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translated, but in 1814 he brought out the first printed Chinese copy of the Holy Bible. Ile was assisted by an old manuscript copy found in the British Museum, and by an enlightened Chinese scholar, his first convert. A shrewd energetic, money-making company of East Indian merchants, who never paid out money except for value received, recognized Morrison's services. They helped him publish his Chinese grammar, paid £15,000 to publish his dictionary, and made him Secretary of the Company. These books are the foundation of the chief commercial intercourse of France, England, and America with China--the recognized dialect or version of the China trade. All honor then throughout Christendom to Morrison the pioneer of the Christian world to the commerce, the Christianity, and civilization of China.
What do we know about China ? We take down the Chinese Repository from 1833 to 1851, edited by Dr. Bridgman, and ably followed by G. Wells Williams, anthor of the “ Middle Kingdom," a name long favorably connected with the Chinese Empire. A practical printer, he made great improvements and simplified the process; a ripe and a thorough scholar, his services as interpreter of our various embassies in Japan and in China were invaluable to us.* Without war or bloodshed we obtained equal rights with France and England in 1859 and, as a reward, our government honored themselves by appointing Mr. Williams Secretary of Legation to China. America made a deep and lasting impression, and China has intrusted her fortunes to, and asked to be introduced to the family of Christian nations by our American Burlingame. Williams sowed the seed. Burlingame is the ripened fruit. The American Missionary brought about that treaty. Mr. Burlingame said he owed more to Williams than to any oth
The 22d of February Washington was born. The 22d of February witnessed the death of Anson Burlingame, the statesinan and diplomatist of America. His career was unique and honorable. A true American, and yet his mind comprehended the genius of that wonderful empire. In him
* We have good evidence that Dr. Martin was also interpreter for the English and American embassies.-EDITOR.
was centred a rare combination of talents. Who can take his place and complete his unfinished work?
Again the missionary looms up before us. A new imperial college at Pekin must be established. Emancipated from Confucius, the best teachers must be given them. Dr. Martin, the missionary, is the man selected. A converted Chinaman has charge of the foundry and West Point school at Shanghai, and another convert directs the naval school at Fouchow. Euclid translated into Chinese by another missionary, Dr. Wylie, is the text-book of the school.
Rev. Dr. IIepburn, the missionary, and a thorough Japanese scholar, after several years of hard work, has just completed his dictionary of Japanese and English words. The first edition of 1,200 copies was soon exhausted, 300 copies being specially ordered by the Japanese government for the use of their scholars and officials. This work is printed at the mission press at Shanghai, brought there by Williams. On this work is founded our commercial intercourse with Japan. To Dr. Morrison, in China, Dr. Hepburn, in Japan, both Christian missionaries, the commercial world owes the foundation of our commerce with these important countries.* Do we not, however, in honesty owe a great debt to the missionary, and shall we be backward in acknowledging it?
Again, the Japanese government has established a national school at Jeddo, the capital, for their youth to be instructed in Japanese and English. Mr. Verbeck, another missionary, is at the head of that department, and has a class of 250 pupils. The Japanese government pay his salary, give him a house in which he resides, and furnish him a guard of honor. Martin in China, Verbeck in Japan, both missionaries, both at the head of the national schools in their respective capitals. The American missionary is giving into the hands of our merchants the prized commerce of the continent of Asia. The Christian missionary is the pioneer of the com
* We do not, indeed, forget that long before the time of Morrison or Hepburn the Dutch and Portuguese had a considerable trade with China and Japan. The medium of communication between the merchants and the natives is not exclucively the Chinese or Japanese as learned from Morrison or Hepburn, but likewise a corrupt form of the English.—EDITOR.
merce, Christianity, and civilization of Asia. Shall they not have the credit of it? Let us now attend to the reflex action of China upon our own country. Will the Chinese prove the solution of the labor question?
