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ism, "is in hearty sympatlıy with the truths of revelation, as they have been enunciated in the symbols, and wrought into the experience of the Christian church from the beginning. Belonging to the High Lutheran branch of the German church, and also sharing, to some extent, in its recent narrowness, whenever he approaches the points at issue between the Lutherans and Calvinists, he cordially adopts all the cardinal doctrines of the Reformation," and "stands upon the high ground of supernaturalism in reference to the origin, establishment, and perpetuity of the Christian religion."

Thirteen years ago, Prof. Shedd translated the first volume of Guericke's work, bringing the history down to the end of the sixth century. The volume now published continues it to the accession of Pope Gregory VII. in 1073.

Following the footsteps of Neander, Guericke labors to compress his narrative into the smallest possible space, the present volume contains only 160 octavo pages, His sentences are packed full of information, but often awkward and harsh. His style is much improved by passing into the English of Professor Shedd.

The Typology of Scripture, viewed in connection with the whole Series

of the Divine Dispensations. By Patrick Fairbairn, D. D., Principal and Professor of Divinity, Free Church College, Glasgow. Fifth edition. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. New York: Scribner, Welford & Co. 1870.

These two large and well-printed octavo volumes show the great value and enduring vitality of a work which, after a lapse of some twenty years since its first publication, reappears in a fifth edition, besides having been republished, we believe, in other editions in this, if not in other countries. We find in this a confirmation of the impression made on our mind, as we perused and examined it when first made accessible to us years ago. We have read few books which have helped us more to a true insight into the most significant and germinant portions of Scripture, and some most important aspects of exegetical, doctrinal, and practical theology. It is full of the "seeds of things," and eminently suggestive, quickening, and informing to the student of divinity and the preacher.

The view of the Scriptural types with which the Old Testament abounds, is rescued from the extravagance of the extreme ty pical school on the one hand, and from rationalistic destructiveness on the other. They are treated in their living relations to the Great Antitype, and to the whole of revealed truth which centres and culminates in the Alpha and Omega of all divine revelations and dispensations.

The author avails himself of all the light of modern research and German learning in the construction of his work: refuting them when destructive or groundless, but incorporating them when they elucidate his great theme. This was done in the original edition not only, but more fully in this, so far as new contributions to the discussion have been since made. He has given it a general revision, carefully making any emendations and improvements, suggested by the experience and the criticisms of the period that bas elapsed since its first publication, thus furnishing us a worthy illustration of the maxim of Augustine quoted in the title-page: In vetere Testamento novum latet, et in novo vetus patet.

The Dogmatic Faith: An Inquiry into the Relation subsisting between

Revelation and Dogma, in Eight Lectures preached before the Uni. rersity of Oxford in the year 1867, on the Foundation of the late Rev. John Bampton, M. A., Canon of Salisbury. By Edward Gar. bett, M. A., Incumbent of Christ Church, Surbiton. Introductory Note by William G. T. Shedd, D, D., Baldwin Professor in Union Theological Seminary, New York City, New York: Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. 1870.

With ar.

No book could appear at the present time more urgently needed, or better fitted to accomplish the end at which it aims. Christendom is flooded with all kinds of assaults against Christian doctrine, or the idea that Christianity involves any system or body of truths, any series of definite propositions, the belief of which is essential to the Christian faith, the denial of which is a negation of Christianity. We are told that Christianity is not a doctrine but a life, as if a Christian life were a negation of Christian truth, or could exist in ignorance, hatred, or rejection of, or non-conformity to, that truth. Others, like Colenso, per. verting and overstraining the contrast between letter and spirit, represent Christianity as some ethereal and impalpable spirit diffusing itself somehow through the language of the Bible, but not detinitely articulated or determinately expressed by it. Dogma is the great scandal of all who do not like the distinctive doctrines of Christianity, and try to rationalize them away. We have even known one of the most popular but erratic of preachers in orthodox ecclesiastical conDections, ridiculing dogma by such small punning as writing it dog-ma.

On the other hand, our author shows, against all those who would thus evapo. rate Christianity into nihilism, that, however the word "dogmatism ” may sometimes mean a disposition in men to force assent to their own doctrines by the groundless assumption of divine authority for them, yet "dogma” means a truth declared and attested by the word of God; that there is a body of such truths capable of definite statement which constitutes Christianity; that these have been held in the church continuously downward from apostolic times; that the rationalists and papists are alike at fault in setting up a standard and arbiter of faith outside of and above the written word: that the natural conscience, although the guiding moral faculty in man, yet shares the corruption of his whole nature, and requires itself to be guided by the light of revelation. These and cognate truths are set forth and vindicated with a light and power, a judi. cial insight, a dialectic skill, a fulness of learning and ripeness of culture which the task requires, and which have given such value to many courses of the Bampton lectures. We quote the following as a fair sample of the whole book—pp. 32-4:

