 30'-Kinsale, Bandor, Clonekelty, Baltimore.
The following List, showing the difference of Time, nearly, between London and the Outports of the United Kingdom, as well as a few foreign Ports, is derived from Local Tide Tables, and the best books on Navigation.
To find the time of High Water at the above Places, it will be necessary to add or subtract the numbers in the above Table, according to the directions here given, to or from the time of High Water at London, as given in the Calendar for the day required. For example:-On the 10th of January, the morning High Water at London Bridge is 3h. 36m.; the High Water at Dover Harbour is 2h. 55m. earlier; subtract, according to the direction, 2h. 55m. from 3h. 36m., and the time of High Water at Dover Harbour on that day will be found to be at Oh. 41m. in the morning.