The mineral question concerns us all. With a plentiful supply of gold and silver the financial question becomes an easier problem. Gold and silver being plenty, a stream is started that will vivity and fertilize the most barren parts of every land. The foreign mineral lands are mostly owned by England, France, Prussia, Austria, Italy. Those classic lands, however, hardly equal the territory of our mineral lands. What a precious heritage providence has bestowed upon us? Are we equal to the responsibility? Time will test the wisdom of our policy. Silver, quicksilver, wedded together, each is necessary, indispensable, for the other. Our quicksilver, ten times richer than any other mine, destroying the great monopoly of Spain, cheapens the price, and stimulates to a wonderful extent the product of the South American mines. Graphite also is ours, the indispensable necessity of the crucible to melt the silver and the gold, indestructible by fire, and not absorbing the precious metal. Did ever Providence give so grand a possession to any nation? The extent of territory--903,000 square miles-population, 780,000—not one person to a square mile. The same extent of country in Europe has a population of 150,000,000 of people. The great want is population. Can our native population supply the demand? By no means. We want a large number immediately, and an inexhaustible source of supply. Whence shall it come? China—China alone can meet the demand. Nature has formed them for these very services. Physically formed, they safely breathe the impure air of mines and subterranean passages, where other races faint and perish. A people distinguished for their patient industry, they have learned to toil. They have made their country a garden spot, and enriched it beyond all other lands. They have a great genius for steady work and unfailing perseverance. · We need a docile, quiet, inoffensive race, not afraid or ashamed to work, and here we have them. They ask no political favors, and do not seek to be our legislators and rulers. They have learned
stability at home and they like a strong orderly government. They are an educated people, and venerate learning. The poorest coolie can often read and write. Now for the application. They are anxious, begging for hard work. Our people are restless, and wish to avoid it. They work at the mines all day and are satisfied with eight dollars a week. Onr people grumble and pass on to richer diggings at twenty-eight dollars a week. They come and glean and obtain a competency after our populace have decided they must move or starve. Quartz mining is inexhaustible, and yet our people, recklessly extravagant, have already wasted $300,000,000. Certainly the time has come for a new system, for a slow, plodding, but not a reckless people. We need the silver and the gold, our currency and fiscal operations plead strongly for it. Shall we neglect the gift that Providence has provided for us? But there is a bitter prejudice against this Mongolian race. Let us heed our lesson. Such prejudices must succumb.
The want of good household servants is a great and deplorable evil. For every disease, however, Providence provides the remedy, and often summons human ingenuity to work out the problem. When hand labor was too expensive, God provided machinery; when sewing-girls were exhausted, the machine took their place. The mails are not rapid enough, and we use the telegraph. So in the present case the Chinese, possessing all the qualities of good servants, are at our door, begging, --not with brazen look and arrogant manner, as too many are, demanding employment. They are good cooks, the best in the world, the French excepted. They will obey orders to the letter and spirit. They work all day, and are satisfied with moderate wages —who says all this? The Pacific Mail Company from San Francisco to China employ only Chinese-Chinese sailors, cooks, waiters. They speak in the highest terms of their honesty, sobriety, faithfulness. Passengers passing over that route give the same unvarnished testimony. San Francisco, California, tells the same tale. For fifty cents they do more work and better than those who charge one dollar for it. A friend, for years in business in China, has employed Chinese servants. His statement is this: "I have been very sick; no female could have nursed
me more tenderly than this Chinese servant-very fastidious, no woman could hare better ironed my shirts or made my linen whiter-fond of good living, no cook could have prepared better or more palatable dishes-always at hand, ready, good-natured, willing; no money, no motive could tempt me to part with him.” A friend, used to the best comforts of lite in the East, and interested in the silver mines of Nevada, says that he wanted no better cook or attention than he received from his Chinese attendant. Rev. Dr. A. L. Stone says the Chinese make the best kind of help. They adopt at once any new habit desired, are clean and competent; always respectful, and never seem tired out. They never steal, nor do they have company. The testimony of several of the best Spanish families in New York is, that the Chinese excel all other servants. They use and much prefer them for all kinds of work. Their family attachments are strong, and they do not wish to change. Such testimony must be conclusive to all unprejudiced minds.
In conclusion let us learn the lessons of history. The nations that despised the barbarians fell. Greece was the classic land, the mother of the arts and sciences, the promoter of commerce, the instructor of antiquity, and yet proud, and despising the barbarian. She fell before the power of Rome. Rome took her place and strode over a prostrate world. She ruled with an imperious sway. Overbearing, haughty, she despised the barbarian and before that terrible horde her imperial sway perished. All men are onr brothers, all are colaborers with us in the emancipation of the world. We pass over the ocean, tell China she belongs to the brotherhood of nations, and her open ports and valuable commerce will be our rich reward. Christianity must triumph. With all her faults America is the grand Protestant nation of the world, and we are rising up to our true position. We no longer wrangle about minor matters, and the hosts of our Christian ranks are becoming united. A stronger bond of religion and fellowship awaits us. Our money is poured out like water for noble and charitable objects. The missionary is better understood and more highly appreciated. Closely united by commerce, by telegraph with other lands, our missionary friends