" But 'the error reaches beyond this. For the claims of the church, deprived of their historical basis in the Word, become a mere form of buman speculation, instead of a divine ordinance. They are thus regarded by the disciples of rationalism, as standing on precisely the same footing as other modes of thought, with the authority of the understanding, and nothing else, for their ultimate basis. In the supposed absence of a divine revelation, the rationalist, it appears to me, is unquestionably right. The Church of Rome, for instance, bas been accustomed in times past, to accept the true inspiration of the Scriptures, and only since she has been pressed by the arguments of the Reformers has she found it her policy to depreciate their authority. But she teaches that the rule of faith is in herself, and that she gives authority to the Scriptures, not derives authority from them. When, therefore, she is asked for her credentials, she has none to give beyond

herself. She affirms herself to be the depository of the authority of Christ upon earth, but she has no evidence to offer beyond her own affirmation. The old argument of antiquity and universality she has practically given up, and taken the theory of development in exchange. The breach between her and all Chrislian antiquity consequently becomes wider day by day. Hence she possesses no evidence for her asserted authority save her own affirmation of its existence. But this is exactly the ground of the theist, the pantheist, and even the atheist. The instruments of discovery used by these several schools of thought are different. With one it may be a natural sentiment, with another a mystical intui. tion, with a third the speculative intellect; but in each case the process is equally internal and subjective. They have no historical basis, and if the existence of the inspired records of the faith be denied or forgotten, the church sinks into exactly the same position. In such a case the most dogmatic creed, philosophically considered, becomes a form of human speculation and nothing more."

American Political Economy: including Strictures on the Management

of the Currency and the Finances since 1861, with a Chart showing the Fluctuations in the Price of Gold. By Francis Bowen, Alford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, and Civil Polity in Harvard College. New York: Charles Scribner & Co. 1870.

This is partly a recast of a treatise on Political Economy, published years ago by the author, and partly a searching review and criticism of the financial meas. ures of the government during and since the late war. We have been accustomed to read with high interest and appreciation the publications of Prof. Bowen in the department of mental and kindred sciences. Whether we agree with them or not, they are always able, thorough, and scholarly. We quite agree with Dr. McCosh, that his work on Logic, is the most perfect unfolding of the Kantian and Hamiltonian Formal Logic that has yet been produced.

In this volume the author presents the elementary principles of Political Economy, with his wonted clearness and force. He, however, appears, in his Preface, to set small value on these generalities or the universal and ultimate laws of the science. He rather magnifies the importance of its concrete applications and phenomena in particular nations, "Here in America as it seems to me, we need an American Political Economy, the principles of the science being adapted to what is special in our physical condition, social institutions, and pursuits.”—P. 5. His illustrations, however, are, in about the usual proportion found in American authors, derived from foreign countries, especially Britain, till he comes to the subject of money, more particularly as connected with the financial measures of our government since the outbreak of the war. This is the feature of the book, makes up about half of it, constitutes the principal addition to his former work, and specially earns for it the title of “ American Political Economy.” We detect here, as elsewhere in the author's writings, vigor, keenness, clearness, and many valuable suggestions new and old. But we are sorry to say that we meet with much that, with all respect, we must regard as betraying too much of the narrowness of special pleading, and less of judicial breadth and impartiality than we had looked for.

What most surprises us is the chapter on the National Banking system. It would require an extended article to point out all the fallacies of this chapter. One is that it was initiated in a state of war, and that this is no time for insti. tating new systems. This is only a half truth. It is not the time for innovations that can and will be better made in quiet times. But it is the very time

for great and needed revolutionary measures, that never would be otherwise adopted, such as the abolition of slavery, and the resumption by the national government of its constitutional function of controlling all issues of money, or whatever, by any governmental authority, circulates as money; so that, instead of being multiplied endlessly at the pleasure of some forty States, at once flooding the country, and having a mere local credit, we may have a currency issued by the national authority, and gladly received for the value of its face in the remotest nook and corner of our country. Prof. Bowen tells us, that “the great advantages of these local peculiarities (of State Banks) is, that the local currencies stay at home, bank-bills circulate only in the neighborhoods where those who receive them are well acquainted with the character and management of the issuirg institution," etc. (p. 371). For ourselves, and we think we speak for ninety-nine out of every hundred, we have had enough of the benefits of these " local currencies,” which could not be sent in a letter from Massachusetts to Minnesota, without incurring a heavy percentage of loss; which often caused a loss to merchants, amounting to a heavy percentage of their profits, in procur. ing their redemption ; which supported great banks, and banking-houses in all our great cities, in the business and protits of redeeming them; which caused an annual heavy loss to all periodicals, and others receiving their dues in small sums by mail. Do travellers wish the return of this " local currency ?" We have ourselves bad bills of specie-paying banks in New Jersey, refused by hotel. keepers in Massachusetts, and specie demanded. The very thought of pleading the superiority of State to National Bank currency, seems to us unaccountable.

And it is not in keeping with this when the author tells us (p. 381), “It was a great mistake to take away the whole bank edifice from its solid foundation on private commercial credit and place it on the morass, the quaking bog, of national stock, which may be selling at par to day, and 70 or 80 next week ?" Indeed ? Do not banks and bankers, after all, prefer the security of this "quaking bog" to private commercial credit for their loans? And do not the people likewise prefer the same for their bank-bills ? But says Prof. Bowen:

“Still it may be said that here is no real ground of complaint for it is the very essence and excellence of the system that one bill shall be as good as another apy. where. Let us see. A depositor once had occasion to have a small check cashed at a bank which never, under the old system, paid him any thing but its own bills. This time it paid him four bills, one from some town unknown to him in Penn. sylvania, a second from some place equally unknown in Michigan, a third from New York, and the fourth was an old State Bank bill. Now the National Bank bills, though legal tender to and from the United States, except for the payment of duties or interests on national stocks, are not legal tender between man and man. Suppose the person bad occasion for some greenbacks, which, at present and für some indefinite time to come, are ‘lawful money,' in order to make a tender for the discharge of a debt. His own local bank is not bound to obtain them for bim, for he has none of its own bills to present for them. He must write to some friend, if he can find one, either in Pittsburgh or Philadelphia, to another at Chicago, to a third at Albany or New York, and ask them to present these bills for redemption at the proper places; and then, after considerable delay, and some expense in writing letters, and for postage, and some risk in transmitting money by mail, he will receive lawful money in exchange for his little share of Mr. Chase's uniform National Currency."-Pp. 373-4.

One simple fact finishes this operose illustration. Every bank is bound to pay the checks of its depositors in “lawful money,” į e., legal tender or coin

if demanded. Does not the author say in this very paragraph, that National Bank bills are "not a legal tender between man aud man ?” Certainly not then between banks and men.

These are fair specimens of the author's whole style of dealing with this great subject. What he says about the profits and privileges involved in the circulation of the National Banks, is equally mistaken. We much regret that so good a book should suffer from such blemishes. The Sublime in Nature ; compiled from the descriptions of travellers and

celebrated writers. By Ferdinand de Lanoye. With large additions. Wonders of Glass- Making in all Ages. By A. Sanzay. Illustrated by

sixty-three engravings on wood. The Sun. By Amédée Guillemin. From the French, by A. L. Phipson,

Ph. D. With fifty-eight illustrations. The above are three additional volumes of the “Illustrated Library of Won. ders," in course of publication by Messrs. Charles Scribner & Co. We have already brought some of the preceding volumes to the favorable attention of our readers. As the series goes forward we confess that we are more and more impressed with its excellence. It is seldom that any set of reading books appear that so happily combine the entertainment of the novel with the choicest practical and scientific instruction, fitted alike for the old and the young, the cultivated and uncultivated, the individual and the family. The graphic sketches and pictorial illustrations are equally useful and fascinating. The descriptions of the great mountains, volcanoes, rivers, and cataracts of the globe in the first of the volumes above noted are derived from the best sources.

The second on the wonders of Glass-Making is quite unique, and there are few who will not be charmed by the descriptions and illustrations of the processes and products of human art in the various forms of this most useful and beautiful substance in different countries and ages.

The third volume on the “Wonders of the Sun," is still more remarkable in the grandeur, magnificence, and utility of its unfoldings. It expands and rises with the vastness and sublimity of its object. The great discoveries of modern science are brought within the reach of the ordinary reader, in a way to inform, astonish, and delight him. We append one or two extracts from this volume.

THE FUNCTIONS OF HEAT AND LIGHT. “Heat cannot supply the place of light in the important function of vegetation. A plant which is shut up in a dark place, even when there is a sufficient degree of temperature, becomes chlorotic; its green color disappears; it only lives and grows at the expense of its own substance. M. Boussingault has recently studied the phenomena of vegetation in the dark; his experiments prove that if the young plant raised from a seed be developed out of all contact with light, the leaves do not act as a reducing apparatus; a plant born under such circumstances emits carbonic acid constantly, as long as the substance of the seed can supply any carbon, and the duration of its existence depends upon the weight of this substance. It is a singular fact that a plant, developed in complete darkness with stalk, leaves, and roots, performs functions like an animal during the whole period of its existence. * It is only under the influence of light that leaves are sensitive, endowed with periodic movements, and capable of motion. In the dark they are rigid and appear to be asleep.' (J. Sachs, Vegetable Physiol. ogy.)

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